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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region

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    FIGURE 4. Paracanthocobitis zonalternans from the Salween drainage, Thailand.
     UF 188197, Mae Hong Son Province, live

     photo by Z. S. Randall (UF).


    The Paracanthocobitis zonalternans species complex is revised based on analysis of morphological and molecular data. Three new speciesP. nigrolineataP. marmorata, and P. triangula are described, and P. phuketensis is removed from synonymy. All species are described morphologically, geographic ranges are delimited, and relationships are discussed for those for which molecular data (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 - COI) are available. In view of the morphological similarities of some of the species, a surprising result of this study was the moderately large genetic distances among species. Uncorrected COI p-distances between geographic clades of P. zonalternans ranged from 7.6–9.3%, suggesting that the species are reproductively isolated from one another even though morphological changes are minor. Paracanthocobitis phuketensis, distributed in several rivers draining to the Gulf of Thailand and to the Andaman Sea, shows considerable intraspecific variation that should be explored in detail for historical and ecological explanations. Cobitis chlorosoma McClelland, 1839 from Assam, India, is a synonym of P. botia, not P. zonalternans.

    Keywords:  Pisces, Cypriniformes, Southeast Asia, zipper loaches, Acanthocobitis

    Paracanthocobitis zonalternans (Blyth, 1860) 
    Dwarf Zipper Loach

    Cobitis zonalternans Blyth, 1860:172. Type locality: Tenasserim provinces, Burma. Two syntypes (Day, 1869:551; Day, 1872:186), presumed lost (Hora, 1929:319). Neotype, ZSM 27468, designated by Kottelat, 1990:42, Huai Mae Charno, 4 km south Amphoe Mae Ramat on road 1085 [approximately 16.967N, 98.567E], Tak Province, Salween drainage, Thailand. 
    Nemacheilus zonalternans.—Day, 1869:551. 
    Nemachilus zonalternans.—Day, 1889:232. 
    Noemacheilus zonalternans.—Sen, 1985:119, fig. 63. 
    Acanthocobitis zonalternans.—Kottelat, 1990:13. 
    Acanthocobitis (Paracanthocobitis) zonalternans.—Grant, 2007:3.
      Paracanthocobitis zonalternans.—Singer & Page, 2015:396.

    Diagnosis. Paracanthocobitis zonalternans is distinguished from all other species of Paracanthocobitis by combination of incomplete lateral line ending near dorsal-fin insertion; 9½–10½ branched dorsal-fin rays; axillary pelvic lobe present; series of black blotches, usually without black stripe but with faint dusky stripe, along side of body, usually ending near dorsal-fin insertion; circular black spot on upper margin of caudal-fin base; black pigment extending from lateral stripe onto pectoral-fin base; no marmorated pattern anterior to dorsal-fin origin; dorsal saddles short, rarely connecting to lateral blotches; 8 (occasionally 7) branched upper caudal-fin rays. 
    Distribution.Paracanthocobitis zonalternans is known from the Salween River drainage in Thailand and Myanmar (Fig. 5).

    Paracanthocobitis phuketensis (Klausewitz, 1957)
     Phuket Zipper Loach 

     Noemacheilus phuketensis Klausewitz, 1957:195, fig. 1. Type locality: Phuket Island, Thailand. Holotype: SMF 3966. 
    Acanthocobitis phuketensis.—Bănărescu & Nalbant, 1964:160. 
    Noemacheilus (Acanthocobitis) phuketensis.—Bănărescu & Nalbant, 1968:322.

     Diagnosis. Paracanthocobitis phuketensis is distinguished from all other species of Paracanthocobitis by combination of incomplete lateral line ending near dorsal-fin insertion; 9½–10½ branched dorsal-fin rays; axillary pelvic lobe usually absent, occasionally rudimentary; series of black blotches, sometimes overlain with faint dusky stripe along side of body not obscuring lateral blotches, ending near caudal-fin; circular black spot on upper margin of caudal-fin base; black pigment not extending from black blotches along side of body onto pectoral-fin base; no marmorated pattern anterior to dorsal-fin origin; dorsal saddles longer than interspaces, frequently connecting to lateral blotches; 7–8 branched upper caudal-fin rays. 
    Distribution. Paracanthocobitis phuketensis is known from Peninsular Thailand in the Panang Tak drainage and on Phuket Island, south to the Perlis, Padang Sarai, and Ketil drainages of Peninsular Malaysia (Fig. 5).

    Paracanthocobitis nigrolineata, new species 
    Blacklined Zipper Loach

    Diagnosis.Paracanthocobitis nigrolineata is distinguished from all other species of Paracanthocobitis by combination of incomplete lateral line ending near dorsal-fin insertion; 9½–10½ branched dorsal-fin rays; axillary pelvic lobe present; black stripe along side of body, ending near caudal-fin, usually overlying black lateral blotches extending ventrally from lateral stripe; circular black spot on upper margin of caudal-fin base; black pigment extending from lateral stripe onto pectoral-fin base; no marmorated pattern anterior to dorsal-fin origin; black dorsal saddles short, not connecting to lateral blotches; 8 branched upper caudal-fin rays.

    Distribution. Paracanthocobitis nigrolineata is known from Irrawaddy and Sittang drainages of Myanmar and the Mae Khlong drainage of Thailand with a large geographic gap in-between (Fig. 5). This gap is likely due to the paucity of sampling in Myanmar.

    Etymology. The epithet nigrolineata refers to the black stripe along the side of the body.

    Paracanthocobitis triangula, new species 
    Wedged Zipper Loach

    Diagnosis. Paracanthocobitis triangula is distinguished from all other species of Paracanthocobitis by combination of incomplete lateral line ending near dorsal-fin insertion; 9½–10½ branched dorsal-fin rays; axillary pelvic lobe present; series of black blotches, sometimes overlain with faint dusky stripe along side of body not obscuring lateral blotches, ending just beyond dorsal-fin insertion; small black triangular blotch in ocellus on upper margin of caudal-fin base; black pigment of the midlateral stripe not extending onto pectoral-fin base; no marmorated pattern between dorsal saddles and lateral blotches; dorsal saddles usually extending ventrally just past faint lateral stripe, usually connecting to lateral blotches; 8 branched upper caudal-fin rays.

    Distribution.Paracanthocobitis triangula is known from the Brahmaputra (Jamuna) and Meghna drainages of Bangladesh (Fig. 5).
    Etymology. The epithet triangula refers to the usual presence of a small black triangular blotch in the ocellus on the upper margin of the caudal peduncle.

    Paracanthocobitis marmorata, new species
     Marmorated Zipper Loach

    Diagnosis.Paracanthocobitis marmorata is distinguished from all other species of Paracanthocobitis by combination of incomplete lateral line ending just beyond dorsal-fin insertion; 9½–10½ branched dorsal-fin rays; no axillary pelvic lobe; no black stripe along side of body; marmorated pattern of dark lines and blotches between irregularly shaped dorsal saddles dark blotches along side of body; teardrop-shaped black spot on upper margin of caudal-fin base; 8 branched upper caudal-fin rays.

    Distribution.Paracanthocobitis marmorata is known from the Barak drainage of Assam, India (Fig. 5).

    Etymology. The epithet marmorata refers to the marmorated pattern on the nape and between the dorsal saddles and lateral blotches in lieu of the black stripe along the side of the body typical of other members of the P. zonalternans complex.

     Randal A. Singer, John M. Pfeiffer and Lawrence M. Page. 2017. A Revision of the Paracanthocobitis zonalternans (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae) Species Complex with Descriptions of Three New Species. Zootaxa. 4324(1); 85–107.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4324.1.5

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    Atelopus subornatus  Werner, 1899


    The Neotropical toads of the genus Atelopus are among the most imperiled of all amphibians (La Marca et al. 2005; Gonzalez-Maya et al. 2013; McCaffery et al. 2015). Nowadays, at least 90% of the 93 listed species are threatened and more than 77% are Critically Endangered (McCaffery et al. 2015; IUCN 2016). Colombia has 44 described species of Atelopus (Frost 2017), two of these are categorized as extinct (EX) by the IUCN (2016): A. ignescens and A. longirostris, although they were recently re-discovered in Ecuador (Tapia et al. 2017), 34 as critical endangered (CR), four as endangered (EN), two as vulnerable (VU), one species has data deficient (DD) and another one has not been evaluated. Atelopus subornatus Werner, 1899, is an endemic Colombian harlequin toad described from 2300 to 2800 m.a.s.l in the municipalities of Sibaté (Alto de Sibaté and Agua Bonita) and Fusagasuga (above Fusagasuga and Tierra Negra), in Cundinamarca (Fig. 1A), on the western flank from Cordillera Oriental of Colombia (Werner 1899; Lynch 1986; Lötters 1989, 1992). The last record of this species was in 1993 (Lötters 2005), and it currently is listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN (2016). Herein, we report the rediscovery of A. subornatus at a new locality from Tolima, Colombia (Fig. 1A), and redescribe its tadpole. The determination of the species was based on comparisons with material deposited in the amphibian collection of the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia (ICN-UNAL) for all species of Atelopus reported from the same general area in Cundinamarca and relatively similar to A. subornatus. The specimens are housed in the Herpetological collection of the Tolima University (CZUT-A) and amphibian collection of ICN-UNAL.


