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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region

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    Pteris latipinna Y.S.Chao & W.L.Chiou

    Pteris fauriei is widely distributed in Eastern Asia and has high morphological variation. Some morphologically similar plants related to this species are difficult to distinguish. We showed that the new Pteris species from Taiwan, previously identified as P. fauriei, can be morphologically distinguished by its wide pinnae, larger terminal pinnae than the lateral pinnae in sterile fronds, and triangular basal segments of the lateral pinnae. It was confirmed that this species is phylogenetically separated from the other East Asian Pteris species, except for a morphologically distinct species P. arisanensis, by means of chloroplast genes, rbcL and matK. The new species is named as Pteris latipinna sp. nov., referring to its wide pinnae. Here, we provide a key to facilitate the identification of the morphologically similar Pteris species in Asia. The morphological descriptions, images, ecology, and distribution are also presented.

    Keywords: PterisPteris faurieiPteris latipinna, Taiwan, taxonomy

    Figure 1. Photographs of Pteris latipinna Y.S.Chao & W.L.Chiou, sp. nov. in Hsinchu, Taiwan.
    Habitat. Terminal pinna of sterile frond is larger than the lateral pinna. St, sterile fronds; Fe, fertile fronds A frond Concolorous scales a stipe. 

    Pteris latipinna Y.S.Chao & W.L.Chiou, sp. nov.

    Ecology: In shaded places, understory of evergreen broad leaf forests, below 1,000 m in elevation.

    Etymology: The specific epithet ‘latipinna’ refers to its wide pinnae.

     Yi-Shan Chao, Atsushi Ebihara, Wen-Liang Chiou and Yao Moan Huang. 2017. Pteris latipinna sp. nov. (Pteridaceae), A New Species Segregated from Pteris fauriei.
      PhytoKeys. 85: 95-108.  DOI:  10.3897/phytokeys.85.14884

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    Morturneria seymourensis Chatterjee & Creisler, 1994

    O'Keefe, Otero, Soto-Acuña, O'gorman, Godfrey & Chatterjee, 2017.
    Cranial Anatomy of
     Morturneria seymourensis ...

    This paper redescribes the holotype skull of the aristonectine elasmosaur Morturneria seymourensis from the upper Maastrichtian of Seymour Island, Antarctica. This description supports the validity of the genus Morturneria, distinct from the genus Aristonectes from Chile and Argentina. The paroccipital process of Morturneria is plesiomorphic, similar to Alexandronectes and unlike the autapomorphic occiput of Aristonectes. The palate of Morturneria is autapomorphic in possessing a strongly developed midline keel. The cranium of Morturneria is about 60% complete and preserves the anterior skull roof and palate; both regions were previously unknown in any aristonectine. The combination of the Morturneria holotype and recent research on other aristonectines allows the first confident cranial reconstruction of an aristonectine elasmosaur. The cranial anatomy of both Morturneria and its close relatives is derived relative to all other plesiosaurs, possessing a novel suite of dental and oral cavity adaptions. The suspensorium extends far behind the occipital condyle, and the jaw is long and hoop-like; together these features allowed a large gape and oral cavity volume. The palate of Morturneria is strongly keeled, forming arched lateral oral chambers that further increased oral cavity volume. The dentition of Morturneria is similar to that of Aristonectes, and all share autapomorphic interlocking combs of needle-like teeth that occluded outside the mouth and did not meet tip to tip. The upper and lower dentition formed an oral battery that may have functioned like a sieve in straining food particles from substrate ejected from the oral cavity. We theorize that this highly derived suite of adaptations is convergent with extant gray whales and archaic mysticetes and hypothesize that it functioned similarly in sieve feeding following suction. This is the first identification of whale-like filter feeding in any marine reptile, a condition once claimed to be anatomically impossible.

    F. Robin O'Keefe, Rodrigo A. Otero, Sergio Soto-Acuña, Jose P. O'gorman, Stephen J. Godfrey and Sankar Chatterjee. 2017. Cranial Anatomy of Morturneria seymourensis from Antarctica, and the Evolution of Filter Feeding in Plesiosaurs of the Austral Late Cretaceous.   Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. DOI:  10.1080/02724634.2017.1347570

    Plesiosaur fossil found 33 years ago yields new convergent evolution findings via @physorg_com

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    Triplophysa luochengensis Li, Lan, Chen & Du, 2017

     DOI:  10.1111/jfb.13364 


    A new cave-dwelling fish Triplophysa luochengensis is described based on specimens collected from a karst cave in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, that is interconnected to the Hongshui River drainage. The species can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters: eyes degenerated, anal fin with six branched rays, caudal fin with 16–17 branched rays, pectoral-fin length 72·4–95·8% of the distance between pectoral-fin origin and pelvic-fin origin, lateral head length 26·2–28·2% of standard length (LS), eye diameter 7·5–8·6 of LS, body covered by sparse scales, lateral line complete and 7–8 pre-operculo-mandibular pores. Dark pigments irregularly present on dorsum of head, dorsum and flank.

    J. Li, J. H. Lan, X. Y. Chen and L. N. Du. 2017. Description of Triplophysa luochengensis sp. nov. (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae) from A Karst Cave in Guangxi, China. Journal of Fish Biology. DOI:  10.1111/jfb.13364

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    Eithea lagopaivae Campos-Rocha & Dutilh

    Eithea lagopaivae Campos-Rocha & Dutilh, sp. nov. is described as the second species of the formerly monotypic genus Eithea. It is characterized by a one flowered inflorescence, completely hollow scape, white or lightly magenta-striated flower that is enclosed by spathe bracts fused for more than the lower fifth of its length. Comments on its range, habitat, phenology, as well as photographs and illustrations are provided. In addition, a distribution map and an identification key for the two species of the genus are presented and anatomical and ecological differences compared. Known by only two small populations exposed to several types of threats and without any guarantee of protection, E. lagopaivae is considered a Critically Endangered (CR) species.

