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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region

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     Isaberrysaura mollensis
    Salgado, Canudo, Garrido, Moreno-Azanza, Martínez, Coria & Gasca, 2017

      
    DOI: 10.1038/srep42778 

    Abstract
    We describe a new species of an ornithischian dinosaur, Isaberrysaura mollensis gen. et sp. nov. The specimen, consisting in an almost complete skull and incomplete postcranium was collected from the marine-deltaic deposits of the Los Molles Formation (Toarcian-Bajocian), being the first reported dinosaur for this unit, one of the oldest from Neuquén Basin, and the first neornithischian dinosaur known from the Jurassic of South America. Despite showing a general stegosaurian appearance, the extensive phylogenetic analysis carried out depicts Isaberrysaura mollensis gen. et sp. nov. as a basal ornithopod, suggesting that both Thyreophora and neornithischians could have achieved significant convergent features. The specimen was preserved articulated and with some of its gut content place in the middle-posterior part of the thoracic cavity. Such stomach content was identified as seeds, most of them belonging to the Cycadales group. This finding reveals a possible and unexpected role of this ornithischian species as seed-dispersal agent.


    Figure 2: Isaberrysaura mollensis gen. et sp. nov. holotype.
     Skull in dorsal (a and b, photograph and drawing respectively), and left lateral (c and d, photograph and drawing respectively) views. (e) Premaxillary tooth; (f,g) maxillary teeth (g inverted).
    amf, anterior maxillary fossa; aof, antorbital fossa; aso, anterior supraorbital; d, dentary; ef, elliptical fossa; f, foramina; fr, frontal; ift, infratemporal fenestra; j, jugal; mx, maxilla; n, nasals; o, orbit; pd, predentary; pdb, postdentary bones; pmx, premaxilla; po, postorbital; pso: posterior supraorbital; prf, prefrontal; qj, quadratojugal; sq, squamosal; stf, supratemporal fenestra. 1–7 denticles. 

    Figure 3 Gut content ofIsaberrysaura mollensis gen. et sp. nov.
    (a–c), seeds of cycads (c), and other seeds (s); rib (r). (d,e) Detail of seeds of cycads: sarcotesta (sa), sclerotesta (sc), coronula (c), nucellus (n). (f) Location of the gut content in the reconstructed skeleton of Isaberrysaura mollensis gen. et sp. nov.  

    Systematic palaeontology

    Ornithischia Seeley, 1887
    Genasauria Sereno, 1986

    Neornithischia Sereno, 1986

    Isaberrysaura mollensis gen. et sp. nov.

    Etymology: In honour of Isabel Valdivia Berry, who reported the finding of the holotype material.

    Holotype: MOZ-Pv 6459. A skeleton comprising a nearly complete skull, and a partial postcranium (still unprepared) consisting of 6 cervical vertebrae, 15 dorsal vertebrae, a sacrum with a partial ilium and an apparently complete pubis, 9 caudal vertebrae, part of a scapula, ribs, and unidentifiable fragments.

    Type locality and horizon: The holotype comes from the locality of Los Molles (Neuquén Province, Argentina) (Fig. 1). The specimen was found in the marine-deltaic deposits of the Los Molles Formation (Toarcian-Bajocian), which in this sector reaches a thickness of approximately 1,042 m. The fossil-bearing level is composed of laminated pelites rich in ammonitiferous concretions and vertebrate remains, located some 40 m below the contact with the overlying unit (Lajas Formation, Bajocian-Bathonian). The presence of the ammonite Sonninia altecostata allows the fossil-bearing level to be situated biochronologically in the early Bajocian. In palaeoenvironmental terms, the sedimentary succession comprises a large-scale progradational deltaic system, dominated by wave action and the influence of storms. The dinosaur remains described here, the first reported from this unit, are among the oldest from Neuquén Basin.

      
    Leonardo Salgado, José I. Canudo, Alberto C. Garrido, Miguel Moreno-Azanza, Leandro C. A. Martínez, Rodolfo A. Coria and José M. Gasca. 2017. A New Primitive Neornithischian Dinosaur from the Jurassic of Patagonia with Gut Contents. Scientific Reports. 7: 42778. DOI: 10.1038/srep42778


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     DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2017.04.004 

    Highlights
    • Reciprocal monophyly supported clades were found for Sceloporus cyanostictus.
    • Parametric coalescent-based method confirms two different lineages.
    • A new species of Sceloporus is recognized and described.

    Abstract
    Species delimitation is a major topic in systematics. Species delimitation methods based on molecular data have become more common since this approach provides insights about species identification via levels of gene flow, the degree of hybridization and phylogenetic relationships. Also, combining multilocus mitochondrial and nuclear DNA leads to more reliable conclusions about species limits. Coalescent-based species delimitation methods explicitly reveal separately evolving lineages using probabilistic approaches and testing the delimitation hypotheses for several species. Within a multispecies, multilocus, coalescent framework, we were able to clarify taxonomic uncertainties within S. cyanostictus, an endangered lizard that inhabits a narrow strip of the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico. We included, for the first time in a phylogenetic analysis, lizards from the three populations of S. cyanostictus recognized so far (East Coahuila, West Coahuila and Nuevo León). Phylogenetic analysis corroborates the hypothesis of two separately evolving lineages, i.e. the East and West Coahuila populations, as proposed in a previous study. We also found a distant phylogenetic relationship between the lizards from Nuevo León and those of East and West Coahuila. Finally, based on the species delimitation results, we propose and describe a new species of SceloporusSceloporus gadsdeni sp. nov.

    Keywords: BP&P; Chihuahuan Desert; Molecular data; Systematics; Sceloporus; Taxonomic uncertainties


    Fig. 1. Known distribution of Sceloporus cyanostictus. 

    Sceloporus gadsdeni Castañeda-Gaytán & Díaz-Cárdenas sp. nov. 
    (Lagoon Spiny Lizard)

    Diagnosis: This species differs from S. cyanostictus in the dorsal color pattern (live), which is completely green with two dominant tonalities (metallic green and turquoise). The ventral pattern has a blue patch that joins in the middle of the belly and the chest with black borders in males; in contrast, in Scyanostictus the chest and undersurfaces of arms are pale grayish blue with melanin specks, each flank has a poorly defined bluish black belly patch sometimes without contact in the middle of the belly. According to currently available published information, S. cyanostictus from eastern Coahuila has 6 superciliars and 6 infralabials (Axtell and Axtell, 1971), while S. gadsdeni has 4 superciliar scales on each side of the head and 5 infralabials with uncertainty on this character due to sample size (Table 2).

    The distribution of S. gadsdeni is restricted to the Sierras Texas, Solis and San Lorenzo mountain ranges in southwestern Coahuila, and this species inhabits rock walls, boulders and canyons. These mountains are separated from the location of S. cyanostictus by ca. 190 km as the crow flies and immersed within the low Mayran Basin.


    Etymology: This species is named in honor of Hector Gadsden, a researcher who has made praiseworthy contributions to the ecology and conservation of the herpetofauna of La Comarca Lagunera and the Chihuahuan Desert. The suggested common name alludes to its restricted distribution within the La Comarca Lagunera region.


