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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region

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    Furcifer monoceras (Boettger, 1913)
    Furcifer voeltzkowi (Boettger, 1893)

    in Sentís, Chang, Scherz, et al., 2018. 
       DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4483.3.7 

    The taxonomy of the Malagasy chameleon Furcifer rhinoceratus (Gray, 1845) is poorly resolved. The aim of this study is to clarify the taxonomic status of Chamaeleon voeltzkowi Boettger, 1893 and Chamaeleon monoceras Boettger, 1913 both only known from single or very few specimens mostly collected more than 100 years ago and currently considered as synonyms of Furcifer rhinoceratus. Using osteological data from micro-X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) combined with traditional morphological characters and morphometrics we resurrect both taxa from the synonymy of F. rhinoceratus as F. voeltzkowi and F. monoceras, respectively. Compared to F. rhinoceratus, F.monoceras is smaller, has a relatively shorter tail, a longer and thinner rostral appendage, a poorly developed gular crest and no ventral crest, whereas F. voeltzkowi has a smaller rostral appendage, higher casque and the dorsal crest is continuous with the tail crest. Compared to the broad rostral appendage formed by the anterior protuberance of the premaxillary process of the maxilla, which has serrated edges in F. rhinoceratus, F. monoceras presents a long rostral appendage with a smooth dorsal edge that progressively narrows, and the nasal aperture is extended along the elongated appendage; F. voeltzkowi presents a smaller but curved rostral appendage with a crenate edge. The prefrontal and postorbitofrontal approach one another forming a large, laterally closed supraorbital fontanelle in F. rhinoceratus while in F. monoceras they do not approach, leaving a laterally open fontanelle, and in F. voeltzkowi the fontanelle is diminutive. Furcifer voeltzkowi also differs from the similar F. labordi by a smaller size of the rostral appendage, less bulging casque and body pholidosis. The former exhibits a conspicuous white lateral band comprising heterogeneous scalation. Furcifer labordi, on the other hand, has a homogeneous scalation with a remarkable reticulate pattern. Osteologically, the shape of the prefrontal and the connection of the postorbitofrontal with the parietal also differ greatly between the two. Using micro-CT scans we detected key differences that would be otherwise impossible to determine. We also provide a brief morphological and osteological description of the species and strongly recommend efforts to rediscover these two poorly known taxa in order to enable additional studies and to assess their conservation status.

    Keywords: Reptilia, Squamata, Chamaeleonidae, micro-computed tomography, skull osteology, synonyms, cryptic species, Madagascar

    Furcifer monoceras (Boettger, 1913) bona species

    Distribution. The species is only known from the male holotype from Betsako east of Mahajanga. 

    Furcifer voeltzkowi (Boettger, 1893) bona species  

    Distribution. Boettger (1893: 120) gave the type locality as ‘Antema an der Bembatukabai, West Madagaskar.’....

     Marina Sentís, Yiyin Chang, Mark D. Scherz, David Prötzel and Frank Glaw. 2018. Rising from the Ashes: Resurrection of the Malagasy Chameleons Furcifer monoceras and F. voeltzkowi (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae), based on Micro-CT Scans and External Morphology.  Zootaxa. 4483(3); 549–566.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4483.3.7


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    Calumma roaloko 
    Prötzel, Lambert, Andrianasolo, Hutter, Cobb, Scherz & Glaw, 2018

    On a recent expedition to eastern Madagascar, we discovered a distinct new species of the genus Calumma that we describe here using an integrative approach combining morphology, coloration, osteology and molecular genetics. Calumma roaloko sp. n. has a dermal rostral appendage and occipital lobes, and belongs to the C. boettgeri complex, within the Madagascar-endemic phenetic C. nasutum species group. It is readily distinguished from other species of the C. boettgeri complex by a characteristic two-toned body coloration and small body size with a snout-vent length of 45.6 mm in an adult male. The osteology of the skull, with a prominent maxilla and broad parietal, is similar to the closest related species, C. uetzi. Analysis of uncorrected genetic distances within the C. nasutum group using the mitochondrial gene ND2 shows a minimum pairwise distance of 11.98% to C. uetzi from the Sorata massif and Marojejy National Park >500 km north of the type locality of C. roaloko sp. n.. Given an apparently small range (potentially <300 km2), located entirely outside of any nationally-protected areas, we recommend this new species be classified as Endangered under criterion B1ab(iii) of the IUCN Red List. The discovery of clearly distinct species like C. roaloko sp. n. in an area of Madagascar that is comparatively thoroughly surveyed highlights the critical role of continued field surveys for understanding the true extent of Madagascar’s spectacular biodiversity.