    Keywords: Anatomy, Asparagales, Endemism, Hippeastreae, São Paulo

    Eithea lagopaivae Campos-Rocha & Dutilh, sp. nov.
    Diagnosis: Eithea lagopaivae differs from E. blumenavia (Figure 3) by its smaller size, one flowered inflorescence (vs. 2–6, very rarely 1), a fully hollow scape (vs. solid in the lower fifth), terminated by spathe bracts fused for more than the lower fifth of their length (vs. free or fused up to the lower fifth), absence of bracteoles (vs. presence), white or only very lightly striated flowers (vs. strongly striated) and lateral and lower petals of similar width (vs. lateral petals up to twice the width of the lower).

    Distribution, habitat and ecology: Eithea lagopaivae is known from only two small populations separated about 50 km, each composed of less than 50 individuals. The type population (Piracicaba) occurs in the understory of an abandoned Eucalyptus plantation, next to fragments of deciduous and semideciduous forest, where the Corumbataí river meets the Piracicaba river. The second is located in a small fragment of semideciduous forest, near the junction of the basins of the Piracicaba and Tietê rivers in the municipality of Tietê (Figure 4). Both fragments are located on gravelly soils of litholic limestone origin (Oliveira and Prado 1989). The region presents a well-defined seasonality, with total annual rainfall of 1230 mm and precipitation of 50 mm or less, for six months, during autumn and winter. During spring and summer, rainfall exceeds 100 mm for six months, reaching close to 250 mm in January (EMBRAPA 2003). Ants were observed removing elaiosomes from the seeds of E. lagopaivae in their natural habitat, indicating that these animals might be dispersal agents, as is known for Griffinia.

    Etymology: The epithet is a tribute to Celso do Lago Paiva, environmental analyst at ICMBio, who has collected the plant for the first time and has dedicated his life to the study and conservation of the flora of Brazil.

    Figure 2. Eithea lagopaivae Campos-Rocha & Dutilh
    A Typical habitat (October 2016) B Individual plant flowering amid trash dumped at type locality C Flowering plant (Campos-Rocha 1647) D Flower buds E Flower, frontal view (Bernacci 4483) F Flower buds and flowers (Campos-Rocha 1654) G Plants in fruit H Mature capsule exposing the seeds I Seed (elaiosome indicated by the arrow).

    Resumo: Eithea lagopaivae Campos-Rocha & Dutilh, sp. nov. é descrita como a segunda espécie do gênero previamente monotípico Eithea. Caracteriza-se por apresentar a inflorescência uniflora, escapo totalmente oco, flor alva ou com leves estrias magenta, protegida por brácteas espatáceas fundidas na base por mais de um quinto do seu comprimento. Comentários sobre a sua área de ocorrência, hábitat, dados de fenologia, fotografias e ilustrações são fornecidos. Adicionalmente, um mapa de distribuição e uma chave de identificação para as duas espécies do gênero são apresentados e suas diferenças anatômicas e ecológicas comparadas. Conhecida de apenas duas pequenas populações sujeitas a diversos tipos de ameaça e sem qualquer garantia de proteção, E. lagopaivaeé considerada uma espécie Criticamente em Perigo (CR) de extinção.

    Palavras-chave: Anatomia, Asparagales, Endemismo, Hippeastreae, São Paulo

     Antonio Campos-Rocha, Alan William Meerow, Edimar Faria Menezes Lopes, João Semir, Juliana Lischka Sampaio Mayer and Julie Henriette Antoinette Dutilh. 2017. Eithea lagopaivae, A New Critically Endangered Species in the previously Monotypic Genus Eithea Ravenna (Amaryllidaceae). PhytoKeys. 85: 45-58.  DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.85.13369

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    Sundathelphusa miguelito
    Mendoza & Sy, 2017

    A new species of the freshwater crab genus Sundathelphusa Bott, 1969 (Gecarcinucidae) is described from the island of Mindanao in the southern Philippines. The Philippine Islands host the greatest species diversity of this genus, although only four species were previously known from Mindanao. The new species is most similar to S. mistio (Rathbun, 1904) and S. montanoanus (Rathbun, 1904) in the general carapace outline and leg proportions, but it can be distinguished by features of the carapace, thoracic sternum and gonopods. With this discovery, there are now 29 species of Sundathelphusa known from the Philippines.
    Keywords: South Cotabato; Michael Türkay; Decapoda; Lake Sebu; taxonomy; Biodiversity; Mindanao

     Jose C. E. Mendoza and E. Y. Sy. 2017. Sundathelphusa miguelito, A New Species of Freshwater Crab from the southern Philippines (Brachyura, Gecarcinucidae).
     Crustaceana. 90(7-10); 1039 – 1053. DOI: 10.1163/15685403-00003638

    Filipino scientists discover new species of freshwater crab in Mindanao via @gmanews

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    Deltasuchus motherali
    Adams, Noto & Drumheller, 2017

    A new taxon of neosuchian crocodyliform, Deltasuchus motherali, gen. et sp. nov., is described on the basis of a partial skull recovered from the Arlington Archosaur Site within the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Woodbine Formation of north-central Texas. This productive locality represents a delta plain ecosystem preserving a diverse coastal fauna, including lungfish, turtles, dinosaurs (ornithopods and theropods), and crocodyliforms. Prior to this discovery, the only identified crocodyliforms from the Woodbine Formation had been the longirostrine taxa Terminonaris and Woodbinesuchus. This new taxon is differentiated from other known crocodyliforms by the presence of dual pseudocanines on both the dentary and maxilla; anterior and posterior rami of jugal comparable in depth; anterolaterally facing margin on the dorsal portion of the postorbital; contact between the descending process of the postorbital and the ectopterygoid; and a large, deep fossa on the ventral surface of the quadrate. Phylogenetic analysis recovers D. motherali as the sister taxon to Paluxysuchusnewmani from the Lower Cretaceous Twin Mountains Formation of Texas. This clade lies within Neosuchia basal to Goniopholididae + Eusuchia. The associated cranial elements of this new crocodyliform represent a large, broad-snouted individual, an ecomorphotype often associated with the semiaquatic ambush predator niche in this clade, and one not previously reported from the formation.

    Skull material of Deltasuchus motherali (left), and a reconstruction of the skull (right)


    MESOEUCROCODYLIA Whetstone and Whybrow, 1983
    NEOSUCHIA Benton and Clark, 1988

    DELTASUCHUS, gen. nov.