    Brenda Díaz-Cárdenas, Eduardo Ruiz-Sanchez, Patricia Castro-Felix, Gamaliel Castañeda-Gaytán, Sergio Ruiz-Santana and Héctor Gadsden. 2017. Species Delimitation of the Blue-spotted Spiny Lizard within A Multilocus, Multispecies Coalescent Framework, Results in the Recognition of A New Sceloporus Species. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. In Press.  DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2017.04.004

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    Colobosaura kraepelini Werner, 1910


    Abstract
    The family Gymnophthalmidae contains nearly 235 species with a distribution range from southern Mexico to central Argentina as well as in the Antilles. Among gymnophthalmids, the genus Colobosaura is a member of the tribe Iphisini, and currently is considered monotypic (C. modesta). The diversity of the tribe was studied recently, with the erection of several new genera. In this work genetic and morphological data of specimens of Colobosaura recently collected in Paraguay were analyzed. Genetic (16S barcode) data indicate that these samples are not conspecific with C. modesta and they are allocated to the nominal species C. kraepelini. Because the original primary type of the latter taxon is considered to be lost, a neotype (SMF 101370) is designated for this species and a redescription provided based on our material. Colobosaura kraepelini is distributed in the Humid Chaco, being the only member of the whole tribe in this ecoregion.

    Keywords: 16S barcodes, Humid Chaco, neotype, Paraguay, taxonomy


    Figure 3. Neotype of Colobosaura kraepelini (SMF 101370) from the vicinity of Altos, Cordillera Department, Paraguay. 


    Colobosaura kraepelini Werner, 1910

    Colobosaura kraepelini Werner, 1910: 32 (neotype, SMF 101370 [by present designation] (Fig. 3); type locality: 2.5 km E of Altos (25.2588°S, 57.2850°W, ca 280 masl), Cordillera Department, Paraguay by neotype selection). Original type locality: Puerto Max, San Pedro Department, Paraguay.

    Diagnosis: Colobosaura kraepelini differs from the other species of the family Gymnophthalmidae except for C. modesta, by a combination of the following characters: limbs short but well developed; Finger I vestigial, not clawed; dorsal and lateral body scales keeled; four longitudinal series of ventral scales; prefrontal present; occipital present; two pairs of chin shields. Colobosaura kraepelini differs from C. modesta by having two mid-central rows of immaculate scales (vs. four immaculate ventral rows in C. modesta); flanks completely dark (Fig. 3) (vs. clear mottling in that area in C. modesta, Fig. 4); and gular shields profusely suffused with dark reaching the midline (vs. dark mottling restricted to the external edge of the shields, Fig. 5).


    Distribution and habitat: The species is distributed in the Humid Chaco. The environment is basically a savanna composed of palms (Copernicia alba), native bunch grasses, and scattered islands of semideciduous temperate forest. The area is adapted to periodical floods from the Paraguay River. The locality of Puerto Max (former type locality of C. kraepelini) consists of a small village and cattle farm with intense anthropic pressure. The new specimens (SMF 101370 and MNHNP 11726) came from the vicinities of the capital city, about 280 km (airline) southwards from the original type locality, also in Humid Chaco.

    Figure 4. Specimen of Colobosaura modesta showing lateral coloration patter.
    Image by Paul Smith (Fauna Paraguay). 


        Pier Cacciali, Nicolás Martínez and Gunther Köhler. 2017. Revision of the Phylogeny and Chorology of the Tribe Iphisini with the Revalidation of Colobosaura kraepelini Werner, 1910 (Reptilia, Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae).
     ZooKeys. 669; 89-105.  DOI:  10.3897/zookeys.669.12245


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    Significance
    Certain marine invertebrates harbor chemosynthetic bacterial symbionts, giving them the remarkable ability to consume inorganic chemicals such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) rather than organic matter as food. These chemosynthetic animals are found near geochemical (e.g., hydrothermal vents) or biological (e.g., decaying wood or large animal carcasses) sources of H2S on the seafloor. Although many such symbioses have been discovered, little is known about how or where they originated. Here, we demonstrate a new chemosynthetic symbiosis in the giant teredinid bivalve (shipworm) Kuphus polythalamia and show that this symbiosis arose in a wood-eating ancestor via the displacement of ancestral cellulolytic symbionts by sulfur-oxidizing invaders. Here, wood served as an evolutionary stepping stone for a dramatic transition from heterotrophy to chemoautotrophy.

    Abstract
    The “wooden-steps” hypothesis [Distel DL, et al. (2000) Nature 403:725–726] proposed that large chemosynthetic mussels found at deep-sea hydrothermal vents descend from much smaller species associated with sunken wood and other organic deposits, and that the endosymbionts of these progenitors made use of hydrogen sulfide from biogenic sources (e.g., decaying wood) rather than from vent fluids. Here, we show that wood has served not only as a stepping stone between habitats but also as a bridge between heterotrophic and chemoautotrophic symbiosis for the giant mud-boring bivalve Kuphus polythalamia. This rare and enigmatic species, which achieves the greatest length of any extant bivalve, is the only described member of the wood-boring bivalve family Teredinidae (shipworms) that burrows in marine sediments rather than wood. We show that K. polythalamia harbors sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic (thioautotrophic) bacteria instead of the cellulolytic symbionts that allow other shipworm species to consume wood as food. The characteristics of its symbionts, its phylogenetic position within Teredinidae, the reduction of its digestive system by comparison with other family members, and the loss of morphological features associated with wood digestion indicate that K. polythalamia is a chemoautotrophic bivalve descended from wood-feeding (xylotrophic) ancestors. This is an example in which a chemoautotrophic endosymbiosis arose by displacement of an ancestral heterotrophic symbiosis and a report of pure culture of a thioautotrophic endosymbiont.

    Keywords: symbiosis; shipworm; thioautotrophy; Teredinidae; chemoautotrophy



    Fig. 1. Comparative anatomy and life position of Kuphus polythalamia and Lyrodus pedicellatus.
     
    (A) Fresh specimen of K. polythalamia (PMS-1672Y) removed from its calcareous tube, (B) calcareous tube of K. polythalamia (PMS-1674K) removed from sediment, (C) diagram depicting the anatomy and life position of Kpolythalamia in sediment, and (D) Inset from box in C depicting the anatomy and life position of the wood-feeding shipworm Lyrodus pedicellatus in wood. (Scale bars: A–C, 5.0 cm; D, 0.5 cm.) b, bacteria; c, cecum; g, gill; HS−, hydrogen sulfide; m, mouth; p, pallet; s, siphon; t, calcareous tube; v, valve (shell); vm, visceral mass. Movie S1 shows a specimen of Kpolythalamia being removed from its tube and dissected. 

      


    Daniel L. Distel, Marvin A. Altamia, Zhenjian Lin, J. Reuben Shipway, Andrew Han, Imelda Forteza, Rowena Antemano, Ma. Gwen J. Peñaflor Limbaco, Alison G. Tebo, Rande Dechavez, Julie Albanof, Gary Rosenberg, Gisela P. Concepcion, Eric W. Schmidt and Margo G. Haygood. 2017. Discovery of Chemoautotrophic Symbiosis in the Giant Shipworm Kuphus polythalamia (Bivalvia: Teredinidae) Extends Wooden-Steps Theory. PNAS.  DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620470114

    Science fiction horror wriggles into reality with discovery of giant sulfur-powered shipworm http://phy.so/411650289 via @physorg_com
     
    This Alien Worm-Creature Will Haunt Your Nightmares | Gizmodo Australia (via @GizmodoAU) www.gizmodo.com.au/2017/04/this-alien-worm-creature-will-haunt-your-nightmares/



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    Rhododendron stanleyi S.James & Argent


    Abstract
    Rhododendron stanleyiS.James & Argent is described as a new species from Mount Yule, Central Province, Papua New Guinea. Its morphological position in the subgenus is discussed and the differences given from the most closely similar species. A note on the habitat and conservation assessment is also provided.