    Key Words: Calumma roaloko sp. n., Integrative taxonomy, Micro-computed tomography, Osteology, Calumma nasutum group

    Figure 5. In-life photos of four specimens of Calumma roaloko sp. n.;
    (a) subadult male (ZSM 244/2018, KU 343177); (b) the holotype, adult male (KU 343178);
     (c) subadult male (UADBA-R, KU 343167); (d) adult female (KU 343168). 

    Figure 6. Posed photos of a subadult male specimen of Calumma roaloko sp. n. (ZSM 244/2018, KU 343177);
    (a) Indigo coloration on the rostral appendage and head scalation is apparent; (b) portrait of the same specimen.

    Calumma roaloko sp. n.
     Suggested common English name: The two-toned soft-nosed chameleon 
    Suggested common Malagasy name: Tanalahy roa loko

    Diagnosis: Calumma roaloko sp. n. is a member of the phenetic C. nasutum species group (Prötzel et al. 2016), on the basis of the presence of a soft, dermal unpaired rostral appendage, absence of gular and ventral crests, and heterogeneous scalation on the lower arm, consisting mostly of tubercles of 0.4–0.7 mm diameter. With 44.5–45.6 mm SVL and 85.5–93.7 mm total length in adult specimens it is currently the smallest known species in the genus Calumma. The body of the chameleon is uniquely two-colored with beige/white on the ventral and bright green on the dorsal half. Furthermore, it is characterized by a prominent and distally rounded rostral appendage, occipital lobes that are slightly notched, a distinctly elevated rostral crest, absence of a dorsal crest (or presence of at most two cones) in both sexes, absence of axillary pits, and a unique skull morphology.

    Etymology: The specific epithet “roaloko” is a combination of the Malagasy words “roa” meaning “two” and “loko” meaning “color”, in reference to the characteristic two-toned body colorations of males (green and white) and females (brown and tan) of this species. The epithet is to be treated as an invariable noun in apposition.


    Figure 7. In-situ photograph of an uncollected (in sleeping position) female of Calumma roaloko sp. n., from the same locality as KU 343168.

    Natural history: The specific natural history of Calumma roaloko sp. n. is little-known, but assumed to be similar to other small-bodied Calumma. As with other C. nasutum group species, individuals of C. roaloko sp. n. were encountered sleeping at night on leaves (Fig. 7) or small branches, and most often spotted ~2–5 m above the ground. Calumma roaloko sp. n. may be restricted to higher-elevation habitats, as it has only been found at ca. 1100 m a.s.l., although this is difficult to determine with certainty as most forests below ~1000 m a.s.l. in the area have been cleared. Interestingly, it is known from only two sites, both on the periphery of the forest fragment, and characterized by qualitatively more degraded habitat and/or secondary forest growth as compared to two sites located with more intact primary forest, where it was not encountered (Fig. 4). In summary, either C. roaloko sp. n. may have a higher detection probability in disturbed habitats, and/or may be out-competed in primary forest by close relatives (e.g., C. nasutum complex species that we found in all four sites). Several specimens were observed to have small red acarid ectoparasites (visible on the hindlimb in Fig. 6a).

    Distribution: Given current evidence, the distribution of Calumma roaloko sp. n. is potentially restricted to a small fragment (~300 km2) of mid-elevation rainforest that lies outside of nearby Analamazaotra Special Reserve and Andasibe-Mantadia National Park in central-eastern Madagascar (Fig. 4), but within the Réserve de Ressources Naturelles du Corridor Ankeniheny-Zahamena newly protected area. However, we believe that C. roaloko sp. n. may still be discovered in nearby areas, including Andasibe-Mantadia National Park, although it has never been found over dozens of surveys in nearby protected areas over the last century, including our own surveys (Hutter, Lambert, Scherz, Prötzel, Glaw, etc. unpubl. data). It is also possible that C. roaloko sp. n. could be found in other smaller and more fragmented forests located to the west of the type locality of C. roaloko sp. n., south of the city of Moramanga, but recent work in one remnant forest fragment in that area discovered C. juliae there, and no specimens of C. roaloko sp. n. were found (Prötzel et al. 2018).

     David Prötzel, Shea M. Lambert, Ginah Tsiorisoa Andrianasolo, Carl R. Hutter, Kerry A. Cobb, Mark D. Scherz and Frank Glaw. 2018. The Smallest ‘True Chameleon’ from Madagascar: A New, Distinctly Colored Species of the Calumma boettgeri complex (Squamata, Chamaeleonidae). Zoosystematics and Evolution. 94(2): 409-423.  DOI: 10.3897/zse.94.27305

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    Atlantisia rogersi Lowe, 1923

    in Stervander, Ryan, Melo & Hansson, 2018. 