    Type Species—Deltasuchus motherali, sp. nov.

    Etymology—Deltasuchus, ‘Delta’ in reference to the coastal delta plain deposits of the Woodbine Formation in which the new taxon was found; and ‘suchus,’ derived from ‘Souchos,’ the Greek term for the Egyptian crocodile god, Sobek.


    Etymology— Deltasuchus motherali, in honor of Austin Motheral, who discovered the type specimen.

    Dr. Stephanie Drumheller, Dr. Thomas Adams, and Dr. Chris Noto with the skull of Deltasuchus motherali.

    AAS volunteers working to uncover fossils, including those of Deltasuchus, in 2009.

    Thomas L. Adams, Christopher R. Noto and Stephanie Drumheller. 2017. A Large Neosuchian Crocodyliform from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Woodbine Formation of North Texas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. DOI:   10.1080/02724634.2017.1349776 

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    Microcaecilia marvaleewakeae  Maciel& Hoogmoed, 2013

    We describe a new species of Microcaecilia from the Guianan region of Brazil, based on a series of eight specimens from the states of Pará and Amazonas. Microcaecilia marvaleewakeae sp. nov. is very similar to M. taylori, but differs from it in having more primary annuli, more secondary grooves, and more secondary grooves that completely encircle the body. The new species also seems to have a relatively shorter and thinner head than M. taylori, but additional specimens of the new species are necessary to check this. A brief discussion of the taxonomy of M. taylori is presented.

    Microcaecilia marvaleewakeae  Maciel & Hoogmoed, 2013
    photo: Kawashita Ribeiro 

     Adriano Oliveira Maciel and Marinus Steven Hoogmoed. 2013. A New Species of Microcaecilia (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Siphonopidae) from the Guianan region of Brazil.
      Zootaxa. 3693(3); 387-394.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3693.3.9 

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    Lemmysuchus Steneosaurus obtusidens'' Andrews, 1909

    Teleosaurids were a clade of crocodylomorphs that attained near-global distribution during the Jurassic Period. Within Teleosauridae, one particular sub-clade of durophagous/macrophagous taxa achieved large body sizes and were apex predators in shallow marine environments during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous in Europe and around the coast of the Tethys Seaway. Unfortunately, the origins of this clade are still poorly understood. ‘Steneosaurus’ obtusidens is a little-studied macrophagous species from the Oxford Clay Formation (Callovian, Middle Jurassic) of the UK and near Migné-les-Lourdines (Middle Callovian) in France. Despite being considered a sister taxon of the Late Jurassic taxon Machimosaurus, the taxonomy of ‘S.’ obtusidens remains unclear. Although three different synonymies have been proposed (variously a subjective synonym of other taxa), these taxonomic hypotheses have not been based on detailed anatomical comparisons and thus have not been tested. Here, we re-describe the holotype of ‘S.’ obtusidens, demonstrate that it is indeed a valid taxon, restrict the referred specimens to a fragmentary skeleton, nearly complete skull, and partial rostrum, and establish a new monotypic genus, Lemmysuchus. Our re-description reveals five autapomorphies for Lemmysuchus obtusidens and nine apomorphic characters that support the tribe Machimosaurini (Lemmysuchus Machimosaurus).

    Keywords: Crocodylomorpha, LemmysuchusMachimosaurusSteneosaurus, Teleosauridae, Thalattosuchia

    Michela M. Johnson, Mark T. Young, Lorna Steel, Davide Foffa, Adam S. Smith, Stéphane Hua, Philipe Havlik, Eliza A. Howlett and Gareth Dyke. 2017. Re-description of ''‘Steneosaurus’ obtusidens'' Andrews, 1909, An Unusual Macrophagous Teleosaurid Crocodylomorph from the Middle Jurassic of England. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. in press.  DOI: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlx035 

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    Rhadinella lisyae  McCranie, 2017

    Mesoamerican Herpetology. 4(3) 

     I describe a new species of dipsadine snake of the genus Rhadinella from an isolated mountain range in east-central Honduras. This population previously was identified as R. lachrymans. Based on morphological similarities, the closest relative of the new species apparently is R. lachrymans. The new species differs from R. lachrymans by the presence of a distinct, complete, white line that borders the upper edge of a dark brown lateral stripe, a dark brown postorbital bar or spot that is separated from the orbit, in reaching a longer adult male size, and the presence of fewer subcaudal scales in males. All known localities for R. lachrymans are from pine-oak forest on or near the Pacific versant of Guatemala and Chiapas, Mexico. Conversely, the new species occurs in broadleaf rainforest, including elfin forest, on the Atlantic versant of Honduras. In addition, the nearest known locality for R. lachrymans is approximately 500 km to the west from that of the new species, and thus geographical distribution and ecological requirements support the representation of two species.

     Key Words: Atlantic versant, Babilonia Mountain, Department of Olancho, external morphology, Rhadinaea godmani group 

    Fig. 1. The adult male holotype (USNM 535870) of Rhadinella lisyae sp. nov. in life (TOL 414 mm). Note the white line bordering the dark brown lateral stripe, and the dark brown postorbital bar separated from the orbit by white pigment.

    Fig. 2. An adult male paratype (USNM 565821) of Rhadinella lisyae sp. nov. in life (TOL 351 mm).

    Fig. 1. The adult male holotype (USNM 535870) of Rhadinella lisyae sp. nov. in life (TOL 414 mm). Note the white line bordering the dark brown lateral stripe, and the dark brown postorbital bar separated from the orbit by white pigment.
    Fig. 2. An adult male paratype (USNM 565821) of Rhadinella lisyae sp. nov. in life (TOL 351 mm) showing the same characters as the holotype in Fig. 1.
    photos: James R. McCranie

    Distribution and habitat: Rhadinella lisyae is known from broadleaf rainforest and elfin forest (Premontane Wet Forest and Lower Montane Wet Forest formations; Holdridge, 1967) at elevations from 1,300 m to 2,290 m, and only from the Sierra de Agalta in east-central Honduras (Fig. 5). ...

    Etymology: The specific name lisyae is a matronym for my daughter Lisy, who has never shown fear of small non-venomous snakes and enjoys holding them. 