    Keywords: Ericaceae, new species, Papua New Guinea, Rhododendron, subgenus Vireya.

      

    Etymology. Named in honour of Jonathan H. Stanley (1960–2006), an avid sailor and keen naturalist; and Evan R. Stanley (1895–1924), the first Government Geologist for the Territory of Papua, from 1911–1924.


    S. A. James and G. Argent. 2017. Rhododendron stanleyi S. James &. Argent: A New Rhododendron Species (Ericaceae, Subgenus Vireya) from Papua New Guinea. Edinburgh Journal of Botany. DOI: 10.1017/S096042861700004X 

    Rhododendron stanleyi S.James et Argent This new Vireya (section Hadranthe) is a shrubby tree to 2m and was discovered on the summit of Mt Yule, Central Province PNG

      


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    Paphiopedilum lunatum  Metusala


    Abstract
    Two new species of Paphiopedilum from Sumatra, Indonesia, are described and illustrated. These two species belong in Paphiopedilum section Barbata and are so far known only from Aceh Province in the north of Sumatra.



    Paphiopedilum lunatum Metusala, sp. nov. section Barbata

    Etymology. From the Latin word lunatus, meaning bent like a crescent moon, in reference to the obviously crescent-shaped staminode of this species. 

    Distribution. Indonesia, Sumatra, Aceh Province, Central Aceh Regency.

    Habitat and ecology. Growing under shade as a terrestrial plant with roots in thick leaf litter or sphagnum moss. Its natural habitat ranges from open, flat areas dominated by forked fern (Dicranopteris sp.), low shrubs and grasses to slightly open forest on sloping hills dominated by rattan species, at 1300–1600 m altitude. 


     

    Paphiopedilum bungebelangi Metusala, sp. nov. section Barbata

    Etymology. The specific name is an adjective derived from the Gayo language (the Gayo people live in the highlands of Central Aceh), ‘bunge’ meaning flower and ‘belangi’ meaning beautiful, referring to the beautiful flower of this species.

     Distribution. Indonesia, Sumatra, Aceh Province, Central Aceh Regency. 

    Habitat and ecology. Growing as a terrestrial plant with roots in thick leaf litter or sphagnum moss on sloping limestone hills from 1550–1650 m altitude. Plants were found growing in deep, shady forest with relatively low light intensity.  


      D. Metusala. 2017. Two New Species of Paphiopedilum (Orchidaceae: Cypripedioideae) Section Barbata from Sumatra, Indonesia.
     Edinburgh Journal of Botany. 74(1); 1-10. DOI:  10.1017/S0960428617000063


    Peneliti BKT Kebun Raya Purwodadi Temukan Dua Spesies Baru Anggrek dari Pulau Sumatera, Indonesia



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    Sabal antillensis M.P.Griff.


    Abstract

    A new species of palmetto, Sabal antillensis, native to Curaçao and Bonaire, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by a pachycaulous habit, a compact crown of leaves, large seeds, and frequent fiber bundles in leaflet transection. Details on history, morphology, distribution, habitat, and conservation status are provided.

    Keywords: anatomy, Coryphoideae, Christoffelpark, Palmae, palms, Southern Caribbean, Monocots

    FIGURE 2. Sabal antillensis, Christoffelpark, Curaçao, showing pachycaul trunk habit, and most leaves held at an angle ascending from the trunk axis (photograph: Griffith). 

    Sabal antillensis M.P.Griff., sp. nov.

    Diagnosis:— This new species is most similar to Sabal causiarum in leaf morphology and inflorescence structure, but differs in the pachycaul habit, the petioles less than half the total leaf length giving a distinctive densely foliated crown, the smaller and less persistent ligules, the more divided leaf segments and leaf segment apices, the frequent adaxial fiber bundles between most secondary minor leaf segment veins, the inflorescences not pendant below the leaves, the abaxially lepidote sheathing inflorescence bracts, the lower density of flowers on the rachilla, the tubular to cupulate calyx, the larger fruits and the larger seeds. 

     Distribution:— This species occurs on the islands of Bonaire and Curaçao. On Bonaire, the plants are found in the southern part of the island, west of Lac Bay and north of the solar salt factory. On Curaçao, the plants are within and to the west of Christoffelpark, on the western side of Christoffelberg.

     Habitat:— On Bonaire, the plants are found in the Coccoloba–Melocactus Middle Terrace landscape type (de Freitas et al. 2005), on limestone pavements, at elevations near 5 m. On Curaçao, the plants are found in the Bromelia– Schomburgkia Hills landscape type (Beers et al. 1997), on cherty mudstones, at elevations between 140–260 m.

    Local Names:— The plant is called Cabana or Sabalpalm in the Dutch Caribbean. 
    Etymology:— The name honors the Dutch Antilles, where the species is endemic. 


    M. Patrick Griffith , John De Freitas , Michelle Barros and Larry R. Niblick. 2017. Sabal antillensis (Arecaceae): A New Palmetto Species from the Leeward Antilles.
     Phytotaxa. 303(1);  56–64. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.303.1.4


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    Sturnira adrianae adrianae 
    Molinari, Bustos, Burneo, Camacho, Moreno & Fermin, 2017

    Photo: Jesús Molinari  news.mongabay.com  
    Abstract

    Sturnira is the most speciose genus of New World leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae). We name Sturnira adrianae, new species. This taxon is born polytypic, divided into a larger subspecies (S. a. adrianae) widespread in the mountains of northern and western Venezuela, and northern Colombia, and a smaller subspecies (S. a. caripana) endemic to the mountains of northeastern Venezuela. The new species inhabits evergreen, deciduous, and cloud forests at mainly medium (1000–2000 m) elevations. It has long been confused with S. ludovici, but it is more closely related to S. oporaphilum. It can be distinguished from other species of Sturnira by genetic data, and based on discrete and continuously varying characters. Within the genus, the new species belongs to a clade that also includes S. oporaphilum, S. ludovici, S. hondurensis, and S. burtonlimi. The larger new subspecies is the largest member of this clade. The two new subspecies are the most sexually dimorphic members of this clade. The smaller new subspecies is restricted to small mountain systems undergoing severe deforestation processes, therefore can be assigned to the Vulnerable (VU) conservation category of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

    Keywords: Mammalia, Andes, evolutionary species concept, geographic variation, morphometrics, sexual dimorphism

    Sturnira adrianae adrianae, the larger and more widespread of the newly described Sturnira adrianae subspecies.
    Photo: Jesús Molinari  

    • Sturnira adrianae new species 
    • Sturnira adrianae adrianae new subspecies 
    Adriana’s Yellow-shouldered Bat 
    Murciélago de Charreteras de Adriana

    Diagnosis. Epaulettes (yellow shoulders) present. Lower molars with continuous lingual cusps. All four lower incisors well developed, bilobed. Upper middle incisor long, bilobed, pointed, strikingly protrudent, tip laterally diverging. Lower canine long, narrow. Upper premolars broad and long in labial view. Molars with no gaps between them. Zygomatic arch complete, not bowed outwards. Occiput low. Preorbital frontal ridges well developed. Foramen ovale touching the caudal pterygoid process.

     Distribution. Known from all the Andean and coastal mountain systems of Venezuela, except those east of the Unare Depression. Presumably, also distributed throughout the Cordillera Oriental in Colombia ..... 