    Atlantisia rogersi colonized Inaccessible Island from S. America 1.5 million years ago.
    • Its closest relative is the Dot-winged Rail Porzana spiloptera.
     • The well-supported clade also contains Black Rail Laterallus jamaicensis.
    • We advise conservative taxonomic changes: Laterallus rogersi, L. spilopterus.
    • Further sampling of the ‘Laterallus clade’ required for a fully resolved phylogeny.

    Rails (Aves: Rallidae) are renowned for their extreme dispersal capability, which has given rise to numerous island lineages. Many insular species lost the ability to fly as a response to release from predator pressure—a feature causing rapid extinction when humans subsequently introduced mammals. The world’s smallest extant flightless bird, the Inaccessible Island Rail Atlantisia rogersi, is endemic to Inaccessible Island, Tristan da Cunha archipelago, in the central South Atlantic Ocean. It is placed in a monotypic genus, but its taxonomic affinity, as well as geographic origin, are disputed. Contrary to its suggested Old World origin, we demonstrate that the Inaccessible Island Rail is nested within the mainly South American ‘Laterallus clade’ and that it colonized ≥3 million-year-old Inaccessible Island from South America c. 1.5 million years ago. The taxonomy of rails has traditionally been based on morphology, and convergent evolution has caused many cases of misclassification. We suggest a re-classification within the ‘Laterallus clade’ and call for extended coverage of taxon sampling for DNA sequencing.

    Keywords: Colonization, Oceanic islands, Phylogeny, Phylogeography, Taxonomy

    Fig. 1. (A) Map showing the location of Inaccessible Island of the Tristan da Cunha archipelago, and distances to continents and islands (the latter not drawn to scale). The approximate range of Dot-winged Crake Porzana spiloptera, sister species of the Inaccessible Island Rail Atlantisia rogersi, is shown with grey shading.

    Fig. 1.  (B) Inaccessible Island Rail Atlantisia rogersi (photo: P.G.R.). (C) Dot-winged Crake Porzanaspiloptera (photo: Alec Earnshaw). (D) Black Rail Laterallus jamaicensis, which is sister to B and C (photo: Chuck Streker). (E) Galápagos Crake Laterallus spilonota (photo: Jaime Chaves), which is presumed to belong to the same clade as B–D.

     Martin Stervander, Peter G. Ryan, Martim Melo and Bengt Hansson. 2018. The Origin of the World’s Smallest Flightless Bird, the Inaccessible Island Rail Atlantisiarogersi (Aves: Rallidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 130; 92-98.  DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2018.10.007 

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    Miotopus richardsi 
     Fitness, Morgan-Richards, Hegg & Trewick, 2018

    Comparison of morphological and genetic data from New Zealand forest cave wētā suggests we should recognise the genus Miotopus proposed by Hutton (1898). A new species within this genus is described (Miotopus richardsi sp. nov.). Both Miotopus diversus (Hutton, 1898) and Miotopus richardsi sp. nov. are common in native forests and widespread in New Zealand. Here we provide their known distributions and key traits

    Keywords: cave wētā; cave cricket; Miotopus; Pleioplectron; Rhaphidophoridae

    Fig. 10. Living Miotopus Hutton, 1898 in their natural environment.
     A–B.Miotopus diversus (Hutton, 1896), adult ♂. A. Resolution Bay, Queen Charlotte Sound. B. Turitea Reserve, Palmerston North.
     C–F. Miotopus richardsi sp. nov. C. Adult ♀, Brewster Hut Track, Haast Pass. D. Female nymph, Gouland Downs Caves, Kahurangi NP. E. ♀, laying eggs in rotting wood, Brewster Hut Track, Haast Pass. F. ♀, ‘licking’ the slime off a native leaf-veined slug (Pseudaneitea spp.), Raspberry Flat, Matukituki River West Branch.

    Order Orthoptera Latreille, 1793

    Superfamily Rhaphidophordoidea Walker, 1869
    Family Rhaphidophoridae Walker, 1869
    Subfamily Macropathinae Karny, 1930

    Tribe Macropathini Karny, 1930
    Genus Miotopus Hutton, 1898

    Medium size cave wētā (body length 11–17 mm) found in forests and caves, on three main islands of New Zealand. The genus consists of two species that are structurally quite distinct from one another, and share some morphological characteristics with Pleioplectron.

     A–B. Miotopus diversus (Hutton, 1896), adult ♂. A. Resolution Bay, Queen Charlotte Sound. B. Turitea Reserve, Palmerston North.  C–D. Miotopus richardsi sp. nov. C. Adult ♀, Brewster Hut Track, Haast Pass. D. Female nymph, Gouland Downs Caves, Kahurangi NP. 