     James R. McCranie. 2017. A New Species of Rhadinella (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from the Sierra de Agalta, Honduras. Mesoamerican Herpetology. 4(3); 244–253.

    Resumen: Describo una nueva especie de la serpiente dipsadina del género Rhadinella de una cadena montañosa aislada en el este-centro de Honduras. Esta población previamente fue identificada como R. lachrymans. Basándose en similaridades morfológicas, el pariente más cercano de la nueva especie aparentemente es R. lachrymans. La nueva especie se difiere de R. lachrymans por la presencia de una línea blanca distinta y completa que bordea el borde superior de la franja lateral de color café oscuro, una barra postorbital de color café oscuro que está separada de la órbita, en alcanzar un mayor tamaño en los varones adultos, y en tener menos escamas subcaudales en los machos. Todas las localidades conocidas para R. lachrymans son de bosque de pino-encino en o cerca de la vertiente del Pacifico de Guatemala y Chiapas, México. Al contrario, la nueva especie ocurre en la selva tropical de hoja ancha, incluyendo el bosque enano, en la vertiente del Atlántico de Honduras. Además, la localidad más cercana conocida para R. lachrymans está aproximadamente a 500 km al oeste de la nueva especie, y por lo tanto la distribución geográfica y los requisitos ecológicos apoyan la representación de dos especies. 
    Palabras Claves: Departamento de Olancho, grupo de Rhadinaea godmani, Montaña de Babilonia, morfología externa, vertiente del Atlántico

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    Japalura slowinskii Rao, Vindum, Ma, Fu & Wilkinson, 2017

     A population of Japalura from Yunnan Province, China, previously assigned to Japalura splendida, is described as a new species. The new species has been recorded between 1138–2500 m in the Nu River drainage between the towns of Liuku and Binzhongluo, and on the lower western slopes of the Nushan and eastern slopes of the Goaligongshan. The new species can be distinguished from other species of Japalura, except J. dymondi, by the following combination of characters: exposed tympani, prominent dorso-lateral stripes, and small gular scales. It is very similar with but differs from J. dymondi by having smooth or feebly keeled dorsal head scales, three relatively enlarged spines on either side of the post-occiput area, strongly keeled and mucronate scales on occiput area and within the lateral stripes, back of arm and leg green, higher number of dorsal-ridge scales (DS) and fourth toe subdigital scales (T4S). A principal component analysis of body measurements of adult male specimens of the new species and J. dymondi showed principal component 1 loading highest for upper arm length, fourth toe length and snout to eye length and principal component 2 loading highest for head width, head length and fourth toe length.

    Keywords: Agamidae, Japalura sp. nov., Goaligongshan Mountain, Nujiang River Valley, Hengduan Mountains, Yunnan, China

    Japalura slowinskii sp. nov. 

    Diagnosis: A large species of Japalura with a robust head and body compressed dorso-ventrally; SVL = 89.6±5.44 mm (n = 18; Male); SVL = 83.9±6.71 mm (n = 7; Female); smooth or feebly keeled dorsal head scales; exposed tympani; a transverse gular fold; a distinct oblique fold anterior to shoulder extending dorsally from transverse gular fold and continuing posteriorly beyond shoulder; dorsal scales heterogeneous, larger scales strongly keeled; a broken dorso-lateral row of enlarged and strongly keeled scales separated from dorsal crest scales by one large or two smaller scales, and separated from each other by one or two small scales; tail in adult males slightly swollen posterior to base; dorsum of males black with a turquoise dosolateral stripe on either side of mid-dorsal crest: fore and hind limbs green.

    Etymology: The specific epithet is a patronym honoring our late friend and colleague Joseph Bruno Slowinski. The epithet is a masculine noun in the genitive case. Dr. Joseph B. Slowinski worked in CAS until his death on September 11, 2001 in north Myanmar a bite from a krait during a field expedition at the age of 38 years old, when he was in charge of both the projects of Myanmar Biodiversity Survey, and the China Natural History Project — the NSF-funded Gaoligongshan Project (collaborative project between KIZ, KIB, and CAS).

    Distribution and Natural History:Japalura slowinskii has only been found within the Nu River Valley drainage system between the town of Liuku, Liushu County, and the town of Binzhongluo, Gongshan County, a northsouth distance of approximately 210 km (refer to Figure 1). The species has been found on the western slopes of the Nu Shan and the eastern slopes of the Goaligongshan between elevations of 1 138–2 500 m. J. slowinskii has not been recorded on the eastern slopes of the Nushan or the Hengduan Shan, or on the western slope of the Goaligongshan; however, these areas have not been thoroughly surveyed for reptiles. It is unlikely that the species extends beyond the western slopes of the Goaligongshan because of the high altitude of the ridge (above 3 000 m [Chaplin, 2005]). A recent collecting trip (2005) to Dulong Valley, west of the Goaligongshan ridge, only recorded a single agamid species, Pseudocalotes kingdonwardi.  ....

    Dingqi Rao, Jens V. Vindum, Xiaohui Ma, Mingxia Fu and Jeffery A. Wilkinson. 2017. A New Species of Japalura (Squamata, Agamidae) from the Nu River Valley in Southern Hengduan Mountains, Yunnan, China. Asian Herpetological Research. 8(2); 86–95 DOI:  10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.160053

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    Gebiacantha sagamiensis  Tomoyuki. 2017   


    A new species of the upogebiid shrimp genus Gebiacantha Ngoc-Ho, 1989, Gebiacantha sagamiensis, is described and illustrated on the basis of a single male specimen collected from Sagami Bay, central Japan, at depths of 101-106 m. It appears closest to G. reunionensis Ngoc-Ho, 1989, known only from La Réunion, western Indian Ocean, but the different shape of the pleomere 6 and the better developed armature of the pereopod 1 carpus distinguish the new species from G. reunionensis. Comments on the taxonomic status of Gebiacantha and Paragebicula Sakai, 2006, and on the generic assignment of the new species, are given.

    Keywords: Gebiacantha reunionensis, generic assignment, Paragebicula, Crustacea, Japan

    Family Upogebiidae 
    Genus Gebiacantha Ngoc-Ho, 1989 

    Gebiacantha sagamiensis n. sp. 
    [New Japanese name: Sagami-toge-ana-jyako]

    Etymology. The specific name refers to Sagami Bay, the location embracing the type locality.