    Etymology. The epithet adrianae, a feminine noun in the genitive case, is dedicated to the memory of the Colombian-Venezuelan bat biologist, Adriana Ruiz, 1971–2012. Adriana was a charismatic, imaginative, and dedicated colleague. She published 14 papers and book chapters. Owing to her untimely departure, much of her most valuable research was left unpublished. Adriana had a particularly keen interest in species of Sturnira. We are privileged to name after her a member of the genus wandering in the environments in which she so joyfully conducted much of her field work.


    • Sturnira adrianae caripana new subspecies 
    Caripe Yellow-shouldered Bat 
    Murciélago de Charreteras de Caripe
    Diagnosis. Identical to that of S. a. adrianae, except for: 1) upper premolars narrower and shorter in labial view; 2) preorbital frontal ridges little developed; 3) foramen ovale not touching the caudal pterygoid process.

    Distribution (Fig. 1). Known from four localities in the Turimiquire Massiff, and from two localities in the neighboring Paria Peninsula (Appendix). Presumably, endemic to the mountain ranges of northeastern Venezuela, east of the Unare Depression. 

    Etymology. The epithet caripana [Carip(e) + -ana], a feminine adjectival toponym, is derived from Caripe, a town near the type locality made known to science in the book “Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of America, During the Years 1799–1804”, of the famous German explorer and naturalist Alexander von Humboldt.

     Jesús Molinari, Xiomar E. Bustos, Santiago F. Burneo, M. A. Camacho, S. A. Moreno & Gustavo Fermin. 2017. A New Polytypic Species of Yellow-shouldered Bats, Genus Sturnira (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), from the Andean and Coastal Mountain Systems of Venezuela and Colombia.   Zootaxa. 4243(1); 75–96.   DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4243.1.3

    New leaf-nosed bat uncovered amidst burning habitat in Venezuela https://news.mongabay.com/2017/04/new-leaf-nosed-bat-uncovered-amidst-burning-habitat-in-venezuela via @mongabay





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    Etlingera frederikii A.D.Poulsen

    Abstract
    A new species, Etlingera frederikii, is described and illustrated, and is the first record of the genus in the Bougainville Region. Etlingera frederikii and E. cevuga, which occurs in Fiji and Samoa, are the two most easterly species in the distribution range of the genus. The new species differs from Etlingera cevuga in its much larger leaves, with a conspicuously silky-haired band on the ligule; the smaller, narrowly ovoid to cylindrical inflorescence with pale brown bracts (not hemiglobose with reddish brown bracts); and fewer, smaller flowers.

    Fig. 1. Photographs of Etlingera frederikiiA, Clump of leafy shoots; B, leafy shoot with two ligules (white triangles indicating sericeous bands) and leaf bases; C, inflorescence in situ; D, inflorescence excavated; E, fertile bract; F, bracteole; G, calyx; H, flower, lateral view (calyx removed).
    A and B, Poulsen et al. 2880, made in Lae Botanic Gardens; C–H, the type, Poulsen et al. 2593. Photographs by A. D. Poulsen.  DOI: 10.1017/S0960428617000026    

    Etlingera frederikii A.D.Poulsen, sp. nov. 

    Etymology. Named in honour of H.R.H. Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark, who was the patron of the Danish Expedition Fund that planned and executed the Galathea 3 circumnavigation during which this new species was discovered. The Crown Prince has himself participated in expeditions to Central China and Northeast Greenland and has also supported an expedition to Borneo in 2002 led by the first author. 

    Distribution. Bougainville Island. So far, documented only from the type locality in ridge forest at 850 m. It is likely to occur naturally on the neighbouring island to the south-east, Choiseul, in the Solomon Islands. A cultivated plant with a dried-up inflorescence in a garden in Buka Town, Buka Island (just north of Bougainville Island) is very likely of the same species.

    Vernacular name. Rurutate (Rotokas language). Uses not known. 

    Etlingera frederikii A.D.Poulsen

     A. D. Poulsen and B. B. Bau. 2017. A New Species of Etlingera (Zingiberaceae) from Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea.  Edinburgh Journal of Botany. DOI: 10.1017/S0960428617000026



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    FIGURE 1. Tubularia acadiae, hydranth with male gonophores, Minas Basin, Nova Scotia.

    Photograph by J.S. Bleakney.  
    DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4256.1.1

    Abstract

    Two new species of hydroids,Eudendrium bleakneyiand Halecium praeparvum, are described from the Bay of Fundy. Fourteen others, Tubularia acadiae Petersen, 1990, Coryne pusilla Gaertner, 1774, Sarsialovenii (M. Sars, 1846), Zanclea implexa(Alder, 1856), Corydendrium dispar Kramp, 1935, Rhizogeton fusiformis L. Agassiz, 1862, Bougainvilliamuscus (Allman, 1863), Rhizorhagium roseum M. Sars, in G.O. Sars, 1874, Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus Buss & Yund, 1989, Eudendrium vaginatum Allman, 1863, Tiaropsis multicirrata(M. Sars, 1835), Obelia bidentataS.F. Clark, 1875, Halecium marsupialeBergh, 1887, and Sertularella gigantea Hincks, 1874, are reported, with collection data, for the first time from the bay. All but Coryne pusilla, Rhizorhagium roseum, Eudendrium vaginatum, and Sertularella gigantea are also new to Atlantic Canada, while Zanclea implexa, Corydendriumdispar, and Halecium marsupiale are reported for the first time in the western North Atlantic. Two of those species, Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus and Obelia bidentata, are disjunct in distribution, with core populations occurring in warmer waters to the south of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Both were discovered in Minas Basin, a hydrographically distinct embayment where surface water temperatures are much warmer during summer than in the perpetually cold lower Bay of Fundy. Rhizorhagium roseum and the subfamily Rhizorhagiinae are transferred from family Bougainvilliidae Lütken, 1850 to Pandeidae Haeckel, 1879. An annotated checklist of hydroids from the Fundy region, based on previously published reports and on new records of species, is added as an appendix. Included in the checklist are 43 species of anthoathecates and 75 species of leptothecates, referable to 30 families and 56 genera. Families with the most species were Sertulariidae (23), Haleciidae (13), Eudendriidae (11), and Obeliidae (10). Biogeographically, the aggregate hydroid fauna of the bay conforms with that occurring in other parts of the Western Atlantic Boreal Region. Halecium permodicum is proposed as a replacement name for Halecium minor Fraser, 1935, an invalid junior homonym of H. minorPictet, 1893.

    Keywords: Anthoathecata, Hydroidolina, Leptothecata, marine invertebrates, Medusozoa, Minas Basin, Passamaquoddy Bay, taxonomy, zoological nomenclature


    FIGURE 1. Tubularia acadiae, hydranth with male gonophores, Minas Basin, Nova Scotia.

    Photograph by J.S. Bleakney.