    Maria Paula Enciso-Calle, Andres Viuche-Lozano, Marvin Anganoy-Criollo and Manuel Hernando Bernal. 2017. Rediscovery of Atelopus subornatus Werner, 1899 (Anura: Bufonidae), with A Redescription of the Tadpole. Zootaxa. 4344(1); 160–162. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4344.1.7

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  • 11/06/17--05:36: Takydromus albomaculosus

  • Takydromus albomaculosus
    Wang, Gong, Liu & Wang, 2017 


    Many early descriptions of species of the genus Takydromus were based on limited diagnostic characteristics. This has caused considerable challenges in accurate species identification, meaning that a number of cryptic species have been erroneously identified as known species, resulting in substantially underestimated species diversity. We have integrated evidence from morphology and DNA sequence data to describe a new species of the Asian Grass Lizard, Takydromus albomaculosus sp. nov., based on two specimens from Tianjingshan Forestry Station, Ruyuan County, Guangdong Province, China. The new species can be distinguished from other known Takydromus species by distinctive morphological differences and significant genetic divergence in the mitochondrial COI gene. Morphologically, the new species differs from the known 22 congeners in the following combination of characters: relatively large body size, SVL 70.9 mm in female, 65.5 mm in male; presence of three or four pairs of femoral pores and four pairs of chin-shields; supraoculars three, rarely four, the posterior loreal either in contact with the anteriormost supraocular or not; the presence of supraciliary granules; the presence of six rows of ventral scales, strongly keeled in the male, and smooth but with the outermost row keeled in the female; the presence of enlarged and keeled lateral scales in a row above the ventrals, but shorter than the ventrals; subdigital lamellae 23–24 under the fourth finger and 29–30 under the fourth toe; dorsal surface brown, ventral surface green, flank dark brown or brown black with several prominent white round spots; the presence of a pair of white longitudinal dorsolateral stripes and a pair of white longitudinal ventrolateral stripes. Takydromus albomaculosus sp. nov. represents the twenty-third species of this genus, of which six species occur in northern Guangdong, where the biodiversity level of Takydromus is the second highest in the world, just below that of Taiwan.

    Keywords: Reptilia, China, Lacertidae, Takydromus, morphology, mtDNA, new species, taxonomy

    FIGURE 3. Showing the main morphological features of Takydromus albomaculosus sp. nov.:
    M: male holotype SYS r 001624; F: female paratype SYS r 001296.
    a: dorsal view of head and nape; b: ventral view of head and neck; c: lateral view of head and neck; d: showing ventral scales on posterior belly and hindlimbs, femoral pores, preanal scales and subcaudals; e: dorsal head and body.

    Takydromus albomaculosus sp. nov.

    Etymology. The specific name “albomaculosus” refers to the “white round spots” on the flanks of body, which are the diagnostic features of this new species. We propose the standard English name “white spotted East Asian Grass Lizard”, and the Chinese name “Tianjingshan Cao Xi”. 

    FIGURE 4. The general aspects (in life) of six species occurring on the Chinese mainland.
    A:Takydromus albomaculosus sp. nov., Am: adult male holotype SYS r 001624; Af: adult female paratype SYS r 001292;
    B: T. sexlineatus, Bm: adult male SYS r 000127; By: subadult female SYS r 001335;
    C: T. septentrionalis, upper: adult female; lower: adult male;
    D: T. sylvaticus, adult male topotype SYS 001276;
    E: T. intermedius, Em: adult male topotype SYS r 001601; Ef: adult female topotype SYS r 001602;
    F: T. kuehnei, Fm: adult male specimen SYS r 001268; Ff: adult female specimen SYS r 001338.

     Ying-Yong Wang, Shi-Ping Gong, Peng Liu and Xin Wang. 2017. A New Species of the Genus Takydromus (Squamata: Lacertidae) from Tianjingshan Forestry Station, northern Guangdong, China.  Zootaxa. 4338(3); 441–458.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4338.3.2

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    Cirrhilabrus shutmani
    Tea & Gill, 2017  


    Cirrhilabrus shutmani, new species, is described on the basis of four specimens from Didicas Volcano, Babuyan Islands, Cagayan province, northern Philippines. The holotype and three paratypes were collected at a depth of 50–70 m, along denuded rubble slopes. The new species belong to a complex consisting of Cirrhilabrus blatteus, C. claire, C. earlei, C. jordani, C. lanceolatus, C. roseafascia, C. rubrisquamis and C. sanguineus. Aside from similar nuptial male colouration, the nine species share the following character combination: relatively short pelvic fins (not or barely reaching anal-fin origin, except for C. claire with relatively long pelvic fins); a pair of stripes on head (in both sexes); and, dorsal and anal fins without obvious stripes or spots. It differs from the other members of its group in lacking any stripes on the upper and lower body, and in having the following live colouration details: upper part of nape dusky red; dorsal and anal fin bright red with dusky markings; pelvic fins bright red, dusky anteriorly; caudal fin bright yellow basally with distal half bright red. We also present new distribution records for C. claire, C. earlei and C. lanceolatus, as well as a brief mention of a possibly new, related species from the Ogasawara Islands.

    Keywords: Pisces, ichthyology; taxonomy; Didicas Volcano; colouration

    FIGURE 3. Cirrhilabrus shutmani n. sp., male holotype, PNM 15354, 55.7 mm SL, from Didicas Volcano, Babuyan Islands, northern Philippines. Image reversed. Photo by B.P. Shutman.
    FIGURE 4. Cirrhilabrus shutmani n. sp., male, approximately 50 mm TL, from Didicas Volcano, Babuyan Islands, northern Philippines. Specimen not retained. Photo by B.P. Shutman.

    FIGURE 5. Cirrhilabrus shutmani n. sp., males,
    A) approximately 57 mm TL, B) approximately 60 mm TL, C) approximately 65 mm TL, all from Didicas Volcano, Babuyan Islands, northern Philippines.
    Specimens not retained. Photos by B.P. Shutman.

    Cirrhilabrus shutmani n. sp. 
    Magma Fairy-wrasse

    Diagnosis. Cirrhilabrus shutmani shares similar meristic counts to the other species in its complex, but differs from congeners in the following live colouration details: upper part of nape dusky red; dorsal and anal fin bright red with dusky markings; pelvic fins bright red, dusky, and unmarked; caudal fin bright yellow basally with distal half bright red.

    Etymology. Named in honour of Barnett Paul Shutman, who first provided photos as well as the type specimens of the new species (via Aquarium Iwarna, Singapore). The common name, magma fairy wrasse, alludes to its live colouration, as well as the type location of Didicas Volcano, an active volcano part of the “Pacific Ring of Fire” at the southern end of the Luzon Volcanic Arc. 

    Distribution and habitat. Cirrhilabrus shutmani is known only from the type locality, Didicas Volcano in the Babuyan Islands at the northern tip of the Philippines (Figure 6). It appears to inhabit steep slopes comprised mostly of volcanic rubble at depths ranging from 50–70 m

    FIGURE 8. Males of selected Cirrhilabrus species. All are in nuptial display except D, F and I.
    A) Cirrhilabrus shutmani n. sp., aquarium specimen from Didicas Volcano, Babuyan Islands, northern Philippines (photo by D. Laux); B) C. earlei, aquarium specimen from Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands (photo by T. lauderdale); C) C.jordani, aquarium specimen from the Hawaiian Islands (photo by Y.K. Tea); D) C. blatteus, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba (photo by J.E. Randall); E) C. roseafascia, aquarium specimen from Coral Sea, Australia (photo by Y.K. Tea); F) C. lanceolatus, aquarium specimen from Scarborough Shoal, South China Sea, western Philippines (photo by B.P. Shutman); G) C. sanguineus, aquarium specimen from Mauritius (photo by H. Tanaka); H) C. rubrisquamis, aquarium specimen from the Maldives (photo by T. Lauderdale); I) C. claire, aquarium specimen from Mo’orea, French Polynesia (photo by Y.K. Tea).