    FIGURE 4. Gebiacantha sagamiensis n. sp., holotype, male (cl 3.2 mm), CBM-ZC 13874, entire animal in dorsal view, showing colouration in life.

    Komai Tomoyuki. 2017. Gebiacantha sagamiensis, A New Species of Upogebiid Shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea) from Sagami Bay, central Japan.
     Zootaxa. 4263(3); 578–586.   DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4263.3.9


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    Acanthodactylus margaritae Tamar, Geniez, Brito et Crochet, 2017


    Recent molecular phylogenies of the Acanthodactylus pardalis species-group have revealed a deep genetic divergence within the nominal species A. busacki from north-west Africa. The species is phylogenetically separated into northern and southern lineages, which correspond to a previously observed morphological differentiation between the northern and southern populations of this species. Based on morphological comparisons of the type material and location of the type locality, the nomen Acanthodactylus busacki Salvador, 1982 is assigned here to the southern lineage, known from the northern Saharan Atlantic coastal desert. The northern lineage, described here as Acanthodactylus margaritae sp. nov., is prominently characterized by weakly keeled dorsal scales and a characteristic colour pattern. The new species is endemic to Morocco and confined to arid and semi-arid bioclimatic areas between the High Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains, from around Tamri in the north to Tiznit in the south and the Souss valley in the east.

    Keywords: Reptilia, Atlas Mountains, evolution, lizards, pardalis species-group, phylogeny, taxonomy

    FIGURE 8. Live specimens of Acanthodactylus margaritae sp. nov. and natural habitats.
     A) juvenile (PGe.150), photo by Philippe Geniez; B) sub-adult female (PGe.1147), photo by Sébastien Durand; C) adult female (PGe.1174), photo by Hugo Cayuela; D) adult male (PGe.1173), photo by Raul León; EF) Oued Massa, Agadir-Tiznit, Morocco, photos by José C. Brito. 

    Acanthodactylus margaritae sp. nov.

    Chresonyms: Acanthodactylus busacki Salvador, 1982: 88 (part.)
    Acanthodactylus pardalis Bedriagai Arnold, 1983: 319 (part.)
    Acanthodactylus bedriagai Harris & Arnold 2000: 352 (part.)
    Acanthodactylus busacki Mellado & Dakki 1988: 175 (part.); Mellado & Olmedo 1990: 133 (part.); Bons & Geniez 1996: 162 (part.); Schleich et al. 1996: 391 (part.); Geniez et al. 2004: 102 (part.); Brito et al. 2008: 21 (part.); Sindaco & Jeremčenko 2008: 218 (part.); Fonseca et al. 2008: 9 (part.); Harris el al. 2010: 22 (part.); Barata et al. 2011: 7 (part.); Carretero et al. 2011: 139 (part.); Trape et al. 2012: 302 (part.); Pyron et al. 2013: 17 (part.); Tamar et al. 2016: 8 (part.)

    Etymology. The specific epithet “ margaritae ”, a noun in the genitive case, honours Dr Margarita Metallinou who tragically lost her life during field-work in Africa in July 2015. The new species is dedicated to Margarita Metallinou from all the authors in recognition of her passion, interest and strong contribution to the study of reptile systematics (especially of geckoes of the genera Stenodactylus and Ptyodactylus) and to her friendship over the years.

    Distribution. Acanthodactylus margaritae sp. nov. is endemic to Morocco, .... Its range is limited by the High Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains to the north, east and south, and is entirely included in the arid and semi-arid climates with warm or temperate winters (Bons & Geniez 1996).

     Natural history. Acanthodactylus margaritae sp. nov. is a ground-dwelling, diurnal, oviparous, medium-sized lizard, relatively large and stout-bodied. It mostly inhabits stony plains with fine grained soils, stable sands and fixed dunes, or hard clay grounds with scarce low vegetation but also, especially in the Souss valley, open argan tree forests. It is often sympatric with Acanthodactylus aureus in the coastal area, though the latter species prefers softer, looser sands.

     Karin Tamar, Philippe Geniez, José C. Brito and Pierre-André Crochet. 2017.  Systematic Revision of Acanthodactylus busacki (Squamata: Lacertidae) with A Description of A New Species from Morocco. Zootaxa. 4276(3); 357-386. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4276.3.3


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    Tiwaripotamon hamyen 
    Do, Nguyen & Dang, 2017 



     Two new terrestrial crab species of the family Potamidae, Tiwaripotamon xuanson and T. hamyen, are described from northern Vietnam. Tiwaripotamon xuanson was collected from Xuan Son National Park, Thanh Son district, Phu Tho province, and T. hamyen was found in Binh Xa commune, Ham Yen district, Tuyen Quang province. They can be distinguished from other congeners by distinct carapace characteristics and gonopod 1 structures.

     Key words.Tiwaripotamon xuanson, Tiwaripotamon hamyen, taxonomy

    Fig. 8. Tiwaripotamon hamyen, new species, with differences living colour in carapace and ambulatory legs.

    Family Potamidae Ortmann, 1896
    Subfamily Potamiscinae Ortmann, 1896 (sensu Yeo & Ng, 2004)

    Genus Tiwaripotamon Bott, 1970
    Type species: Geothelphusa annamensis Balss, 1914, by original designation

    Tiwaripotamon xuanson, new species

    Etymology. The new species is named after the type locality, Xuan Son National Park. The name is used as a noun in apposition. 

    Live colouration. Carapace reddish, chela and ambulatory legs red. 

    Ecological notes. This species inhabits limestone mountains far from water bodies, on the forest floor. One specimen was found in a fallen dead tree (Fig. 5). The other specimens were found in rock cavities and under leaf litter.

    Tiwaripotamon hamyen, new species 

    Etymology. The new species is named after the type locality, Ham Yen. The name is used as a noun in apposition. 

    Live colouration. Carapace and chela milky to light gray, ambulatory legs vary from milky to light gray or purple mixed light orange (Fig. 8A–D).