    Miotopus diversus Hutton, 1898
    Diagnosis A medium sized cave wētā found in forested areas around the North Island, New Zealand, mainly in leaf litter on the forest floor, or in the roots of trees. Dark brown with visible dark and pale bands on the fore and mid legs, it could be most easily confused with the sympatric Pleioplectron hudsoni. However, adult Miotopus diversus are larger (see Table 1), usually appear darker in life, and have small spines on the dorsal surface of the mid tibiae, and are further distinguished from Pleioplectron by spine count and male terminalia.

    Miotopus richardsi
     C. Adult ♀, Brewster Hut Track, Haast Pass. E. ♀, laying eggs in rotting wood, Brewster Hut Track, Haast Pass. F. ♀, ‘licking’ the slime off a native leaf-veined slug (Pseudaneitea spp.), Raspberry Flat, Matukituki River West Branch. 

    Miotopus richardsi sp. nov.

    Diagnosis: A medium sized cave wētā found in forested areas of the South Island, New Zealand with a variegated colour pattern. Similar to Miotopus diversus based on apical spines with the exception of the presence on hind femora of both prolateral and retrolateral apical spines (n.b. this trait was formerly considered diagnostic of Pachyrhamma, see Cook et al. 2010). It is easily identified by the very long legs and the presence of three pairs of prominent, socketed superior spines on the hind tibiae. Female with subgenital plate similar to M. diversus, but differs in male genital terminalia. Notably long ovipositor, as long as or longer than body length.

     Etymology: Named for Aola Richards who studied New Zealand cave wētā and published many important systematic papers from 1954 until 1972.

    Josephine L. Fitness, Mary Morgan-Richards, Danilo Hegg and Steven A. Trewick. 2018. Reinstatement of the New Zealand Cave Wētā Genus Miotopus Hutton (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae) and Description of A New Species. European Journal of Taxonomy. 468;  1–24.  DOI:  10.5852/ejt.2018.468

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    Diogenes spongicola 
    Komai, Ravinesh & Kumar, 2018

    ovigerous female (sl 2.2 mm) and housing shell covered with Callyspongia diffusa.

    A new species of the hermit crab genus Diogenes Dana, 1851, Diogenes spongicola, is described and illustrated on the basis of material collected from two locations off southern India. It appears close to D. takedai Rahayu, 2012 among about 70 congeners, but easily differentiated from the latter by the spinulose anterolateral margins of the shield, the article 2 of the antennal peduncle armed only with one distal spine, the longer, spinose antennal acicle, the absence of prominent spines on the ventrolateral margin of the cheliped meri, and the different color of the cheliped palm. Specimens of the new species were all collected from cavities of a callyspongiid sponge Callyspongia diffusa (Ridley, 1884), suggesting a possible association between the hermit crab and sponge.

    Keywords: Crustacea, Association, Callyspongia diffusa, Diogenes spongicola, Kerala, Tamil Nadu

    FIGURE 5. Diogenes spongicola n. sp., paratypes, showing colour in life.
    paratype, male (sl 1.7 mm), DABFUK/ARAN98. 

    FIGURE 5. Diogenes spongicola n. sp., paratypes, showing colour in life.
    paratype, ovigerous female (sl 2.2 mm) and housing shell covered with Callyspongia diffusa, DABFUK/AR-AN103.

    Family Diogenidae dana, 1851

    Diogenes spongicola n. sp.

     Etymology. The name is a combination of the Latin spongia (= sponge) and -cola (= dweller), in reference to the possible association of the new species with the callyspongiid sponge Callyspongia diffusa.

     Tomoyuki Komai, Raveendhiran Ravinesh and Appukuttannair Biju Kumar. 2018. A New Species of the Hermit Crab Genus Diogenes Dana, 1851 (Decapoda: Anomura: Diogenidae) from southern India. Zootaxa. 4504(2); 243–252.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4504.2.5

    ജീവനുള്ള ശംഖുകൾക്കുള്ളിലും സന്യാസി ഞണ്ടുകൾ; കണ്ടെത്തിയത് മലയാളികൾ

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    Mecistops leptorhynchus (Bennett, 1835) 

    in Shirley, Carr, Nestler, Vliet & Brochu, 2018.