     Yi-Kai Tea and  Anthony C. Gill. 2017. Cirrhilabrus shutmani, A New Species of Fairy Wrasse from the Babuyan Islands, northern Philippines (Teleostei: Labridae). Zootaxa. 4341(1); 77–88. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4341.1.6
    The Magma Fairy Wrasse Is Now Officially Cirrhilabrus shutmani
    The Magma Fairy Wrasse, Cirrhilabrus shutmani, Just Described From Northern Philippines via @anteksiler

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    Gomphidictinus tongi 
    Zhang, Guan & Wang, 2017


    A new gomphid species, named as Gomphidictinus tongi sp. nov. (Holotype male, Mt. Diaoluoshan, altitude 930m a.s.l., Lingshui County, Hainan Province, China) is described here. It is regarded as the third species of Gomphidictinus based on the presence of the basal spine on median segment of the penis organ. Gomphidia interruptistria Zha, Zhang & Zheng, 2005 is regarded as a junior synonym of Gomphidictinus perakensis (Laidlaw, 1902), which is recorded from Yunnan, China.

    Keywords:  Odonata, dragonfly, Anisoptera, China, Yunnan, new species

     Hao-Miao Zhang, Zhao-Ying Guan and Wen-Zhi Wang. 2017. Updated Information on Genus Gomphidictinus (Odonata: Gomphidae) in China with Description of Gomphidictinus tongi sp. nov. Zootaxa.  4344(2); 321–332.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4344.2.7

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      Mansoa ventricosa A.H. Gentry

     Francisco & Lohmann, 2017


    Pachyptera ventricosa is a rare and poorly known species of liana that occurs in wet forests from the state of Pará, in Brazil. This species is characterized by features that are diagnostic of four genera within tribe Bignonieae: Mansoa, Martinella, Pachyptera, and Tanaecium. The currently recognized P. ventricosa was originally described in Mansoa, but subsequently transferred to Pachyptera based on morphological similarities. In this study, we use a combination of molecular and morphological data to evaluate the current placement of P. ventricosa. We conduct a broad scale molecular phylogenetic study based on 114 sequences of ndhF and PepC representing 112 taxa and members of all genera recognized in Bignonieae. In addition, we also conduct detailed morphological studies of selected characters. Our molecular phylogenetic study indicates that the currently recognized Pachyptera ventricosa is more closely related to members of Mansoa than to Pachyptera. New morphological data corroborates the molecular phylogenetic placement indicating that this species is indeed best placed within Mansoa. We here propose the reestablishment of Mansoa ventricosa, and show the detailed description for this species, along with new distribution information, and the first illustration for this taxon.

    Keywords: Amazonian biota, Brazilian flora, generic circumscription, Eudicots

    Inflorescence of Mansoa ventricosa.
    Photo A by Annelise F. Nunez.

    Mansoa ventricosa A.H. Gentry (1979 [1980]: 783). 
    Pachyptera ventricosa (A.H. Gentry) L.G. Lohmann (2014: 456) 

    Type:— BRAZIL. Pará: Along the Belém-Brasilia highway, km 345, 9 August 1956, B. Maguire et al. 56083 (holotype, MO-2232816!; isotypes, COL-110166 not seen, MG-136673, NY-328882!, US-3189002 image!).

    Pollination:— The corolla morphology is classified as a variant of the Martinella type (Gentry 1974), and is likely associated with bat pollination (Alcantara & Lohmann 2010, Machado & Vogel 2004). This species shares tricolpate coarse reticulate pollen grains with Martinella obovata (Gentry & Tomb 1979) suggesting convergent evolution of pollen type. Such convergence has also been observed in other floral traits such as the purple colored flower, thick corolla texture, open mouth, and subexserted anthers. 

    Distribution and habitat:— Mansoa ventricosa is endemic to Northeastern Brazil (Maranhão, Pará), where it occurs in wet evergreen forests (Figure 5). Prior to this work, this species was only known from the holotype collected in the Brazilian state of Pará, a paratype collected in the Brazilian state of Maranhão (G.T. Prance 58978; UB and NY), and one collection from 1980 (D.C. Daly 774; MG, MO, and NY). Two additional specimens were collected during our fieldwork in Pará, (Brazil), expanding the distribution of this species to Santarém and Belterra.

    Taxonomic notes:— Mansoa ventricosa is easily recognized by a combination of cylindrical and striated branchlets with “V” shaped interpetiolar clusters of glands, subulate prophylls of the axillary buds, and leaflets with nectaries grouped at the base of the abaxial surface. Reproductive characters that can help in its identification are the thyrsoid inflorescences, calyx with patelliform glands clustered next to the margin, corolla campanulate, with tube light purple, densely puberulous outside, with patelliform glands at the upper portion of the apex tube, androecium subexserted with yellow anthers, and exserted gynoecium. 

    Jessica Nayara Carvalho Francisco and Lucia G Lohmann. 2017.  Reestablishment of Mansoa ventricosa (Bignonieae, Bignoniaceae) Based on Molecular and Morphological Data. Phytotaxa. 327(2); 141–156. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.327.2.3

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    the Purbeck lagoon at dusk with Durlstodon gen. nov. (left foreground), Durlstotherium gen. nov. (right and center foreground) and the theropod Nuthetes holding a captured Durlstotherium (centre middle distance). 

    A. Durlstotherium newmani gen. et sp. nov., NHMUK PV M 99991.
    B. Durlstodon ensomi gen. et sp. nov.
    , NHMUK PV M 99992.

    Artwork by Mark Witton. @MarkWitton 

    Eutherian mammals (Placentalia and all mammals phylogenetically closer to placentals than to marsupials) comprise the vast majority of extant Mammalia. Among these there is a phenomenal range of forms and sizes, but the origins of crown group placentals are obscure. They lie within the generally tiny mammals of the Mesozoic, represented for the most part by isolated teeth and jaws, and there is strongly conflicting evidence from phenomic and molecular data as to the date of origin of both Eutheria and Placentalia. The oldest purported eutherians are Juramaia from the Upper Jurassic of China, and Eomaia and Acristatherium from the Lower Cretaceous, also of China. Based on dental characters and analyses of other morphological and molecular data, doubt has recently been cast on the eutherian affinities of the Chinese taxa and consequently on the date of emergence of Eutheria. Until now, the only tribosphenic mammal recorded from the earliest Cretaceous (Berriasian) Purbeck Group of Britain was the stem tribosphenidan Tribactonodon. Here we document two new tribosphenic mammals from the Purbeck Group,Durlstotherium gen. nov. and Durlstodon gen. nov., showing highly derived eutherian molar characters that support the early emergence of this clade, prior to the Cretaceous.

    Key words: Mammalia, Eutheria, dentition, Early Cretaceous, Purbeck Group, Britain.

    Fig. 5. Normal light photographs of studied specimens of eutherian mammal teeth from the Berriasian Purbeck Group of Dorset, southern England; in mesial (A1, B1), distal (A2, B2), lingual (A3, B3), and labial (A4, B4) views.
     A. Durlstotherium newmani gen. et sp. nov., NHMUK PV M 99991. B. Durlstodon ensomi gen. et sp. nov., NHMUK PV M 99992.

    Systematic palaeontology
    Class Mammalia Linnaeus, 1758
    Subclass Tribosphenida McKenna, 1975
    Infraclass Eutheria Gill, 1872
    Order and Family incertae sedis

    Genus Durlstotherium nov.

    Type species: Durlstotherium newmani sp. nov., monotypic, see below.

    Etymology: In reference to Durlston Bay, Dorset, UK, the locality from where the holotype and only specimen was obtained; and from Greek, therion, beast; a commonly used suffix in the names of mammals.; In honour of Charlie Newman, recognising his intimate local knowledge, willingly shared, and his help in the field.

    Genus Durlstodon nov. 
    Type species: Durlstodon ensomi sp. nov., monotypic, see below.

    Etymology: In reference to Durlston Bay, Dorset, UK, the locality from where the holotype and only specimen was obtained; and from Greek, odontos, tooth.; In honour of Paul Ensom, recognising his major contribution to Purbeck palaeontology.

    Fig. 7. Artist’s impression of the Purbeck lagoon at dusk with Durlstodon gen. nov. (left foreground), Durlstotherium gen. nov. (right and center foreground) and the theropod Nuthetes holding a captured Durlstotherium (centre middle distance).