    Dale R. Calder. 2017. Additions to the Hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) of the Bay of Fundy, northeastern North America, with A Checklist of Species Reported from the Region. Zootaxa. 4256(1); 1-86. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4256.1.1


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    Coelorinchus okamurai  
    Nakayama & Endo, 2017 

    Abstract
    Coelorinchus okamurai sp. nov. is described from five specimens collected in the Timor Sea at a depth of 610–690 m. The new species belongs to the Coelorinchus japonicus group (redefined in this study), and differs from all other congeners in having the following combination of features: snout moderately long, sharply pointed in lateral and dorsal views, length 39–42% of head length; lateral nasal ridge completely supported by nasal bone; light organ short, length less than 1/2 orbit diameter, its anterior margin falling far short of pelvic-fin bases; premaxillary teeth in short, uniformly wide band, with posterior end of the tooth band not reaching lateral corner of mouth; no teeth greatly enlarged; body scales covered with short, reclined, narrowly blade-like spinules in widely divergent rows; buttresses of body scale spinules scarcely developed; occipital scales between parietal ridges armed with divergent rows of long, erect, needle-like spinules; nasal fossa usually naked (a few small scales rarely present anteroventrally); patches of small scales sparsely distributed on ventral surface of head; scales on underside of head armed with 1–3 rows of short, erect, needle-like to knife-like spinules; interdorsal space longer than first dorsal-fin base length; subopercle terminating as a long, slender flap; body dark overall without prominent markings; fins uniformly blackish.

    Keywords: Taxonomy, Morphology, Deep-sea fish, Indonesia 


    Fig. 1 Coelorinchus okamurai sp. nov. MZB 23338, holotype, 121 mm HL, 457+ mm TL.
    a Lateral, b dorsal, and c ventral views of the entire specimen, preserved condition 

    Etymology. The specific epithet, okamurai, is named in honor of Dr. Osamu Okamura (Professor Emeritus of Kochi University, deceased), who collected the type specimens of the new species.


    Naohide Nakayama and Hiromitsu Endo. 2017. A New Species of the Grenadier Genus Coelorinchus (Actinopterygii: Gadiformes: Macrouridae) from the Timor Sea, Eastern Indian Ocean.
    Ichthyological Research. 1–9.  DOI: 10.1007/s10228-017-0585-4



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    Tricholoma sinopardinum 
      Zhu L Yang, X.X. Ding, G. Kost & Rexer


    Abstract 

    Species of Tricholoma sect. Pardinicutis (Singer) Bon are relatively easily recognizable even in the field, and the type species of section, T. pardinum (Pers.) Quél., was reported from the eastern Himalaya and adjacent areas. However, such reports were largely based on superficially similar morphology. In this study, we have generated DNA sequences of samples from southwestern China, and found that there are molecular discrepancies between the Chinese collections and European ones. Further detailed morphological analyses indicated the two independent new species occur in southwestern China, one in subtropical coniferous forests mixed with fagaceous plants between 2400 and 2800 m altitude, the other in subalpine dark coniferous forests between 3300 and 4100 m altitude. Consequently, two new species, namely, Tricholoma highlandenseand T. sinopardinum, are described and illustrated.

    Keywords: Agaricales, poisonous mushrooms, species delimitation, Fungi, Himalaya


    Taxonomy 

    Tricholoma highlandenseZhu L Yang, X.X. Ding, G. Kost & Rexer,sp. nov.  

    Etymology:— highlandense is proposed because of its occurrence on Yunnan Plateau.

    Tricholoma sinopardinum (HKAS 58001). Bars = 2 cm
    Photo by Q. Cai and Z.L. Yang 

    Tricholoma sinopardinumZhu L Yang, X.X. Ding, G. Kost & Rexer, sp. nov.  

    Etymology:— sinopardinum is proposed because of the Chinese mushroom’s similarity to T. pardinum
    Type:— China. Xizang Autonomous Prefecture (Tibet): Jiangda County, Jiangda Town, alt. 3500 m, in forest dominated by Picea sp. and Populus sp., 8 August 2013, B. Feng 1427 (HKAS 82533!).

    Habit, habitat, and distribution:— Solitary to scattered on calcareous soil in forests dominated by Picea spp., and sometimes mixed with Betula spp., Populus spp., or Quercus spp.; fruiting in summer in southwestern China in alpine areas between 3300 and 4100 m altitude. It may also occur in mixed forests of Tsuga and Abies in Nepal. 


    Zhu L. Yang, Xiao-Xia Ding, G. Kost and K.-H. Rexer. 2017. New Species in the Tricholoma pardinum Complex from Eastern Himalaya.
     Phytotaxa. 305(1); 1–10. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.305.1.1


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    Moabosaurus utahensis 
    Britt, Scheetz, Whiting & Wilhite, 2017

    Abstract
     The Early Cretaceous was a time of dramatic change for sauropod dinosaurs in North America. Between the Late Jurassic-aged Morrison Formation and overlying Early Cretaceous strata, there was a dramatic decline in sauropod diversity. Here, we describe a new sauropod that adds to the diversity of the Early Cretaceous, from strata that can be no older than the early Aptian, (125 Ma) some 25 million years younger than the Morrison Formation. 

    Moabosaurus utahensis, n. gen., n. sp., is diagnosed in part by the following suite of characters: axially thin ventral basioccipital with posteriorly sweeping basal tubera; low-spined cervical vertebrae with neural spines that range from shallowly notched on anterior cervical vertebrae to shallow, but widely notched on middle and some posterior cervical vertebrae; posterior cervical and anterior dorsal neural spines with extremely low, axially thin, laterally wide ridges at the level of the zygapophyses; some cervical ribs with bifid posterior shafts; anterior and posterior caudal vertebrae with strongly procoelous centra, middle caudal vertebrae with mildly procoelous centra, and distal caudal vertebrae with moderately-to-strongly procoelous centra.

     To determine the phylogenetic position of Moabosaurus we utilized three different datasets and performed four analyses. All results are in agreement that Moabosaurus is a neosauropod. The two most resolved trees indicate it is a macronarian, specifically a basal titanosauriform. The thick-walled, camerate presacral vertebrae and other characters, however, preclude a more highly nested position of Moabosaurus within either Titanosauriformes, which is characterized by moderately camellate presacral vertebrae, or Somphospondyli, which is characterized by fully camellate presacral vertebrae, including the neural arches. Incorporation of these and other characters, particularly those shared with Turiasaurus and Tendaguria, into phylogenetic analyses will help resolve the interrelationships of Moabosaurus with other neosauropods.


    FIGURE 36 —Moabosaurus utahensis skeletal mount.
    A composite of the holotypic dorsal vertebrae (BYU 14387) and referred elements plus a skull of Camarasaurus. The skeleton is 9.75 m long. 



     B.B. Britt, R.D. Scheetz, M.F. Whiting and D.R. Wilhite. 2017. Moabosaurus utahensis, n. gen., n. sp., A New Sauropod From The Early Cretaceous (Aptian) of North America. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan. 32(11); 189–243. deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/136227

        


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    Amblygaster indiana  
    Mary, Balasubramanian, Selvaraju & Shiny, 2017
       DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4247.4.7 


    Abstract

    A new species, Amblygaster indiana sp. nov., is described from 12 specimens collected from fish landing centers and fish markets at Eraviputhenthurai, west coast of India. The new species can be differentiated from all other species of Amblygaster by its larger size and very deep body, 8 circular-shaped pre-pelvic scutes, different gill rakers counts, large eyes, 40 lateral scales, and peculiar gap between the left and right frontoparietal striae on the top of the head. The new species has been seasonally captured with A. sirm in Eraviputhenthurai and also other coastal waters of the south west coast of India. The proportions of A. indiana sp. nov. and A. sirm in fish catches are approximately 1 to 20. Gillnets and shore seines are used to catch Amblygaster spp. along the Eraviputhenthurai coast and along the coastal zones of south west coasts of India.