    Molecular and morphological evidence has shown that the African slender-snouted, or sharp-nosed, crocodile Mecistops cataphractus (Cuvier, 1824) is comprised of two superficially cryptic species: one endemic to West Africa and the other endemic to Central Africa. Our ability to characterize the two species is compromised by the complicated taxonomic history of the lineage and overlapping ranges of variation in distinguishing morphological features. The name M. cataphractus was evidently originally based on West African material, but the holotype is now lost. Although types exist for other names based on the West African form, the name M. cataphractus is sufficiently entrenched in the literature, and other names sufficiently obscure, to justify retypification. Here, we designate a neotype for M. cataphractus and restrict it to West Africa. We resurrect M. leptorhynchus as a valid species from Central Africa and identify exemplary referred specimens that, collectively, overcome the obscurity and diagnostic limits of the extant holotype. We additionally indicate suitable neotype material in the event the holotype is lost, destroyed, or otherwise needing replacement, and we rectify the previously erroneous type locality designation. We provide a revised diagnosis for crown Mecistops, and revise and update previous descriptions of the two living species, including providing both more complete descriptions and discussion of diagnostic characters. Finally, we provide considerable discussion of the current state of knowledge of these species’ ecology, natural history, and distribution.
    Keywords: Reptilia, Mecistops, Crocodylia, Crocodylidae, leptorhynchusbennettiicataphractuscongicus, cryptic species

    Crocodylia Gmelin, 1789 
    Crocodylidae Cuvier, 1807 
    Mecistops Gray, 1844

    Etymology. Gray (1844) did not offer an etymology for Mecistops. However, ‘Mecist’ is most likely derived from the Greek mekist, meaning longest, and ‘ops’ is a derivative of the Greek opsis meaning appearance or aspect. Thus, the name Mecistops most likely refers to the elongated appearance of the skull/snout in slender-snouted crocodiles relative to species of the genus Crocodylus.

    Content. Mecistops cataphractus (Cuvier, 1824) and M. leptorhynchus (Bennett, 1835). 

    Distribution. Mecistops is endemic to western Africa ranging from Lake Tanganyika and Lake Mweru in the east to the Gambia River in the west and, at least historically, occupying all major river drainages, lakes, and wetlands with appropriate habitat north to the 13th parallel in far western Africa (i.e., Senegambia region), the 10th parallel in West Africa (i.e., Upper Guinea block), and the 6th parallel in Central Africa (Fig. 1).

    Map showing the distribution of Mecistops and its two content species: M. cataphractus and M. leptorhynchus.

    Mecistops cataphractus (Cuvier, 1824)
    typically colored and patterned animals from the Senegambia area illustrating the dark gold background color and heavy black blotching, jaw spots, and overall dark patterning from the Gambia River, River Gambia National Park, The Gambia.

    Mecistops cataphractus (Cuvier, 1824) 
    Crocodilus cataphractus Cuvier, 1824: 58. 
    Type RCSM 710 (lost), juvenile. Unknown origin, terra typica designated Senegal River (Fuchs et al. 1974a). Gray 1831: 59. Duméril & Bibron 1836: 126. Falconer 1846: 362. Duméril & Duméril 1851: 29, 1852: 252. Owen 1853: 155. Huxley 1859: 16. Duméril 1861: 171. Strauch 1866: 60 & 106, 1868: 58. Giebel 1877: 105. Boulenger 1889: 279. Mook 1921b: 159. 

    Mecistops bennettii Gray, 1844: 57 (nomen novum for Crocodilus leptorhynchus Bennett 1835; Type NHMUK 1977.444). 
    Mecistops cataphractus Gray, 1844: 57. Baikie 1857: 57. Tornier 1901: 66; 1902: 663. Nieden 1913: 53. McAliley et al. 2006: 17. Hekkala et al. 2011: 4201. Shirley et al. 2014: 2. 
    Crocodylus cataphractus Schmidt 1919: 417. Wermuth & Mertens 1961: 359. King & Burke 1989: 9. 

    Etymology. Cuvier (1824) did not provide an etymology for cataphractus. However, we assume it came from the Greek kataphraktos (κατάφρακτος) meaning armored, shielded or completely enclosed. Cuvier (1824) gave this species the French common name “crocodile à nuque cuirassée” (“armor-necked crocodile”). Both the Latin and French are presumably in reference to the extra rows of dorsal scutes joining the nuchal cluster compared to other crocodiles of the genus Crocodylus.

    Mecistops leptorhynchus, high orange and black individual from the N’gowe River, Gabon.
    (photo: J. Thorbjarnarson)

    Mecistops leptorhynchus (Bennett, 1835) 
    Crocodilus leptorhynchus Bennett, 1835: 128 (apud. Fernando Po; Type NHMUK 1947.3.6.35, juvenile, Cuvier 1836: 116). Murray 1862: 222. 

    Etymology. Bennett (1835) did not provide an etymology for leptorhynchus. However, ‘lepto’ is derived from the Greek leptós meaning thin, fine, or slender and rhynchos meaning beak or snout. Thus, Mecistops leptorhynchus is a slender snouted crocodylian of the genus Mecistops, which Bennett may have found appropriate given his finding of a longer head length to head width ratio (3:1) than he found in M. cataphractus (2.5:1).