    Artwork by Mark Witton. @MarkWitton

    Steven C. Sweetman, Grant Smith and David M. Martill. 2017. Highly Derived Eutherian Mammals from the earliest Cretaceous of southern Britain. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. in press. DOI: 10.4202/app.00408.2017

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    Ia io peninsulata  
    Soisook, Sribuarod, Karapan, Safoowong, Billasoy, Thong, Chang, Gong, Lin, Sztencel-Jabłonka, Bogdanowicz & Bates, 2017  

    ค้างคาวอีอาอีโอถิ่นใต้ |  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4344.3.8 


    The Great evening bat Ia io Thomas, 1902, previously considered as an endemic to the Indochinese subregion, is reported from the Sundaic subregion for the first time based on specimens collected from three localities in Surat Thani Province and Phang Nga Province, peninsular Thailand. It is described herein as a new subspecies based on its substantially larger body and skull size. The mitochondrial COI and cytochrome b genes reveal that the new subspecies has a genetic distance of 1.89% and 1.65%, respectively, from the nominate subspecies. Echolocation calls comprise four harmonics, with the maximum energy in the first harmonic (fmaxe) of 23.6–27.4 kHz. Notes on the population size as well as roosting and foraging behaviour are also provided.

     Keywords:  Mammalia, new subspecies, peninsular Thailand, Southeast Asia, taxonomy, zoogeography

    Pipat Soisook, Kriangsak Sribuarod, Sunate Karapan, Mongkol Safoowong, Sawwalak. Billasoy, Vu Dinh Thong, Yang Chang, Lixin Gong, Aiqing Lin , Anna Sztencel-Jabłonka, Wiesław Bogdanowicz and Paul J. J. Bates. 2017. The First Record of Ia ioThomas, 1902 (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from the Sundaic Subregion, with A Description of A New Subspecies from peninsular Thailand. Zootaxa. 4344(3); 573–588. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4344.3.8

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     Grotto Salamanders, Eurycea spelaea (Stejneger, 1892)

    The transition from carnivory to omnivory is poorly understood. The ability to feed at more than one trophic level theoretically increases an animal’s fitness in a novel environment. Because of the absence of light and photosynthesis, most subterranean ecosystems are characterized by very few trophic levels, such that food scarcity is a challenge in many subterranean habitats. One strategy against starvation is to expand diet breadth. Grotto Salamanders (Eurycea spelaea (Stejneger, 1892)) are known to ingest bat guano deliberately, challenging the general understanding that salamanders are strictly carnivorous. Here we tested the hypothesis that grotto salamanders have broadened their diet related to cave adaptation and found that, although coprophagous behavior is present, salamanders are unable to acquire sufficient nutrition from bat guano alone. Our results suggest that the coprophagic behavior has emerged prior to physiological or gut biome adaptations.

    Keywords: Guano feeding, salamander, evolution, physiology, behavior

    Figure 1. Eurycea spelaea showing troglobitic characters, lack of pigmentation and microphthalmy. Scale bar: 0.5 cm.

     Daphne Soares, Rachel Adams, Shea Hammond, Michael E. Slay, Danté B. Fenolio and Matthew L. Niemiller. 2017. Evolution of Coprophagy and Nutrient Absorption in A Cave Salamander.  Subterranean Biology. 24; 1-9.  DOI: 10.3897/subtbiol.24.15013

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     Parupeneus jansenii (Bleeker, 1856)
     Parupeneus heptacanthus (Lacepède, 1802)


    For Jansen’s goatfish, Parupeneus jansenii (Mullidae), taxonomic knowledge has been rather poor and occurrence information restricted to a few localities only, with verified records from northern Sulawesi and Sunda Street (Indonesia), and Luzon (Philippines). This species is here included in the so-called “heptacanthus” group together with the Indo-Pacific cinnabar goatfish, P. heptacanthus, and five Indian Ocean congenerics, based on an evenly, symmetrically rounded posterior maxilla margin and similarities in meristic characters and preserved colour. In total 29 P. jansenii and 53 P. heptacanthus consisting of types, recently collected material from south-central Vietnam, southern Indonesia, and NE Australia, and geographically related reference material were studied along with single types of the other five heptacanthus-group species and P. angulatus, a morphologically similar Western Indian Ocean species. In total 62 quantitative meristic and morphometric characters including standard length (SL) were analysed after splitting the data into two size classes (small-sized fish, < 110 mm SL, vs. large-sized fish  > 110 mm SL) to account for size-related differences due to allometry. Diagnoses for P. jansenii and P. heptacanthus and a redescription for P. jansenii were prepared. Fresh-fish colour descriptions for both large- and small-sized voucher specimens of P. jansenii are provided and the effects of freshness status on colour patterns is documented. New records for P. jansenii for Vietnam, southern Indonesia and NE Australia (= first verified record for Australia) are reported and depth information (24–100 m depth range) is given for the first time. P. jansenii differs from the co-occurring P. heptacanthus - independently of size - in shallower body and caudal peduncle, smaller maximum head depth, shorter barbels, caudal and pelvic fins, shallower first dorsal fin, shallower first ray of second dorsal fin, and lack of small dark red or reddish-brown spot on or just below the eighth lateral-line scale. The populations of P. jansenii from Vietnam and Australia differ from each other in a single character, the height of the eighth dorsal-fin ray, but both overlap with the intermediate population from Indonesia. This comprehensive alpha-taxonomic approach provides a useful tool for uncovering the diversity of Parupeneus goatfishes.

    Keywords: Pisces, heptacanthus species group, NE Australia, southern Indonesia, south-central Vietnam, morphometric characters, intraspecific variation, colour patterns

    FIGURE 3. Parupeneus jansenii (left side) and P. heptacanthus (right side).
     (A) VNMN-I 4, 159 mm SL, Hon Ro landing site, Nha Trang City, Vietnam (Franz Uiblein); (B) VNMN-I 51, 135 mm SL, Binh Tan fish market, Nha Trang City, Vietnam (Tuan Anh Hoang); (C) CSIRO H 5972-19, 146 mm SL, Kedonganan, Jimbaran Bay (S coast of Bali), Indonesia (William T. White); (D) CSIRO H 8154-01, 81 mm SL, NE of Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia (Daniel C. Gledhill);
    (EF) VNMN-I 49, 170 mm SL, Binh Tan fish market, Nha Trang, Vietnam (Tuan Anh Hoang); (G) CSIRO H 5972-17, 150 mm SL, Kedonganan, Jimbaran Bay (S coast of Bali), Indonesia (William T. White); (H) CSIRO H 7379-07, 122 mm SL, NE of Cairns, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia (Daniel C. Gledhill).

    Genus Parupeneus Bleeker, 1863

    Parupeneus jansenii (Bleeker, 1856)
    Jansen’s goatfish 

    Upeneus jansenii Bleeker, 1856 (type locality Manado, Sulawesi).
    Parupeneus jansenii: Bleeker 1875; Randall 2004; Allen & Erdmann 2012

    Description. Morphometric data as ratios of SL for large-sized fish, data for small-sized fish (including syntypes) in squared brackets: body elongated, its depth at first dorsal-fin origin 3.8–4.3 [3.9–4.5]; body depth at anal-fin origin 4.8–5.3 [4.8–5.4]; caudal peduncle depth 11–12 [11–13], subequal to interorbital length (10—12 [10–12]); maximum head depth 4.1–4.5 [4.2–4.9], subequal to barbel length (4.0–4.6 [3.9–4.6]); head depth through eye 4.7–5.2 [4.9–5.6]; head length 2.9–3.2 [3.0–3.2], larger than maximum depth of body and caudal-fin length (3.7–4.0 [3.5–4.0]); snout length 6.2–7.0 [6.6–8.0], shorter than postorbital length (8.0–9.4 [7.5–8.9]) in large-sized fish; orbit length 13–18 [13–15]; anal-fin height 7.2–8.4 [7.0–8.1]; second dorsal-fin height 7.3–9.3 [7.0–8.8]; pectoral-fin length 4.0–4.7 [4.3–4.6], subequal to barbel length and subequal to pelvic-fin length (4.6– 5.0 [4.3–4.9]) in small-sized fish.

    Distribution, depth range, and size. Parupeneus jansenii occurs in the Western Pacific and Eastern Indian Ocean in the area ranging from south-central Vietnam and northern Philippines to southwestern Indonesia and NE Australia, with verified records from Nha Trang Bay (this study), Luzon (Randall 2004), northern Sulawesi (type locality Manado), Sunda Strait off southern Sumatra (Randall 2004), southern Bali and southern Lombok (this study), and Torres Strait to Great Barrier Reef (this study). Depth range is 24–100 m, maximum size is 159 mm SL.