    Keywords: Pisces, Clupeiformes, Amblygaster, new species, west coast of India

    FIGURE 1: Amblygaster indiana sp. nov., holotype, ZSI/MBRC/540, 21 cm SL.
     A, Fresh specimen;  B, drawing of holotype. 

    A.A. Mary, T. Balasubramanian, S. Selvaraju and A. Shiny. 2017. Description of A New Species of Clupeid Fish, Amblygasterindiana (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae), off Eraviputhenthurai, West Coast of India. Zootaxa. 4247(4); 461-468. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4247.4.7



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    Adelotremus deloachi 
    Smith-Vaniz, 2017 


    Abstract

    A new fangblenny, Adelotremus deloachi, is described on the basis of three specimens, 29‒35 mm SL, from Bali and Lembeh Strait, Indonesia. All these specimens were collected in 10‒17 m depth on sandy slopes. The new species differs from Adelotremus leptus, its Red Sea and only congener, in having a pair of mid-dorsal supratemporal pores (vs. a single pore), dorsal-fin spines X (vs. IX) and precaudal and caudal vertebra 12 + 23 (vs. 13 + 19). The discovery of a second species requires slight modification of the diagnosis of the genus. Unlike the five other nemophine genera, Adelotremus differs most notably in having the third infraorbital bone and associated sensory pores absent, and the combination of ventral margin of gill opening opposite the dorsalmost 5th or 6th pectoral-fin ray, total dorsal-fin elements 28‒29 and interorbital pores 2. With a total of four specimens of Adelotremus, it is now apparent that several features of the cephalic pore arrangement of the genus are different from that found in Petroscirtes, its presumed sister genus. Recent color photographs indicate that both species of Adelotremus exhibit marked sexual dichromatism with males having a conspicuous ocellus anteriorly in the dorsal fin that is absent in females.

    Keywords: Pisces, taxonomy, Pisces, Blenniidae, Adelotremus, new species


    FIGURE 1. Adelotremus deloachi holotype, ZMA 23004, male, 32.0 mm SL, Bali, Indonesia.
     Photograph by Ned DeLoach. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4258.2.7

    FIGURE 2. Adelotremus deloachi paratype, USNM 438965, female, 29.4 mm SL, Lembeh Strait, Indonesia.
    Photograph by Ned DeLoach. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4258.2.7

     Adelotremus deloachi new species 
    Spotfin fangblenny


    Distribution. Known only from Bali and Lembeh Strait but undoubtedly more widely distributed in Indonesia. 

    Etymology. This new species is named Aledotremus deloachi in honor of Ned DeLoach in recognition and appreciation of his books, magazine articles and photographs that celebrate the beauty and diversity of reef fishes, all of which have encouraged numerous divers and fish watchers to become more aware of the importance of protecting the threatened marine environment and fauna


    .....


    William F. Smith-Vaniz. 2017. A New Species of the Fangblenny Adelotremus from Indonesia, with Supplemental Description of A. leptus (Teleostei: Blenniidae: Nemophini).
    Zootaxa. 4258(2): 179–186.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4258.2.7



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    Figure 5. Flowers of representive species of Herminium.
      Herminium monorchis B H. latilabre C H. forceps
    H. fallax Hlanceum Hedgeworthii G H. monophyllum H. quinquelobum H. pugioniforme

    Abstract
    Herminium (Orchidaceae, Orchidoideae) is a medium-sized genus widespread in the northern hemisphere, with a clear centre of diversity in the Himalayas. We present a comprehensive taxonomic revision of Herminium based on field observations and morphological studies, for which we examined about 2500 specimens. We recognize 49 species grouped into six formal sections, including one new speciesHerminium tibeticum, from Tibet. We provide an identification key to the species, descriptions of the species, notes on ecology and distribution, and complete nomenclature for each species, including typifications. We here designate lectotypes for five species and reduce four taxa to synonymy.

    Keywords: Herminium tibeticum, key, morphology, synonyms, taxonomy


    Figure 2. Habitat of Herminium.
    Herminium choloranthum (Terrestrial) Hquinquelobum (Epiphytic on tree trunk). 


    Bhakta Bahadur Raskoti, André Schuiteman, Wei-Tao Jin and Xiao-Hua Jin. 2017. A Taxonomic Revision of Herminium L. (Orchidoideae, Orchidaceae).
      PhytoKeys. 79: 1-74.  DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.79.11215


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    Bothriurus delmari  
    Santos-da-Silva, Carvalho & Brescovit, 2017


    Abstract

    Two new species of Bothriurid scorpions, Bothriurus delmari n. sp. and Bothriurus aguardente n. sp., are described from Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. These species are included in the asper group owing to the peculiar hemispermatophore morphology. These two newly described species increases to 47 the number of known and valid Bothriurus species. Additionaly, the known distribution of Bothriurus asper is updated.

    Keywords: Scorpiones, scorpions, taxonomy, asymmetric hemispermatophore, Caatinga, geographic distribution


     Juvenile of Bothriurus delmari n. sp. from Morro do Chapéu, Bahia (CHNUFPI 1737) 
      
    Bothriurus delmari n. sp.

    Etymology. The specific name is a patronym in honor of Delmar Lopes Alvim, a geographer, theologian, sociologist and environmentalist that attended in the preparation of the Parque Estadual de Morro of Chapéu and develops socio-educational and environmental actions with local community.

    Distribution. Known only for the municipality of Morro do Chapéu, in the northern region of the Chapada Diamantina, one of the semiarid Caatinga ecoregions, in the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. ...


    Botriurus aguardente n. sp. 

    Etymology. The name honors the municipality of Abaíra, known as the "city of cachaça" (cachaça or aguardente refers to alcoholic drinks obtained by destilation from sugar cane juice, in Brazil). The municipality is named after the Abaíra aguardente and its economy persist mainly of the trade of this beverage.

    Distribution. Known only for the Serra do Barbado, district of Catolés in the municipality of Abaíra, in the central region of the Chapada Diamantina, one of the semiarid Caatinga ecoregions, in the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. ....  


    Andria de Paula Santos-da-Silva, Leonardo Sousa Carvalho and Antonio Domingos Brescovit. 2017. Two New Species of Bothriurus Peters, 1861 (Scorpiones, Bothriuridae) from Northeastern Brazil. Zootaxa. 4258(3); 238–256.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4258.3.2


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    Cinachyrella anatriaenilla 
     Fernandez, Kelly & Bell, 2017 


    Abstract

    Several sponges from American Samoa, collected by the Coral Reef Research Foundation, Republic of Palau, were tentatively identified by one of us as Acanthotetilla cf. seychellensis (Thomas 1973), due to the possession of relatively small acanthose oxeas, compared to those of other species of the genus Acanthotetilla Burton 1959. These sponges were later compared to Cinachyrella australiensis (Carter 1886), taking into account the lack of conspicuous spination on the acanthose oxeas and general features of spiculation and skeletal organisation. The specimens were later considered to represent a new species of the genus Cinachyrella Wilson 1925, after a careful comparison was made between the American Samoan specimens and C. australiensis which also contains small acanthose oxeas. Several recent molecular phylogenetic studies have confirmed the generic assignment of one of the American Samoan specimens as belonging to Cinachyrella. Cinachyrella anatriaenilla sp. nov., described herein, is the fifth of 40 Cinachyrella spp. that contain lightly spined microacanthoxeas.

    Keywords: Porifera, Tetractinellida, Spirophorina, Tetillidae, Acanthotetilla, new species


    Cinachyrella anatriaenilla sp. nov., morphology: Specimen in situ surrounded by several other sponges. 