    As for other recently proposed taxonomic revisions within Crocodylia (i.e., the dwarf and Nile crocodile cryptic species complexes), at first glance slender-snouted crocodiles from Lake Tanganyika to the Gambia River appear quite similar. However, we here provide significant cranial shape, external phenotypic, and ecological data that, in addition to previously published molecular and discrete morphological evidence (Shirley et al. 2014), strongly support the recognition of two species in the genus Mecistops. That all morphological, molecular, and ecologically segregating characters are isolated in two different biogeographic zones makes identification of M. cataphractus and M. leptorhynchus, at least in the wild, a non-contentious issue. Further, for legislation enforcement (e.g., CITES), as well as management of captive populations, we identified sufficient molecular and morphological characters for unambiguous species identification. However, this may not be so critical for the former as Mecistops species are integrally protected and listed in CITES Appendix I in all range states and are generally not considered of value in the international trade of crocodylian products (e.g., skins). 

    Matthew H. Shirley, Amanda N. Carr, Jennifer H. Nestler, Kent A. Vliet and Christopher A. Brochu. 2018.  Systematic Revision of the Living African Slender-snouted Crocodiles (Mecistops Gray, 1844). Zootaxa. 4504(2); 151–193. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4504.2.1

    New crocodile species found hiding in plain sight via @NatGeo
    New African crocodile species discovered! - via @africageo |  
    New study sheds light for those working to save world's endangered crocodiles via @physorg_com

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    Phylloscopus rotiensis  
    Ng, Prawiradilaga, Ng, Suparno, Ashari, Trainor, Verbelen & Rheindt, 2018

    photo: Philippe Verbelen

    Leaf warblers (Aves; Phylloscopidae) are a diverse clade of insectivorous, canopy-dwelling songbirds widespread across the Old World. The taxonomy of Australasian leaf warblers is particularly complex, with multiple species-level divergences between island taxa in the region requiring further scrutiny. We use a combination of morphology, bioacoustics, and analysis of thousands of genome-wide markers to investigate and describe a new species of Phylloscopus leaf warbler from the island of Rote in the Lesser Sundas, Indonesia. We show that this new Rote Leaf Warbler is morphologically and genomically highly distinct from its congenerics, but do not find vocal differentiation between different island taxa. We discuss the behaviour and ecology of this highly distinctive new species, and make recommendations about its conservation status. We believe this constitutes the first description of a novel bird species that is partly based on insights from massive amounts of genome-wide DNA markers.

    Phylloscopus rotiensis, species nova

    English name: Rote Leaf Warbler

    Etymology: We name this species after Rote Island, the only locality at which this leaf warbler can be found.

    Diagnosis: The new taxon is distinguished from all other Phylloscopus leaf warblers by a proportionately much longer bill.

    The Rote Leaf Warbler specimen had a bill length of 16.3 mm, as compared to 13.4 ± 0.1 mm in the Timor Leaf Warbler (n = 2). A comparison of bill length as a proportion of wing length between the Rote and Timor Leaf Warblers indicates that the Rote Leaf Warbler shows a bill to wing length ratio of 0.286, whereas the Timor Leaf Warbler has a bill to wing length ratio of merely 0.248 ± 0.01. The bill of the Rote Leaf Warbler is thus proportionately 15% longer than that of the Timor Leaf Warbler (Fig. 3).

    Nathaniel. S. R. Ng, Dewi. M. Prawiradilaga, Elize. Y. X. Ng, Suparno, Hidayat Ashari, Colin Trainor, Philippe Verbelen and Frank. E. Rheindt. 2018. A Striking New Species of Leaf Warbler from the Lesser Sundas as Uncovered Through Morphology and Genomics. Scientific Reports. 8 (1). doi:  10.1038/s41598-018-34101-7


    Rote Island, Indonesia sees new songbird

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     Alvinocaris costaricensis
    Martin, Shank, Cha, Seid, Rouse & Wall, 2018

    A new caridean shrimp, Alvinocaris costaricensis, is described from methane seeps in the eastern Pacific off Costa Rica. The new species is the 16th described species of the genus, and by molecular analysis appears closest to Alvinocariskomaii from the Lau Basin, southwestern Pacific, but shares certain morphological characters with A. lusca from the Galapagos Rift and A. muricola from the West Florida Escarpment, as well as with A. kexueae from the Manus Basin in the Southwest Pacific.

    Keywords: Crustacea, Caridea, Alvinocaris, methane seeps, Costa Rica

     Alvinocaris costaricensis new species, holotype female, SIO-BIC C12202, Eastern Pacific Ocean, Costa Rica, live color photograph.  