    Parupeneus heptacanthus (Lacepède, 1802)
    Cinnabar goatfish

    Sciaena heptacantha Lacepède, 1802 (type locality not given)
    Upeneus cinnabarinus Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829
    Upeneus pleurospilos Bleeker, 1853 (type locality Ambon, Moluccas, Indonesia)
    Parupeneus heptacanthus Kim & Amaoka 2001, Randall 2004, Randall & Heemstra 2009, Allen & Erdman 2012

    Franz Uiblein,Tuan Anh Hoang and Daniel Gledhill. 2017. Redescription and New Records of Jansen’s Goatfish, Parupeneus jansenii (Mullidae), from the Western Pacific and Eastern Indian Ocean. Zootaxa. 4344(3); 541–559.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4344.3.6

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    Spinosaurid cranial remains from Brazil.
    Sales & Schultz, 2017 


    Fossil sites from Brazil have yielded specimens of spinosaurid theropods, among which the most informative include the cranial remains of IrritatorAngaturama, and Oxalaia. In this work some of their craniodental features are reinterpreted, providing new data for taxonomic and evolutionary issues concerning this particular clade of dinosaurs. The mesial-most tooth of the left maxilla of the holotype of Irritator is regarded as representing the third tooth position, which is also preserved in the holotype of Angaturama. Thus, both specimens cannot belong to the same individual, contrary to previous assumptions, although they could have been the same taxon. In addition, the position of the external nares of Irritator is more comparable to those of Baryonyx and Suchomimus instead of other spinosaurine spinosaurids. In fact, with regards to some craniodental features, Brazilian taxa represent intermediate conditions between Baryonychinae and Spinosaurinae. Such a scenario is corroborated by our cladistic results, which also leave open the possibility of the former subfamily being non-monophyletic. Furthermore, the differences between spinosaurids regarding the position and size of the external nares might be related to distinct feeding habits and degrees of reliance on olfaction. Other issues concerning the evolution and taxonomy of Spinosauridae require descriptions of additional material for their clarification.

    Fig 1. Map of northeastern Brazil showing the location of the Araripe and São Luís-Grajaú basins. The (likely) provenance of the holotypes of local spinosaurid taxa is indicated. Modified from Bittencourt and Lange. 

    Fig 2. Specimen SMNS 58022, holotype of Irritator challengeri.
    A, Left lateral view. B, Right lateral view. The abbreviation for the third tooth of the left maxilla follows Hendrickx et al. [2015].

     Additional abbreviations: ao.f, antorbital fenestra; c.c, crista cranii; e.n, external naris; m, maxilla; m.r, mandibular ramus; n, nasal; n.c, nasal sagittal crest; n.p, nasal process; o, orbit; pm, premaxilla; s, stapes.

    Fig 11. Spinosaurid cranial remains from Brazil.
     A, Reconstruction of specimen SMNS 58022, the holotype of Irritator challengeri. B, Specimen USP GP/2T-5, the holotype of Angaturama limai. C, Specimen MN 6117-V, the holotype of Oxalaia quilombensis.

    The fragmentary maxilla (MN 6119-V) tentatively referred to O. quilombensis was not included. A is modified from Sues et al. [2002].

    Final remarks
    Spinosaurid dinosaurs have been surrounded by an enigmatic atmosphere due to their bizarre anatomy and morphology as well as the fragmentary nature of most collected specimens. The tragic loss of the holotype of Spinosaurus aegyptiacus also contributed to this condition. Despite being incomplete, spinosaurid cranial remains from Brazil are informative in multiple ways and help fill in some gaps in the knowledge on these theropods. The reinterpretation of certain craniodental features supports, for example, the distinction between Irritator and Angaturama at least at the individual level, and our cladistic results indicate the latter taxon and Oxalaia as successive outgroups of MSNM V4047. In addition, the evolution of spinosaurid craniodental features is likely related to different trends towards semiaquatic and/or piscivorous habits. These trends might have had a major impact on the position and size of the external nares, suggesting the reduction of the importance of olfaction in relation to other senses during foraging. However, other issues remain more disputable, such as the possible non-monophyly of Baryonychinae, the possible synonymy between the Araripe spinosaurids, and the sequence of morphological changes during the evolutionary history of Spinosauridae. Further study is needed to address these issues, including the formal description of additional cranial and postcranial remains. In this sense, although African materials are usually the focus of most investigations, Brazilian specimens play an important role in discussions concerning the evolution and paleobiology of Spinosauridae. This statement is clearly corroborated by new findings of these dinosaurs in understudied fossil sites.

    Marcos A. F. Sales and Cesar L. Schultz. 2017. Spinosaur Taxonomy and Evolution of Craniodental Features: Evidence from Brazil. PLoS ONE. 12(11); e0187070. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0187070

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    Phrynopus inti 
    Lehr, von May, Moravec & Cusi, 2017

    We describe a new species of Phrynopus from the upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands (puna) of the Pui Pui Protected Forest and its close surroundings (Región Junín, central Peru) and compare it morphologically and genetically with other species of Phrynopus.
    Phrynopus inti sp. n. is known from four localities outside and two localities inside the Pui Pui Protected Forest between 3350 and 3890 m a.s.l. Studied specimens of the new species are characterized by a snout-vent length of 27.2–35.2 mm in males (n = 6), and 40.4 mm in a single female, by having the skin on dorsum and flanks smooth with scattered tubercles, venter smooth, by lacking a tympanum, and males without vocal slits and nuptial pads. In life, the dorsum is pale grayish brown with or without dark brown blotches, or dorsum blackish brown with small yellow flecks, throat, chest and venter are pale grayish brown with salmon mottling, groin is pale grayish brown with salmon colored flecks, and the iris is golden orange with fine dark brown reticulations. The new species is morphologically most similar to Phrynopus kauneorum and P. juninensis. For the latter we describe the coloration in life for a specimen obtained at the type locality. A molecular phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences inferred that the new species is most closely related to Phrynopus kauneorumPmiroslawaeP. tautzorum, and an undescribed species distributed at high elevation in Región Pasco, central Peru.

    Keywords: Andes, montane forest, puna, frogs, DNA barcoding, molecular phylogeny, Phrynopus inti, new species

    Phrynopus inti sp. n.
     Phrynopus sp. A in Lehr, von May, Moravec, & Cusi (2017)

    Common name: English: Inti Andes Frog. Spanish: Rana Andina Inti.

    Diagnosis: A species of Phrynopus having the following combination of characters: (1) Skin on dorsum and flanks shagreen with scattered, low tubercles, more dense on dorsum; skin on venter smooth; discoidal fold absent, thoracic fold present; prominent supratympanic fold; dorsolateral folds absent; (2) tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus absent; (3) snout rounded in dorsal and lateral views; (4) upper eyelid without enlarged tubercles; width of upper eyelid narrower than IOD; cranial crests absent; (5) dentigerous processes of vomers minute or absent; (6) vocal slits and nuptial pads absent; (7) Finger I shorter than Finger II; tips of digits bulbous, rounded; (8) fingers without lateral fringes; (9) ulnar and tarsal tubercles absent; (10) heel without tubercles; inner tarsal fold absent; (11) inner metatarsal tubercle rounded, about three times as large as ovoid outer metatarsal tubercle; supernumerary plantar tubercles absent; (12) toes without lateral fringes; basal webbing absent; Toe V slightly longer than Toe III; toe tips bulbous, rounded, about as large as those on fingers; (13) in life, dorsum pale grayish brown with or without dark brown blotches or blackish brown with small yellow flecks; throat, chest and venter pale grayish brown with salmon mottling, groin pale grayish brown with salmon colored flecks; iris golden orange with fine dark brown reticulations; (14) SVL 27.2–35.2 mm in males (n = 6), and 40.4 mm in single female.

    Etymology: The species epithet inti is derived from the Quechuan noun “Inti”, the Incan sun god. The golden-orange iris reminds us of the sun.

    Distribution, natural history, and threat status: Phrynopus inti sp. n. is known from four localities outside and two localities inside the Pui Pui Protected Forest between 3350 and 3890 m a.s.l., covering an estimated area of 101.3 (Figs 1, 2).

    Figure 4. Phrynopus inti sp. n. (A, B holotype, MUSM 31183, male, SVL 32.5 mm),
      P. juninensis (C, D MUSM 33258, female, SVL 33.0 mm),
    P. kauneorum
    (E, F holotype, MUSM 20459, female, SVL 29.1 mm) in dorsolateral and ventral views.
    Photos by E. Lehr and R. von May (C, D).

    Figure 5. Life male holotype (MUSM 31183, SVL 32.5 mm) of Phrynopusinti sp. n. in
     dorsolateral view (A), dorsal view (B), flanks, groin, anterior surfaces of thighs (C), and ventral view (D).
    Photos by E. Lehr.