    Etymology. Named for the possession of highly characteristic small anatriaenes (anatriaene + illa— female adjectival suffix in Latin related to diminutive of a name).


    Julio C.C. Fernandez, Michelle Kelly and Lori J. Bell. 2017.   Cinachyrella anatriaenilla sp. nov., A New Tetillid Sponge with Microacanthoxeas from American Samoa in the South Pacific.    Zootaxa.  4258(1); 81–90.   DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4258.1.6


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    Calamus pintaudii W.J.Baker & J.Dransf.


    Abstract

    As part of current research on the taxonomy of the palms (Arecaceae or Palmae) of New Guinea, ten new species of the rattan genus Calamus are described and illustrated here: Calamus baiyerensis, Calamus capillosus, Calamus erythrocarpus, Calamus heatubunii, Calamus jacobsii, Calamus katikii, Calamus kostermansii, Calamus papyraceus, Calamus pintaudii and Calamus superciliatus. An eleventh species, Calamus novae-georgii, from the neighbouring Solomon Islands is also included here. The palm flora of New Guinea now includes 62 species of Calamus, 34 of which have been described since 2002, demonstrating the remarkable scale of botanical discovery on the island. 

    Key words: Calamoideae, Indonesia, lianas, Palmae, palms, Papua New Guinea, Papuasia, South-East Asia

    FIGURE 1. Calamus baiyerensis. A. Leaf sheath with ocrea. B. Leaf apex. C. Mid-leaf portion. D. Primary branch of staminate inflorescence. Scale bar: A = 3 cm; B, C = 6 cm; D = 4 cm. All from Zieck NGF 36252. Drawn by Lucy T. Smith. 

    Taxonomic treatment 

    1. Calamus baiyerensis W.J.Baker & J.Dransf., sp. nov. 
    Type:—PAPUA NEW GUINEA. Western Highlands Province: Baiyer River Subdistrict, Rouna River (Baiyer River valley) near Kambukom village, 1160 m, 23 July 1971, Zieck NGF 36252 (holotype CANB!, isotypes BH, LAE). 

    Diagnosis:— Distinguished by the very robust, clustering habit, the sparsely armed sheath with patchy dark indumentum, the ocrea encircling the stem that disintegrates into fibres and the very robust inflorescence with robust rachillae with funnel-shaped bracts.

    Etymology:— The species epithet reflects the type locality in the Baiyer River valley.  
    Distribution:— Known only from the type locality in the Baiyer River valley, Western Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea.


    2. Calamus capillosus W.J.Baker & J.Dransf., sp. nov. 
    Type:— INDONESIA. West Papua Province: surroundings of Ayawasi, ca. 450 m, 28 July 1995, Ave 4048 (holotype L!, isotype BO). 

    Diagnosis:— Distinguished by the sheaths densely armed with very fine, hair-like spines, the regularly pinnate leaves with numerous bristles on veins and margins, the very long flagelliform inflorescences, the long, unbranched peduncle, the lax primary branches, and the staminate inflorescence branched to only two orders. 

    Etymology:— The species epithet refers to the very hairy appearance of the leaf sheaths, due to the abundance of fine, hair-like spines, and the numerous hair-like bristles on the leaflets.
    Distribution:—Known only from the type locality near Ayawasi in the Bird’s Head Peninsula.


    3. Calamus erythrocarpus W.J.Baker & J.Dransf., sp. nov. 
    Type:— PAPUA NEW GUINEA. Central Province: Sogeri Subdistict, near Jawarere (Subitana), 450 m, 3 September 1968, Zieck NGF 36176 (holotype LAE!, isotype BH, L!) 

    Diagnosis:— Distinguished by the moderately robust, clustering habit, the subcirrate leaf with few broadly lanceolate, cucullate leaflets, the longest leaflets at the base of the leaf, the leaf apex bearing a vestigial leaflet pair remnant or a short cirrus, the leaf sheaths armed only with few, minute spines, the short inflorescences lacking peduncular bracts, the rachis bracts significantly exceeding the primary branches and splitting to the base (not tattering), and the rounded red fruit covered with unchannelled, erose-margined scales.

    Etymology:— The specific epithet refers to the red colour of the fruit. 
    Distribution:— Known from many gatherings at a single locality in hills 35 km east of Port Moresby, Central Province. 
    Habitat:— Rain forest on lower slopes and bottom of a creek valley, ca. 460 m.


      

    FIGURE 8. Calamus novae-georgii. A. Leaf sheath. B. Leaf apex. C. Mid-leaf portion. D. Infructescence apex with primary branch. E. Staminate rachilla. F. Staminate flower bud in longitudinal section. G. Staminate flower bud. H. Fruit attached to pisillate rachilla, showing stalk-like first bracteole. I. Seed whole and in longitudinal section.
    Scale bar: A, D = 3 cm; B, C = 4 cm; E = 5 mm; F, G = 2.2 mm; H, I = 
    7 mm.
    A–D, H, I from Qusa 124; E–G from Qusa 123. Drawn by Lucy T. Smith. 


    4. Calamus heatubunii W.J.Baker & J.Dransf., sp. nov. 
    Type:— INDONESIA. West Papua Province: Kota Sorong, Klasaman km 14, Klasagan, 50 m, 2 February 2013, Baker et al. 1392 (holotype K!, isotypes AAU!, BO!, BRI!, L!, MAN!). 

    Diagnosis:— Distinguished by the few, broad, leathery leaflets, typically arranged in a single, divaricate group, the well-developed, purple-brown ocrea armed with numerous, solitary triangular spines, and the short, erect inflorescences lacking a flagelliform tip with compact, but not congested branching.

    Etymology:— Calamus heatubunii is named for our friend and long-time collaborator in New Guinea palm research, Prof. Charlie D. Heatubun of Universitas Papua, Manokwari, Indonesia.
    Distribution:— Recorded from several localities near to Sorong and from Waigeo in the Raja Ampat Islands in far western New Guinea.
    Habitat:— Lowland forest, including secondary, hill and swamp forest, 45–180 m.


     5. Calamus jacobsii W.J.Baker & J.Dransf., sp. nov.
     Type:— PAPUA NEW GUINEA. Morobe: south-east of Lae on the coast, opposite Lasanga Island, 500–600 m, 11 November 1973, Jacobs 9561 (holotype L!, isotypes LAE). 
    Diagnosis:— Distinguished by the leaves and leaf sheaths drying brown, the unarmed leaf sheath, the very short petiole, the few, subregularly arranged, elliptic leaflets, and the non-flagelliform staminate inflorescence that is branched to 4 orders.

    Etymology:—The species is named for Marius Jacobs (1929–1983), a senior botanist of the Rijksherbarium, Leiden and collector of the type specimen. Jacobs died at the age of 53, unexpectedly cutting short his career in plant taxonomy and conservation in Malesia (Kalkman 1983).
    Distribution:— Known from two localities in mountains south of Lae, Papua New Guinea.
    Habitat:— Primary forest at an elevation of 500–600 m.


    6. Calamus katikii W.J.Baker & J.Dransf., sp. nov. 
    Type:—PAPUA NEW GUINEA. Morobe Province: Wau Subprovince, Kodama Range, Mount Walker, Korpera River, 1829 m, 16 November 1981, Katik LAE 74954 (holotype LAE!, isotypes NSW, USF). 

    Diagnosis:— Distinguished by the slender habit, ecirrate leaves with very few (ca. 4 pairs) grouped leaflets, the sparsely armed, flagellate leaf sheaths, the short inflorescence with flagelliform tip and large fruit relative to the size of the plant.