    Alvinocaris costaricensis, new species

    Etymology. The specific epithet reflects the location of the methane seeps off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

     Joel W. Martin, T. M. Shank, H. Cha, Charlotte Seid, Greg W. Rouse and Adam Wall. 2018. A New Species of Alvinocaris (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Alvinocarididae) from Costa Rican Methane Seeps. Zootaxa. 4504(3); 418–430. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4504.3.7

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    Rhinogobius maculagenys  
    Wu, Deng, Wang & Liu, 2018

    DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4476.1.11

    A new freshwater gobyRhinogobius maculagenys sp. nov., was collected from Hunan Province in Southern China. This species can be distinguished from all congeners by a combination of the following features: first dorsal fin with 6 spines; second dorsal fin with a single spine and 7–9 segmented rays; anal fin with a single spine and 6–8 segmented rays; pectoral fin with 16 segmented rays; 32–34 longitudinal scales; 9–13 transverse scales; 11+16=27 vertebrae; pore ω1 missing; head and body yellowish brown; cheek and opercle yellowish brown with over 30 small orange spots, branchiostegal membrane yellow with over 10 small orange spots in males and white and spotless in females; first dorsal fin trapezoidal in males and nearly semicircular in females, with large bright blue blotch in front of second spine; spines 4 and 5 longest, rear tip extending to base of second branched ray of second dorsal fin in males when adpressed, but just reaching or not reaching anterior margin of second dorsal fin in females; caudal fin with 5–6 vertical rows of brown spots; flank with several longitudinal rows of blackish-brown spots; and belly pale white.

    Key words: Xiangjiang, fish taxonomy, valid species, color pattern

    FIGURE 4 Rhinogobius maculagenys sp. nov. 
    Lateral (a) and ventral (c) views of paratype, male, HUNNULS2017-12-0613, 39.85 mm SL;
    lateral (b) and ventral (d) views of paratype, female, HUNNULS2017-12-0612, 44.50 mm SL.

    Rhinogobius maculagenys sp. nov. 

    Diagnosis. Rhinogobius maculagenys is distinguished from all congeners by a combination of the following features: second dorsal-fin rays I/7–9; anal-fin rays I/6–8; pectoral-fin rays 16; longitudinal scale series 32–34; transverse scale series 9–13; predorsal scale series 0; vertebral count 11+16=27; pore ω1 missing; head and body yellowish brown; cheek and opercle yellowish brown with over 30 small orange spots, branchiostegal membrane yellow with over 10 small orange spots in males and white and spotless in females; first dorsal fin trapezoidal in males and nearly semicircular in females, with large bright blue blotch in front of second spine; spines 4 and 5 longest, rear tip extending to base of second branched ray of second dorsal fin in males when adpressed, but just reaching or not reaching anterior margin of second dorsal fin in females; caudal fin with 5–6 vertical rows of brown spots; flank with several longitudinal rows of blackish-brown spots; belly pale white.

    Distribution and habitat. The species is only known from Zhong Water, in the upper reaches of the Xiangjiang River on Lanshan County, Hunan Province. This species may be endemic within this basin.

    Etymology. The specific name, maculagenys, from the Latin macula meaning spot and genys meaning cheek, in reference to the diagnostic feature of round orange spots on cheek. To be treated as a noun in apposition.

    Qianqian Wu, Xuejian Deng, Yanjie Wang and Yong Liu. 2018. Rhinogobius maculagenys, A New Species of Freshwater Goby (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from Hunan, China. Zootaxa. 4476(1); 118–129. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4476.1.11

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    Systaria procera 
     Jäger, 2018

    The genus Systaria Simon 1897 is reviewed in Southeast Asia and eight new species are described: Systaria lannops spec. nov. from Thailand (female), S. longinqua spec. nov. (male, female) and S. luangprabang spec. nov. (female) from Laos, S. procera spec. nov. (male, female) and S. bregibec spec. nov. (male) from Cambodia, S. bifidops spec. nov. from Malaysia (male), S. panay spec. nov. (female) and S. princesa spec. nov. (male, female) from Philippines. S. elberti (Strand 1913) is illustrated and partly re-described. Informal groups of species are proposed for the first time. Distribution ranges and habitat preferences are mapped.