    Figure 10. Type locality and habitats ofPhrynopus inti sp. n. Satipo-Toldopampa Road at km 134 on left side of street coming from Satipo, 3350 m a.s.l., 23 June 2013
    (A); Quebrada Toldopampa, 3670 m a.s.l., 22 June 2013 (B); Type locality, Quebrada Tasta, 3609 m a.s.l., 20 May 2012 (C); Antuyo, PPPF, 3700 m a.s.l., 27 June 2013 (D); Laguna Sinchon, PPPF, 3890 m a.s.l., 29 June 2013 (E).
    Photos by E. Lehr.

     Edgar Lehr, Rudolf von May, Jiri Moravec and Juan Carlos Cusi. 2017. A New Species of Phrynopus (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from upper Montane Forests and High Andean Grasslands of the Pui Pui Protected Forest in central Peru. ZooKeys. 713: 131-157.  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.713.20776

    Resumen: Describimos una nueva especie de Phrynopus de los bosques montanos altos y los pajonales altoandinos (Puna) del Bosque de Protección Pui Pui y sus áreas cercanas (Región de Junín, Perú central) y la comparamos morfológica y genéticamente con otras especies de PhrynopusPhrynopus inti sp. n. es conocido de cuatro localidades fuera y dos localidades dentro del Bosque de Protección Pui Pui entre 3350 y 3890 m s.n.m. La nueva especie se caracteriza por tener una longitud hocico-cloaca de 27.2–35.2 mm en machos (n = 6) y 40.4 mm en una hembra, por tener la piel dorsal y los flancos lisos con tubérculos dispersos, el vientre liso, por carecer de un tímpano, y los machos carecer de hendiduras vocales y almohadillas nupciales. En vida, el dorso es marrón grisáceo pálido con o sin manchas marrón oscuro o el dorso es marrón oscuro con pequeñas manchas amarillas; la garganta, pecho y vientre son marrón grisáceo pálido con motas de color salmón, la ingle es marrón grisácea con manchas de color salmón y el iris es dorado naranja con finas reticulaciones marrón oscuro. La nueva especie es morfológicamente muy similar a Phrynopus kauneorum y P. juninensis. Para este último, describimos la coloración en vida de un espécimen obtenido en la localidad tipo. Un análisis filogenético molecular basado en secuencias de ADN mitocondrial y nuclear infirió que la nueva especie está más estrechamente relacionada con Phrynopus kauneorumP. miroslawaeP. tautzorum, y una especie no descrita distribuida en zonas altoandinas de la Región Pasco, Perú central.

    Palabras claves: Andes, bosque montano, puna, ranas, códigos de barras de ADN, filogenia molecular, Phrynopus inti, especie nueva

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     Oides epipleuralis  Laboissière, 1929

     Lee & Beenen. 2017 


    Forty species of the genus Oides Weber, 1801 are considered as valid in the Palaearctic and Oriental regions. Six new species are described: Oides bezdeki sp. nov., O. hsui sp. nov.O. takizawai sp. nov., and O. wangi sp. nov. from Sulawesi (Indonesia); O. boreri sp. nov. from Laos; and O. geiseri sp. nov. from India, Nepal, and Myanmar. The following synonymies are proposed: O. maculicollis Jacoby, 1886 as a junior synonym of O. apicalis Jacoby, 1883; O. niasensis Bowditch, 1925 as a junior synonym of O. duodecimpunctata (Clark, 1865); A. sumatrensis Blanchard, 1853, A. philippinensis Boheman, 1859, O. flavipes Duvivier, 1884, O. abdominalis Duvivier, 1884, O. subtilissima Duvivier, 1884, Oflavida Duvivier, 1884, O. elliptica Duvivier, 1884, Omarcida Duvivier, 1884, Orhabodscelis Weise, 1922, Obakeri Laboissière, 1925, and Oovalis Laboissière, 1925 as junior synonyms of O. flava (Olivier, 1807); Obengalensis Maulik, 1936 as a junior synonym of Oinnocua Gahan, 1891; O. violaceipennis Duvivier, 1884 as a junior synonym of Ometallica Jacoby, 1884; Oindosinensis Laboissière, 1927 as a junior synonym of O. palleata (Fabricius, 1801); O. sternalis Weise, 1913 as a junior synonym of O. quadriguttata Duvivier, 1884; O. gyironga Chen & Jaing, 1981 as a junior synonym of O. scutellata (Hope, 1830); O. indica Baly, 1879 and O. chinensis Weise, 1922 as junior synonyms of O. tarsata (Baly, 1865); Otibialis Duvivier, 1884 as a junior synonym of O. vixilla Duvivier, 1884. Oides epipleuralis Laboissière is removed from synonymy with O. laticlava (Fairmaire, 1889); O. laticlava (Fairmaire, 1889) removed from synonymy with O. maculata (Olivier, 1807); O. thibettana Jacoby, 1900 and O. tibiella Wilcox, 1971 removed from synonymies with O. tarsata (Baly, 1865). Neotypes are designated for Adorium maculatum Olivier, 1807; A. subhemisphaericum Guérin-Méneville, 1830; A. diardi Guérin-Méneville, 1830; O. chinensis Weise, 1922; and O. leucomelaena Weise, 1922. Host plant information is provided when known.

    Keywords: Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae

    Chi-Feng Lee and Ron Beenen. 2017. Revision of the Palaearctic and Oriental Species of the Genus Oides Weber, 1801 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae). Zootaxa.  4346(1); 1-125.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4346.1.1

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    Fejervarya muangkanensis 
    Suwannapoom, Yuan, Jiang, Yan, Gao & Che, 2017

    Kanchanaburi Rain-Pool Frog  | 


    We describe a new species, Fejervarya muangkanensis sp. nov., based on a series of specimens collected from Ban Tha Khanun, Thong Pha Phum District, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. The new species is easily distinguished from its congeners by morphological and molecular data, and can be diagnosed by the following characters: (1) small size (adult male snout-vent length (SVL) 33.5 mm; female SVL 40.0–40.9 mm); (2) tympanum small, discernible but unclear; (3) poorly developed toe webbing; (4) no lateral line system in adults; (5) characteristic “Fejervaryan” lines present in females; and (6) femoral glands absent. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial 16S rRNA further supports it as a distinct lineage and distinguishes it from its congeners for which sequences are available.

    Keywords: Fejervarya muangkanensis sp. nov., Kanchanaburi, Thailand

    Figure 3: Dorsolateral view of female paratype KIZ 024678 of Fejervarya muangkanensis sp. nov. in life
     (photo by Chatmongkon Suwannapoom)

    Fejervarya muangkanensis 

    Etymology: The specific epithet muangkanensis is derived from the common name of the Kanchanaburi province, Thailand. 
    Suggested common names:  Kanchanaburi Rain-Pool Frog. 

    Ecology: The species is found in small swamps in secondary forests at elevations between 700–900 m a.s.l. Advertisement calls of the males can be heard in small ponds from July to September in Thong Pha Phum, Kanchanaburi Province. Calling males are usually observed within or beside the swamp (Figure 6). 

    Distribution: This species is currently known only from Thong Pha Phum, Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand (Figure 1). 

    Although our discovery of F. muangkanensis increases the total number of Fejervarya species of Thailand to nine (Suwannapoom et al., 2016), the diversity of this group may still be underestimated. For example, previous molecular studies have identified several distinct lineages diverged from closely related, recognized species, including Fejervarya sp. hp3 from Pilok, Thailand, and Fejervarya sp. hp2 from Bangkok, Thailand (Kotaki et al., 2010). Future studies should examine morphological characteristics of specimens from these regions in detail to confirm their taxonomic identities. Moreover, as many areas of Thailand are still poorly or never surveyed for amphibian diversity, especially in southern Thailand, unrecognized diversity of the genus could still exist. Closer inspections of previously collected congeners from these regions are necessary to better understand amphibian diversity in Thailand, which could help to manage and conserve this unique diversity effectively. 

    Chatmongkon Suwannapoom, Zhi-Yong Yuan, Ke Jiang, Fang Yan, Wei Gao and Jing Che. 2017. A New Species of Rain-Pool Frog (Dicroglossidae: Fejervarya) from western Thailand. Zoological Research.    DOI:  10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.043

    Scientists discover a new species of rain-pool frog, Fejervarya muangkanensis sp. nov., from western Thailand

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    Semiaquilegia quelpaertensis D.C. Son & K. Lee

    Son, Jeong, Lee, Kim & Chang, 2017  

    Semiaquilegia quelpaertensis sp. nov.a new species belonging to the family Ranunculaceae, from Hallasan National Park in Jeju-do, Republic of Korea, is described and illustrated. The new species is similar to Semiaquilegia adoxoides (DC.) Makino, but can be readily distinguished by a thick underground stem, shallowly lobed leaflets, larger flowers, (4–)6 staminodes and conspicuously rugose tuberculate seed surface.