    Ecological notes. This species inhabits limestone mountains. Our observation of this species and other Tiwaripotamon species from Vietnam confirm that they have terrestrial habits. They were often found far from water sources like streams and ponds. We observed a female T. edostilus carrying juveniles walking on the forest floor not close to any water body. It means these juveniles did not develop in streams or ponds.

    Van Tu Do, Tong Cuong Nguyen and Van Dong Dang. 2017. Two New Species of Freshwater Crabs of the Genus Tiwaripotamon Bott, 1970 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamidae) from northern Vietnam. RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY65; 455–465 

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    Incadendron esseri K.Wurdack & Farfan

    Incadendron esseri K.Wurdack & Farfan, gen. et sp. nov., from the wet sub-Andean cordilleras of Ecuador (Cordillera del Cóndor) and Peru (Cusco, Oxapampa) is described and illustrated. This recently discovered large canopy tree with a narrow elevational range presents an unusual combination of rare morphological characters in Hippomaneae including mucilage-secreting sheathing stipules, conduplicate ptyxis, and large, woody fruits. The broader significance of these characters in Hippomaneae is discussed. The morphology and anatomy of Incadendron were investigated, highlighting its fruit similarities with Guiana Shield endemic Senefelderopsis, and the systematics value of ptyxis variation, which remains poorly studied for the family.

    Keywords: Anatomy, ecology, Euphorbiaceae, Hippomaneae, Incadendron, ptyxis, taxonomy

    Figure 3. Morphology of Incadendron esseri 
    Habit, with paired branching and staminate inflorescences; note latex at damaged nodes Leaf base (adaxial) with basal lobes Leaf base (abaxial) with curled glandular margin Staminate inflorescence with cymules subtended by glands; central flowers abscised leaving two lateral buds per cymule Branch tip showing leaf-opposed inflorescence and stipule-enclosed renewal shoot Summit of peduncle showing bract scars G Nearly mature green fruit Mature brown fruit

    (Source: Incadendron, A–E, G–H Farfan et al. 1049, 1131; F Farfan et al. 706)

    Incadendron esseri K.Wurdack & Farfan, sp. nov.

    Diagnosis: Differs from other members of Euphorbiaceae by its combination of exudate of white latex, indument lacking; leaves coriaceous, with marginal glands, ptyxis conduplicate; stipules, large, sheathing, mucilage-secreting, deciduous; inflorescences leaf-opposed, spicate, with solitary pistillate flowers and numerous 3-flowered, glandular staminate cymules; flowers apetalous with 3 sepals, staminate flowers with 3 stamens; fruits large, woody, dehiscent; and seeds dry, ecarunculate.

    Etymology: The genus is combined from “Inca” (as Inka, Quechua for “ruler” or “lord”) referring to the indigenous Inca people and pre-Columbian empire that was centered in Cusco and encompassed much of the range of this taxon, and “dendron” (Greek) referring to tree, which is the habit of the plant. Some localities occur near the Trocha Unión, an ancient Inca path. The specific epithet is from “Esser”, the surname of Hans-Joachim Esser (Botanische Staatssammlung München, Germany) and honors this expert on Hippomaneae who has contributed much to our understanding of the tribe and Euphorbiaceae in general.

    Distribution, life history, and ecology: Incadendron is known from three well-separated clusters of localities (hereafter referred to as Cóndor, Manu, and Oxapampa populations) on the eastern slopes of the main Andean mountain range in Peru and Ecuador, where it occurs in wet montane forests at 1800–2400 m elevation (Fig. 2). The extent of discontinuity in its range is presently unclear due to the floristically poorly known nature of the intervening areas, and it should be looked for in similar habitats between the three populations. There are minor vegetative differences including leaf apex variation with most tips distinctly acute versus more rarely rounded (i.e., Neill & Kajekai 16620, Monteagudo et al. 16929), and a larger-leafed collection (i.e., Monteagudo et al. 4458). The differences exist within the populations and presently do not suggest differentiation worthy of taxonomic recognition.  ....

    Figure 3. Morphology of Incadendron (A–J, L–M) and Senefelderopsis (K, N).
     Habit, with paired branching and staminate inflorescences; note latex at damaged nodes Leaf base (adaxial) with basal lobes Leaf base (abaxial) with curled glandular margin Staminate inflorescence with cymules subtended by glands; central flowers abscised leaving two lateral buds per cymule Branch tip showing leaf-opposed inflorescence and stipule-enclosed renewal shoot Summit of peduncle showing bract scars G Nearly mature green fruit Mature brown fruit Seed with funicle; holes in I come from insect predation J Mericarp valve with outline of seed position Mericarp valve with a seed; funicle obscures gap Seed coat, transverse view (SEM) Pericarp profile and top half of valve (exocarp removed) Pericarp profile and top half of valve.
     Abbreviations: f = funicle, g = gap, ib = inflorescence bract scar, p = pistillate, pb = pistillate bract scar, s = staminate. Orientation of M–N relative to J–K shown by diagrams where x-y = plane of cross section, z = apically pointing arrow.

    (Source: Incadendron, A–E, G–H Farfan et al. 1049, 1131; F Farfan et al. 706, MO; I–J, M Monteagudo & Ortiz 4605, US; L Monteagudo et al. 4484, US. Senefelderopsis croizatii, K, N Radosavljevic 296, US).

     Kenneth J. Wurdack and William Farfan-Rios. 2017. Incadendron: A New Genus of Euphorbiaceae tribe Hippomaneae from the sub-Andean cordilleras of Ecuador and Peru.  PhytoKeys. 85: 69-86. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.85.14757

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    Astyanax dolinae  
    da Graça, Oliveira, Lima, da Silva & Fernandes, 2017
     DOI: 10.1111/jfb.13405  


    A new species of Astyanax is described from the upper Rio Paraguai basin, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by having the body intensely yellowish in life (v. silvery, reddish or lightly yellow) and by morphometric and meristics traits.Astyanax dolinae n. sp. cannot be assigned to any of the Astyanax species complex currently recognized for the genus. It is only known from the Dolina Água Milagrosa, a karstic sinkhole lake, entirely fed by groundwater, surrounded by Cerrado, the savannah-like vegetation of central South America.

    Key words: endemism; karstic sinkhole; Neotropical region; Río de La Plata; taxonomy.