    Etymology:— This species is named for Paul Katik, renowned botanist, formerly of the Papua New Guinea Forest Research Institute, and collector of the type specimen.
    Distribution:— Known only from a single collection from the Kodama Range, Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea.
    Habitat:— Montane, mossy forest at ca. 1800 m.


    7. Calamus kostermansii W.J.Baker & J.Dransf., sp. nov. 

    Type:— INDONESIA. Papua Province: Fak-Fak, Timika, sago swamp, between Timika and port, km 23, 10 m,16 February 1998, Baker et al. 848 (holotype K!, isotypes BO!, MAN!, BH!, L!). 

    Diagnosis:— Similar to Calamus longipinna, but differs in the dense chocolate brown caducous indumentum on sheaths, short triangular spines on sheaths, tough ocrea that disintegrates into fibres at the margin and the more elongate and short-spiny rachis bracts.

    Etymology:— This species is named for A.J.G.H. Kostermans (1906–1994), the celebrated Dutch-Indonesian botanist whose specimen drew our attention to the existence of this species.
    Distribution:— Known from only two localities in central and western Indonesian New Guinea.
    Habitat:— Riverine and swamp habitats, ca. 10 m elevation.


    8. Calamus novae-georgii W.J.Baker & J.Dransf., sp. nov. 
    Type:—SOLOMON ISLANDS. New Georgia: MundaNoro Road, 12 September 1991, Qusa 124 (BSIP 22101) (holotype K!). 

    Diagnosis:— Distinguished by the sheaths with dense chocolate-brown indumentum and abundant straw-coloured spines, the long, slender, flagelliform inflorescence, the fine, zig-zag rachillae and the stalk-like first bracteole in the dyad of the pistillate inflorescence.

    Etymology:— The species epithet reflects the type locality on New Georgia Island. 
    Distribution:— Known only from New Georgia Island in the Solomon Islands.
    Habitat:— 
    Primary, lowland forest on hills, ridges and flat plains


    9. Calamus papyraceus W.J.Baker & J.Dransf., sp. nov. 
    Type:— PAPUA NEW GUINEA. East Sepik Province: WewakAngoram area, Maprik Subdistrict, Prince Alexander Range, SE side of Mt. Turu above Ambakanja village, 600 m, 19 August 1959, Pullen 1506 (holotype CANB!, isotype LAE). 

    Diagnosis:— Distinguished by the slender habit, the regularly pinnate leaves, the leaf sheaths with collars of fine, caducous spines, the long, disintegrating papery ocrea armed with fine spines, the erect, congested inflorescence lacking a flagelliform tip with dry, papery bracts, erect primary branches and short pistillate rachillae, and typically conventional calamoid sympodial floral clusters producing a single fruit per cluster in the pistillate plant.

    Etymology:— The species epithet refers to the papery texture of the ocrea and of the inflorescence bracts.
    Distribution:— Known from a single locality near Mt. Turu in the Prince Alexander Range in East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea.


    Calamus pintaudii W.J.Baker & J.Dransf.
    A. Leaf sheath with tattering ocrea. B. Leaf apex. C. Mid-leaf portion D. Primary branch of pistillate inflorescence. E. Staminate rachilla. F. Fruit on rachilla. G. Fruit. H. Seed in two views. I. Seed in longitudinal section. 
    Scale bar: A, F = 3 cm; B–D = 4 cm; E = 1.5 cm; G–I = 1.5 cm.
    A, D from Zieck NGF 36189; B, C, E–I from Pintaud et al. 671. Drawn by Lucy T. Smith.

     10. Calamus pintaudii W.J.Baker & J.Dransf., sp. nov.
    Type:— PAPUA NEW GUINEA. Chimbu Province: Kundiawa, Daman Nanga (Sino Pass) Village, 2200 m, 30 October 2012, Pintaud et al. 671 (holotype K!, isotypes LAE, P, Binatang-RC). 

    Diagnosis:—Distinguished by the robust, clustering habit, the sheath drying orange-brown with dense indumentum, densely armed with needle-like spines, the papery, fragile ocrea almost encircling the sheath, but soon disintegrating, and the robust inflorescence with robust rachillae with funnel-shaped bracts.

    Etymology:— The species epithet honours our friend and colleague, the late Jean-Christophe Pintaud (1970– 2015), French palm biologist and collector of the type specimen (see Anthelme et al. 2016).
    Distribution:— Recorded from three widely separated localities in the eastern end of the central mountain chain of Papua New Guinea between Mt. Wilhelm and Mt. Suckling.
    Habitat:— Primary montane forest, 600–1400 m


    11. Calamus superciliatus W.J.Baker & J.Dransf., sp. nov. 
    Type:— INDONESIA. West Papua Province: Tambrouw Regency, Fef District, forest above Fef, 730 m, 24 January 2013, Baker et al. 1370 (holotype K!, isotypes BO!, MAN!, L!). 

    Diagnosis:— Distinguished by the leaf sheaths densely armed with fine, planar spines that form a tuft of longer spines at the sheath mouth, the relatively few leaflets (9–12 pairs) arranged in few, divaricate groups, and the lax, flagelliform inflorescence with few primary branches (1–3).

    Etymology:— The specific epithet refers to the fine, prolonged, erect spines that emerge around the mouth of the leaf sheath.
    Distribution:— Known from two localities near Fef in the Tamrau mountains.
      Habitat:— Lower montane forest at 700–900 m.

      
    William J. Baker and John Dransfield. 2017. More New Rattans from New Guinea and the Solomon Islands (Calamus, Arecaceae).   Phytotaxa. 305(2); 61–86.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.305.2.1


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    Oxynoemacheilus hazarensis 
     Freyhof & Özuluğ, 2017 

     Abstract
    Oxynoemacheilus hazarensis, new species, from Lake Hazar in the Turkish Tigris drainage, is distinguished from other Oxynoemacheilus in the Tigris drainage by having the combination of a slightly emarginate caudal fin, no suborbital groove in males, an incomplete lateral line, no scales on the back and flank in front of the anus, the maxillary barbel reaching beyond the middle of the eye, an incision in the middle of the upper lip, and the colour pattern on the flank mottled, not interrupted by an unpigmented zone along the lateral line. Oxynoemacheilus euphraticus from the Euphrates and Tigris drainages is a valid species: it is discussed and re-diagnosed against Oargyrogramma.
       
    Keywords: Pisces, Freshwater biodiversity, exploration, Southeastern Anatolia


    FIGURE 5. Oxynoemacheilus hazarensis, not preserved, about 65 mm SL; Turkey: North-eastern shore of Lake Hazar. 


    Distribution. Oxynoemacheilus hazarensis was found in Lake Hazar, a large tectonic lake in eastern Turkey, and one of the sources of the Tigris. It may be endemic to Lake Hazar.

    Etymology. The species is named for its type locality, Lake Hazar. An adjective. 

    Remarks. If this is confirmed by intensive field-work in the region, O. hazarensis would be the third fish species endemic to Lake Hazar after Aphanius asquamatus (Cyprinodontidae) and Alburnus heckeli (Cyprinidae).



    Jörg Freyhof and Müfit Özuluğ. 2017. Oxynoemacheilus hazarensis, A New Species from Lake Hazar in Turkey, with Remarks on O. euphraticus (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae). Zootaxa. 4247(4); 378–390. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4247.4.2



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