    Keywords: Ranunculaceae, Isopyroideae, Hallasan National Park, Eudicots

    Figure 1. Semiaquilegia quelpaertensis D.C. Son & K. Lee, illustrations.
    A Habit B Flower (lateral view) B’ Flower (top view) C Flower with sepals cut away to show petals D Sepals E Flower with some sepals and petals removed, showing stamens and styles F Petals G Flower with sepals, petals and some stamens removed, showing stamens, staminodes and pistils H Stamens I Staminodes J Pistils (after fertilisation) K Inflorescence in fruiting L Follicles (immature) L’ Dehisced follicles, showing seed M Seed N Inflorescence O Petiole P Leaflet (abaxial surface).
     Illustrations by Heesoo Kim.

     Semiaquilegia quelpaertensis D.C. Son & K. Lee; Flowering plant

     Photographs by Kang-Hyup Lee.

    Semiaquilegia quelpaertensis D.C. Son & K. Lee, sp. nov.

    Diagnosis:  Semiaquilegia quelpaertensis is most similar to S. adoxoides in general vegetative and floral morphology, but obviously differs from the latter by the shallowly lobed leaflets, larger flowers, (4–)6 staminodes and conspicuously rugose tuberculate seed surface.

    Figure 2. Semiaquilegia quelpaertensis D.C. Son & K. Lee.
     A Flowering plant B Fruiting plant C Seeds.
    Photographs by Kang-Hyup Lee.

    Distribution: Endemic to the Province Jeju-do (Republic of Korea).

    Vernacular (Korean) name: Keun-gae-gu-ri-bal-top (큰개구리발톱; new Korean name).

    Habitat and ecology: Semiaquilegia quelpaertensis grows in submontane broadleaf forests and in moist valleys at 800–850 m elevation. Its habitat is dominated by Styrax obassis Siebold & Zucc. (Styracaceae), with Dryopteris dickinsii (Franch. & Sav.) C. Chr. (Dryopteridaceae), Elatostema umbellatum (Siebold & Zucc.) Blume (Urticaceae), Pimpinella hallaisanensis (W. Lee & G. Jang) G. Jang, W.K. Paik & W. Lee (Apiaceae), Cardamine tanakae Franch. & Sav. (Brassicaceae), Peracarpa carnosa var. circaeoides (F. Schmidt ex Miq.) Makino (Campanulaceae), Viola boissieuana Makino (Violaceae) and Anemone stolonifera Maxim. (Ranunculaceae).

    Etymology: The specific epithet of the new species is derived from the type locality, Jeju-do, Republic of Korea.

     Dong Chan Son, Keum Seon Jeong, Kang-Hyup Lee, Heesoo Kim and Kae Sun Chang. 2017. Semiaquilegia quelpaertensis (Ranunculaceae), A New Species from the Republic of Korea. PhytoKeys. 89; 107-113.  DOI:  10.3897/phytokeys.89.21004

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    Megophrys rubrimera
    Tapley,Cutajar,Mahony,Nguyen, Dau,Nguyen,Luong & Rowley, 2017

    Red-thighed Horned Frog || DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4344.3.3 


    The Asian frog genus Megophrys is a diverse group of morphologically conserved, forest-dwelling frogs. The genus harbours highly localised species diversification and new species continue to be described on a regular basis. We examined the taxonomic status of a population of Megophrys frogs from the Hoang Lien Range in northern Vietnam and southern China previously identified as M. kuatunensis (subgenus Panophrys). Preliminary phylogenetic analyses using a fragment of 16S rDNA places the species in question within the Megophrys (subgenus Panophrys) species group, a primarily Chinese radiation within the genus. On the basis of morphological, molecular and bioacoustic data, we conclude that this population does not represent M. kuatunensis, or any known species in the genus. We herein describe this species of Megophrys as new. Known only from Sa Pa District, Lao Cai Province in Vietnam and Jinping County, Yunnan Province in China, the new species is likely to be threatened by ongoing deforestation in the region. We provide an updated species description of Mkuatunensis based on type specimens, and suggest that M. kuatunensis is likely to be restricted to eastern China.

    Keywords: Amphibia, Bioacoustics, cryptic species, Hoang Lien, Megophrys rubrimera sp. nov., Southeast Asia, tadpole

    Benjamin Tapley,Timothy Cutajar,Stephen Mahony,Chung Thanh Nguyen, Vinh Quang Dau,Tao Thien Nguyen,Hao Van Luong and Jodi J. L. Rowley. 2017.  The Vietnamese Population of Megophrys kuatunensis (Amphibia: Megophryidae) Represents A New Species of Asian Horned Frog from Vietnam and southern China. Zootaxa. 4344(3); 465–492.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4344.3.3

    Finding frogs: New species of horned frog discovered from Vietnam and China

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     Nudiantennarius subteres (Smith and Radcliffe, in Radcliffe, 1912)

    Pietsch & Arnold, 2017. 
    The “Lembeh Frogfish” or “Ocellated Frogfish,” a distinct antennariid, known for many years, especially among members of the dive community, and suggested by some to represent an undescribed species, is identified as Nudiantennarius subteres (Smith and Radcliffe). Unique in several ways—including reduced dermal spinules, the body appearing naked; illicium short, about half the length of the second dorsal-fin spine; second dorsal-fin spine unusually long and narrow, without a posterior membrane; pectoral lobe narrow, somewhat detached from the body; membranes between the rays of the paired fins deeply incised; and all pelvic-fin rays simple—the species is redescribed and figured below. Morphological and molecular analyses indicate a close relationship with the Sargassumfish, Histrio histrio.

     Nudiantennarius subteres, uncollected specimens:
     (A) Pantar Island, Alor Archipelago, Indonesia, 29 November 2006 (© 2006 David Hall); (B) Secret Bay, Anilao, Philippines, 18 April 2009 (photo by Stephane Bailliez); (C) Dauin, Negros Island, Philippines, 29 April 2015 (photo by Daniel Geary); (D) Ambon, Indonesia, 28 October 2015 (photo by Linda Ianniello); (E) hypothesized mated pair, male on the left, female on the right; Seraya Bay, northeast Bali, Indonesia, 1 November 2012 (photo by Vincent Chalias); (F) Secret Bay, Anilao, Philippines, ca. 2 m depth, 19 April 2009 (photo by Stephane Bailliez).

    Theodore W. Pietsch and Rachel J. Arnold. 2017. The “Lembeh Frogfish” Identified: Redescription of Nudiantennarius subteres (Smith and Radcliffe, in Radcliffe, 1912) (Teleostei: Lophiiformes: Antennariidae).  Copeia. 105(4); 659-665.  DOI: 10.1643/CI-17-651

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    Centrophorus longipinnis
     White, Ebert & Naylor, 2017


    Centrophorus specimens with a distinctive long-based first dorsal fin (long-finned species) have previously been considered to be Centrophorus lusitanicus first described from Portugal. Critical examination of the original description and illustration reveal that C. lusitanicus should be considered a junior synonym of C. granulosus. However, the specimen considered to be the syntype of C. lusitanicus in the Natural History Museum in London is clearly a long-finned species and not conspecific with C. granulosus. A more detailed investigation revealed that this specimen should not be considered a syntype and was likely not originally collected off the coast of Portugal. Investigation of long-finned specimens of Centrophorus from the Indo-West Pacific and Eastern Atlantic revealed that two undescribed species exist and are herein formally described as Centrophorus leslieiandC.longipinnis. The two species are similar morphologically and belong to the long-snout Centrophorus group (e.g. C. isodon and C. harrissoni) but are clearly separable based on their very long first dorsal fins. The two species differ in relative length of the first dorsal fin and several other characters. They also differ genetically. Nonmetric multidimensional ordination based on morphometric data reveals both species level and ontogenetic differences. A short erratum is also provided for Part 1 of this revision of the Centrophorus due to two figure related errors which may cause some confusion.

    Keywords:  Pisces, Centrophorus, new species, Eastern Atlantic, Indo-West Pacific, genetics, taxonomy

    FIGURE 11. Lateral view of Centrophorus longipinnis n. sp.:
     (A) adult male holotype (NMMB-P 15756, 720 mm TL); (B) female paratype (CSIRO H 8104 - 01, 855 mm TL); (C) female paratype (CSIRO H 7990 - 02, 825 mm TL); (D) late-term embryo paratype (CSIRO H 8103 - 02, 346 mm TL).

    Centrophorus longipinnis n. sp.
    Longfin Gulper Shark

     Etymology. Specific name a combination of the Latin longus (long) and pinna (fin) in allusion to the very distinctive long-based first dorsal fin this species possesses.