    Fig. 4. Astyanax dolinae, paratype, immediately after collection, NUP 18014, 53·5 mm standard length.
    Fig. 1.Astyanax dolinae, holotype, MCP 49961, 76·6 mm standard length,
    Brazil, Mato Grosso State, Cáceres,Dolina Água Milagrosa, Rio Paraguai basin.

    Astyanax dolinae sp. nov. 

    Etymology: The specific name dolinae is in reference to the type-locality Dolina Água Milagrosa, Cáceres, Mato Grosso, Brazil. An adjective.

    W.J. da Graça, C.A.M. Oliveira, F.C.T. Lima, H.P. da Silva and I.M. Fernandes. 2017. A New Species of Astyanax (Characiformes: Characidae) from Dolina Água Milagrosa, Rio Paraguai basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil.  Journal of Fish Biology. DOI: 10.1111/jfb.13405 

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    Cladorhiza mexicana
    Lundsten, Reiswig & Austin, 2017


    Carnivorous feeding among the Cladorhizidae (Porifera, Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida) was first documented in 1995. Since that time, 161 species have been described and are currently recognized in 9 genera. Cladorhiza is the most speciose genus with a global, deep-water distribution of 41 species. Here we describe three new Cladorhiza species of ‘crinorhiza’ form from the Northeast Pacific Ocean off California, USA, and the Gulf of California, Mexico, from depths of 2472–4100m. In total, 11 specimens were collected between 1969 and 2015. Video recordings from remotely operated vehicles yield additional information on habitat type, geographic distribution, and abundance for some of these species.

    Keywords: Porifera, Cladorhizidae, Cladorhiza, deep-sea

    FIGURE 4. Cladorhiza mexicana sp. nov.; holotype in situ before collection.

    Cladorhiza mexicana sp. nov. 

    Type locality. Alarcon Rise, Gulf of California, Mexico.

     Etymology. The species name, mexicana, alludes to the country where the holotype was discovered. 

    Diagnosis. Crinorhiza form, parasol-shaped sponge, on long stalk and presumed basal holdfast. Three size classes of megasclere styles and three microsclere categories including tridentate unguiferate anisochelae, contort sigmancistras, and asymmetrical pseudoamphiasters.

    Cladorhiza hubbsi p. nov.

    Etymology. Named in honor of Dr. Carl Leavitt Hubbs, renowned ichthyologist who studied both freshwater and marine fishes and had a keen interest in zoogeography, biology, hybridization, taxonomy, ocean temperature paleo-history, and more. Dr. Hubbs had an amazingly productive career, with nearly 712 publications to his credit with considerable emphasis placed on educating the public and actively promoting conservation.

    Diagnosis. Crinorhiza form, very conical, parasol-shaped sponge, on stalk of unknown true length. Three size classes of megasclere styles and three microsclere categories including tridentate unguiferate anisochelae, contort sigmancistra, and pseudoamphiaster.

    Cladorhiza kensmithi sp. nov. 

    Etymology. Named in honor of Dr. Kenneth L. Smith Jr. for contributions to marine biology and ecology over the course of a more than 40-year career in which he has devoted much of his expertise to studying extreme habitats, including the deep sea and polar regions, and the impacts of a changing climate on these ecosystems. 

    Diagnosis. Crinorhiza form, parasol-shaped sponge, on long stalk with densely branching rhizoid. Two to four apical spermatocyst-bearing discs on short, slender stalks. Four size classes of megasclere styles including rare strongyles and two microsclere categories including tridentate unguiferate anisochelae and contort sigmancistra

     Lonny Lundsten, Henry M. Reiswig and William C. Austin. 2017. Three New Species of Cladorhiza (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida, Cladorhizidae) from the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Zootaxa. 4317(2); 247–260. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4317.2.3

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    Hongyu chowi 
    Zhu, Ahlberg, Zhao & Jia, 2017  

    The fossils assigned to the tetrapod stem group document the evolution of terrestrial vertebrates from lobe-finned fishes. During the past 18 years the phylogenetic structure of this stem group has remained remarkably stable, even when accommodating new discoveries such as the earliest known stem tetrapod Tungsenia and the elpistostegid (fish–tetrapod intermediate) Tiktaalik. Here we present a large lobe-finned fish from the Late Devonian period of China that disrupts this stability. It combines characteristics of rhizodont fishes (supposedly a basal branch in the stem group, distant from tetrapods) with derived elpistostegid-like and tetrapod-like characters. This mélange of characters may reflect either detailed convergence between rhizodonts and elpistostegids plus tetrapods, under a phylogenetic scenario deduced from Bayesian inference analysis, or a previously unrecognized close relationship between these groups, as supported by maximum parsimony analysis. In either case, the overall result reveals a substantial increase in homoplasy in the tetrapod stem group. It also suggests that ecological diversity and biogeographical provinciality in the tetrapod stem group have been underestimated.

    Fig. 1 | V17681, holotype of Hongyu chowi gen. et sp. nov. ; Dorsal view. 

    Systematic palaeontology. 
    Osteichthyes Huxley, 1880
    Sarcopterygii Romer, 1955
    Tetrapodomorpha Ahlberg, 1991

    Hongyu chowi gen. et sp. nov.

    Etymology. The generic name derives from hong (Chinese Pinyin), which means large and yu (Chinese Pinyin), which means fish. The specific is in honor of Min-Chen Chow

    Holotype. IVPP V17681, a three-dimensionally preserved and partially articulated specimen.

     Locality. A quarry at Shixiagou, Qingtongxia, Ningxia, China. Approximate coordinates: 37° 39′ 18.4″ N, 105° 59′ 34.2″ E. Horizon. Zhongning Formation, Famennian, Late Devonian period.

    Fig. 4 | Life restoration. Hongyu chowi gen. et sp. nov. and associated antiarchs (Ningxialepis spinosa) from the Zhongning Formation (Famennian, Late Devonian period), Ningxia, China.
    Illustration: B. Choo.

    Min Zhu, Per E. Ahlberg, Wen-Jin Zhao and Lian-Tao Jia. 2017. A Devonian Tetrapod-like Fish Reveals Substantial Parallelism in Stem Tetrapod Evolution.
     Nature Ecology & Evolution. DOI: 10.1038/s41559-017-0293-5

    Weird fish fossil changes the story of how we moved onto land

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    Polyalthia yingjiangensis  Y. H. Tan & B. Xue

     DOI: 10.1111/njb.01612 


    Polyalthia yingjiangensis sp. nov. is described from the China/Myanmar border. It is distinct in having outer petals that are much shorter than the inner petals and having a very long pedicel. It is most similar to P. miliusoides I.M. Turner, but differs in having perianth parts that are glabrous adaxially and pubescent abaxially, thicker and sparsely pubescent pedicels, as well as verrucose and darker monocarps.

    Figure 1. Flower and fruit morphology of Polyalthia yingjiangensis sp. nov. (A)–(E) branch and inflorescence, showing extra-axillary inflorescence with long pedicel, unequal corolla whorls and leaves with slightly asymmetrical leaf base with petiole superficially below lamina surface, (F) dried fruits (C. L. Dang 9977, YUKU), (G) a single dried monocarp, showing the verrucose surface (86 Exped. 01111, KUN), (H) lateral and top view of one seed, showing the shallow longitudinal circumferential groove (86 Exped. 01111, KUN), (I) transverse and longitudinal section of the seed, showing spiniform endosperm ruminations (86 Exped. 01111, KUN).
    Photos: (A)–(E) De-Ping Ye, (F)–(I) Bine Xue.

    Polyalthia yingjiangensis Y. H. Tan & B. Xue sp. nov.  

    Etymology: The new species Polyalthia yingjiangensis is named after its type locality, Yingjiang county of Yunnan province, China.

    Bine Xue, De-Ping Ye, Yun-Yun Shao and Yun-Hong Tan. 2017. Polyalthia yingjiangensis sp. nov (Annonaceae) from the China/Myanmar Border. Nordic Journal of Botany. 35; 476–481.  DOI: 10.1111/njb.01612

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    Thismia nigricoronata  Kumar & S.W.Gale


    Thismia nigricoronata is described as a new species in family Burmanniaceae. Both morphological and phylogenetic analyses indicate that this new Lao endemic is allied to T. taiwanensis in section Glaziocharis, and it can be differentiated on the basis of its longer vestigial stem leaves, reflexed free outer perianth lobes and ornamented, vibrantly coloured outer surface of the perianth tube. The infrageneric taxonomy of Thismia is reviewed, the genera Geomitra and Scaphiophora are officially reduced to sectional status in Thismia, and all species are enumerated in systematic order. A key to all currently accepted subgenera, sections and subsections is presented to facilitate further examination of their phylogenetic integrity in light of apparent conflict between the traditional morphology-based system and the emerging DNA-based classification.

    Keywords: achlorophyllous plants, Dioscoreaceae, holomycoheterotrophs, Laotian flora, Thismiaceae, Monocots

    FIGURE 4. Thismia nigricoronata  Kumar & S.W.Gale. 
    A. Plant in habitat. B. Habit. C. Close-up of the crown. D. Whole plant showing the structure of the crown. E. Whole plant showing the structure of the annulus. F. Transverse section of the perianth tube. G. Dorsal view of the crown. H. Stamens showing the anther locules. I. Stamens showing the connectives and staminal tube.

    Thismia nigricoronata Kumar & S.W.Gale, sp. nov. 

    Thismia nigricoronata is morphologically similar to Thismia taiwanensis but can be differentiated on the basis of its longer vestigial stem leaves (more than 6 mm long in the former versus less than 6 mm in the latter); its reflexed free outer perianth lobes (versus erect and projecting upwards in the latter); the ornamented outer surface of its perianth tube, which is verrucose below and papillose above (versus smooth and glabrous in the latter); and its vibrantly coloured perianth tube (versus translucent white in the latter).

     Habitat:— Thismia nigricoronata was discovered on a steep slope of a limestone mountain, growing among leaf litter in clayey soils under a dense evergreen canopy.

      Etymology:— The species epithet refers to the blackcrown-like structure formed above the annulus by the fusion of the three inner perianth lobes. Hence the taxon may informally be referred to as ‘the black-crowned thismia’.

     Pankaj Kumar, Stephan W. Gale, Ji-Hong Li, Somsanith Bouamanivong and Gunter A. Fischer. 2017. Thismia nigricoronata, A New Species of Burmanniaceae (Thismieae, Dioscoreales) from Vang Vieng, Vientiane Province, Laos, and A Key to Subgeneric Classification.
       Phytotaxa. 319(3); 225–240.  DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.319.3.2

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    Pedioplanis laticeps (Smith, 1845)


    Within the genus Pedioplanis the two basal species P. laticeps and P. burchelli are phenotypically similar. In this study we examine material of both species to determine diagnostic characters and we revise the distribution of Pedioplanis laticeps. For this we used data from museum collections, literature records, as well as results from our own surveys. Careful examination of the type material of P. laticeps and P. burchelli, as well as additional specimens, confirmed several morphological characters that distinguish between the two species. A reconstruction of the taxonomic history of the species revealed that P. laticeps was described in 1845, and not in 1844 or 1849 as commonly attributed. We designate a holotype for P. burchelli, a lectotype and two paralectotypes for P. laticeps, re-describe the types of P. laticeps and P. burchelli and correct previous misidentifications. Recent literature considers P. laticeps endemic to South Africa. However, 40-year-old museum records contain specimens sampled in Namibia. Surveys in Namibia confirmed at least one extant population of P. laticeps north of the Orange River, close to an area where they were previously collected. Natural history data is very scarce for both species and a comprehensive genetic analysis, covering the entire ranges of both taxa, is urgently needed to shed light on the evolutionary history of the two sister species.

    Keywords: Reptilia, Lacerta capensisEremias, Namibia, South Africa

    Sebastian Kirchhof, Johannes Penner, Mark-Oliver Rödel and Johannes Müller. 2017. Resolution of the Types, Diagnostic Features, and Distribution of Two Easily Confused Sand Lizards, Pedioplanis laticeps (Smith, 1845) and P. burchelli (Duméril & Bibron, 1839) (Squamata: Lacertidae). Zootaxa.  4318(1); 82–109.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4318.1.3

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