    Distribution. Type material from off Taiwan (Cheng-gong and Da-xi fish landing sites—local fishing grounds), Indonesia (off southwest Java and eastern Lombok), and Papua New Guinea (Huon Gulf) (Fig. 10). Compagno et al. (2005) reported this species off Puerto Princesa City in the Philippines (JPAG 226, tissue accession GN4348); differed slightly in ND2 sequence and specimen not examined in this study. Limited depth information available as most specimens collected from fish landing sites; caught from depths of 330–460 m in Papua New Guinea (P. Neira, pers. comm.).

    Centrophorus lesliei n. sp.
    African Gulper Shark

    Etymology. Named after Dr Robin Leslie (Fisheries Branch, Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in South Africa) who has contributed greatly to our knowledge of southern African chondrichthyans and provided numerous important specimens and tissue samples for various projects.

    Distribution. Type specimens were from the Mozambique Channel (Madagascar and Mozambique), and off Senegal, Côte d’Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, and Togo at depths of 340– 500 m. The BMNH and ZMB specimens were most likely collected by Anchieta from Angola or Mozambique in the 1800’s. Additional specimens examined by Munoz-Chapuli & Ramos (1989) were recorded as being collected from Morocco, the Canary Islands, and Ghana at depths of 370– 610 m.

    William T. White, David A. Ebert and  Gavin J. P. Naylor. 2017. Revision of the Genus Centrophorus (Squaliformes: Centrophoridae): Part 2—Description of Two New Species of Centrophorus and Clarification of the Status of Centrophorus lusitanicus Barbosa du Bocage & de Brito Capello, 1864Zootaxa. 4344(1)86–114. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4344.1.3

    White, W.T., Ebert, D.A., Naylor, G.J.P., Ho, H.-C., Clerkin, P., Verissimo, A. and Cotton, C. 2013. Revision of the genus Centrophorus (Squaliformes, Centrophoridae), Part 1—Redescription of Centrophorus granulosus (Bloch & Schneider), a senior synonym of C. acus Garman and C. niaukang Teng. Zootaxa. 3752(1); 35–72.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.3752.1.5

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    Rhynchocalamus dayanae
    Tamar​, Šmíd, Göçmen, Meiri & Carranza, 2016
    Dayan’s Kukri Snake  ||  DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2769 


    The colubrid snakes of the genus Rhynchocalamus are seldom studied and knowledge of their ecology and life history is scarce. Three species of Rhynchocalamus are currently recognized, R. satunini (from Turkey eastwards to Iran), R. arabicus (Yemen and Oman), and R. melanocephalus (from the Sinai Peninsula northwards to Turkey). All are slender, secretive, mainly nocturnal and rare fossorial snakes. This comprehensive study is the first to sample all known Rhynchocalamus species in order to review the intra-generic phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of the genus.

    We revised the systematics of Rhynchocalamus using an integrative approach and evaluated its phylogeography. The phylogenetic position within the Colubridae and the phylogenetic relationships within the genus were inferred using 29 individuals belonging to the three known species, with additional sampling of two other closely-related genera, Muhtarophis and Lytorhynchus. We analysed three mitochondrial (12S, 16S, cytb) and one nuclear (c-mos) gene fragments. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods; the latter method also used to provide the first time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of the genus. We generated a nuclear network and carried out a topology test and species delimitation analysis. Morphological comparisons were used to differentiate among species and to describe a new species from Israel. The studied material was comprised of 108 alcohol-preserved specimens, 15 photographs, and data from the literature for the examination of 17 mensural, 14 meristic, and two categorical characters.

    The molecular results support Rhynchocalamus as monophyletic, and as having split from its sister genus Lytorhynchus during the Late Oligocene. The three recognized species of Rhynchocalamus comprise four independently evolving groups. The molecular results reveal that the genus began to diverge during the Middle Miocene. We revealed that the best-studied species, R. melanocephalus, is paraphyletic. A population, formally ascribed to this species, from the Negev Mountain area in southern Israel is phylogenetically closer to R. arabicus from Oman than to the northern populations of the species from Israel, Syria and Turkey. Herein we describe this population as a new species: Rhynchocalamus dayanae sp. nov.

    We identify four species within RhynchocalamusR. satunini, R. arabicus, R. melanocephalus, and R. dayanae sp. nov., the latter, to the best of our knowledge, is endemic to southern Israel. The onset of Rhynchocalamus diversification is very old and estimated to have occurred during the Middle Miocene, possibly originating in the Levant region. Radiation probably resulted from vicariance and dispersal events caused by continuous geological instability, sea-level fluctuations and climatic changes within the Levant region.

    Figure 4: Habitus comparisons of Rhynchocalamus taxa. Dorsal view.
    (ARhynchocalamus dayanae sp. nov. (unvouchered specimen; Road no. 40, near Mitzpe Ramon, Negev Mountain, Israel; photo by Simon Jamison); (B) R. melanocephalus (ZMHRU2007-69; Tartus, Syria; photo by Bayram Göçmen); (C) R. satunini (ZMHRU2015/0; Artuklu, Mardin province, Turkey; photo by Bayram Göçmen); (D) R. arabicus (CN4780; Wadi Ayoun, Dhofar Governorate, Oman; photo by Gabriel Martínez). 

    Etymology. The specific epithet, “dayanae,” is named in honour of Professor Tamar Dayan, director of the Steinhardt Museum of Natural History at Tel Aviv University and curator of the Terrestrial Vertebrate Collection. This naming of the new species constitutes a special recognition of Professor Dayan by two of her former students (KT and SM) to acknowledge her immense contribution to the conservation of Israeli fauna, and her efforts in establishing the National Natural History Museum at Tel Aviv University, and in promoting taxonomy, conservation and ecology studies in Israel.

    Karin Tamar​, Jiří Šmíd, Bayram Göçmen, Shai Meiri and Salvador Carranza. 2016. An Integrative Systematic Revision and Biogeography of Rhynchocalamus Snakes (Reptilia, Colubridae) with A Description of A New Species from Israel. PeerJ. 4:e2769. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2769

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    Lavocatchampsa sigogneaurusselae
    Martin  & de Lapparent de Broin. 2016

    Notosuchians from Cretaceous continental environments of Gondwana have developed an unexpected array of morphologies comparable to mammals and their extinct relatives. However, this exceptional diversity is unbalanced, with South America holding nearly three times the generic diversity of Africa-Madagascar. With the exception of the triconodonts and of a very specialized group, the Gondwanatheria, in none of these landmasses do mammals dominate, and as a result, the low notosuchian diversity in Africa-Madagascar appears to be an artifact of sampling. Here, we describe a new miniature notosuchian from the Albian-Cenomanian Kem-Kem Beds of Morocco filling this gap. Lavocatchampsa sigogneaurusselae, gen. et sp. nov., exhibits a new type of heterodonty with absence of maxillary and dentary caniniform dentitions and teeth that gradually become massive posteriorly, and possess a sharp elongate median carina flanked by two multicusped cingula. The occlusion pattern is revealed by computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and shows that the main component of jaw closure is vertical, and not horizontal as has been proposed in closely related forms. Phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon as part of a basal stock of Gondwanan ziphosuchians with close affinities to Candidodon itapecuruense, Malawisuchus mwakasyungutiensis, and Pakasuchus kapilimai. We revise the diagnosis of Candidodontidae, a clade characterized by a particular heterodont dentition recalling that of triconodont mammals. The recognition of this new clade confirms previous hypotheses of a vicariant vertebrate assemblage present on a continuous South American–African landmass.



    CROCODYLOMORPHA Walker, 1970
    CROCODILIA Gmelin, 1789, sensu Martin and Benton, 2008
    MESOEUCROCODYLIA Whetstone and Whybrow, 1983
    NOTOSUCHIA Gasparini, 1971
    ZIPHOSUCHIA Ortega, Gasparini, Buscalioni, and Calvo, 2000
    CANDIDODONTIDAE Carvalho, Ribeiro, and Avilla, 2004


    Etymology:— The genus name honors the memory of the French paleontologist René Lavocat (1909–2007) for his contribution to vertebrate paleontology in Africa and in particular for the exploration of the Kem-Kem Beds and the discovery of its vertebrate fossil fauna. The specific name honors Dr. Denise Sigogneau-Russell, specialist on early mammals and with her husband, Dr. Donald Russell, for the acquisition of the specimen from Bruno Fectay.

      Jeremy E. Martin and France de Lapparent de Broin. 2016. A Miniature Notosuchian with Multicuspid Teeth from the Cretaceous of Morocco. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology.  36(6);   DOI:  10.1080/02724634.2016.1211534

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