    Keywords: Araneae, Taxonomy, systematics, copulatory organs, habitat, troglobiont

    Peter Jäger. 2018. On the Genus Systaria (Araneae: Clubionidae) in Southeast Asia: New Species from Caves and Forests. Zootaxa.  4504(4); 524–544. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4504.4.5

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     Hebius yanbianensis 
    Liu, Zhong, Wang, Liu & Guo, 2018

    A new species of the natricine snake genus Hebius Thompson, 1913 is described from Sichuan Province, Southwest China, based on a single male specimen. The new species is distinguished from its congeners found in China and adjacent regions by possessing the following combination of characters: 1) TL/SVL ratio 0.35; 2) three postoculars; 3) six temporals in formula 1/(1+1) +1+2; 4) eight supralabials, 4th and 5th in contact with the eye, 6th supralabial largest; 5) ten infralabials with the first five bordering the anterior chinshields; 6) 172 ventrals (plus two preventrals); 7) cloacal plate divided; 8) 90 divided subcaudals; 9) dorsal scales in 19-19-17 rows, all weakly keeled except the outer two; 10) reduction of dorsal scale rows from 19 to 17 at the position above ventral scale 99th; 11) reduction of the tail dorsal scales from 8 to 6 rows at the position above 18th subcaudal, and from 6 to 4 rows at the position above 37th subcaudal; 12) postorbital bones do not touch frontals, the parietal ridge weakly developed; the end of the supratemporal bones extending beyond the braincase; maxillary teeth 23–25, the last two enlarged, without diastema between them and the anterior teeth. This species is an evergreen forest dweller.

    Keywords: Reptilia, Hebius yanbianensis sp. nov., Natricinae, morphology, new species, taxonomy

     General view of the holotype of Hebius yanbianensis sp. nov. (YBU 15018) in life.
     Photo by G.H. Zhong.

    Hebius yanbianensis sp. nov.  

    Etymology. The specific name refers to the type locality of this species, YanbianCounty, Sichuan. We suggest the following common names: Yanbian Fulianshe and Yanbian keelback snake (English). 

    Distribution. This species is currently known only from the type locality, Yanbian that is located in the Hengduan Mountains valley in Sichuan Province, China with dry-hot climate. 

     Qin Liu, Guang-Hui Zhong, Ping Wang, Yang Liu and Peng Guo. 2018. A New Species of the Genus Hebius (Squamata: Colubridae) from Sichuan, China. Zootaxa.  4483(2); 385–394. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4483.2.10

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    Phylogeny of Phylloscopidae 

    in Alström, Rheindt, Zhang, Zhao, Wang, et al., 2018. 

    • Complete species-level phylogeny for Seicercus and Phylloscopus.
    • Time calibrated phylogeny.
    • Taxonomic revision of Phylloscopidae.

    The leaf warbler radiation (Aves: Phylloscopidae) has undergone a c. 50% increase in the number of recognised species over the last three decades, mainly as a result of analyses of vocalisations and DNA. Using a multilocus dataset for all of the species in this family, and multispecies coalescent-based as well as concatenation methods, we provide the first complete species-level phylogeny for this important group, as well as an estimate of the timing of diversification. The most recent common ancestor for the family was dated at 11.7 million years ago (mya) (95% highest posterior density 9.8–13.7 mya), and divergence times between sister species ranged from 0.5 mya (0.3–0.8 mya) to 6.1 mya (4.8–7.5 mya). Based on our results, we support synonymising Seicercus with Phylloscopus, which results in a monogeneric Phylloscopidae. We discuss the pros and cons of this treatment, and we argue against proliferation of taxonomic names, and conclude that a large monogeneric Phylloscopidae leads to the fewest taxonomic changes compared to traditional classifications.

    We briefly discuss morphological evolution in the light of the phylogeny. The time calibrated phylogeny is a major improvement compared to previous studies based on a smaller number of species and loci and can provide a basis for future studies of other aspects of phylloscopid evolution.

    Keywords: Species tree, Concatenation, Taxonomic revision

    Phylogeny of Phylloscopidae based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b and nuclear ODC, myoglobin and GAPDH introns inferred by ∗BEAST. Traditional Seicercus species are highlighted in red. 

    Photo by Craig Brelsford (14), James Eaton (2, 10, 18, 19), Göran Ekström (9, 15, 16, 22), Jocko Hammar (6), Jonathan Martinez (5, 7, 8, 11, 20), Yann Muzika (1), Frédéric Pelsy (12), Megan & Chris Perkins (3), Nick Robinson (4, 13, 17, 21). 


     The generally well resolved and well supported time calibrated phylogeny is a major step forward compared to earlier studies based on a smaller number of species and loci. This can provide a basis for future studies of other aspects of the evolution of this ecologically important group of birds.

    Per Alström, Frank E. Rheindt, Ruiying Zhang, Min Zhao, Jing Wang, Xiaojia Zhu Chyi Yin Gwee, Yan Hao, Jan Ohlson, Chenxi Jia, Dewi M. Prawiradilaga, Per G. P. Ericson, Fumin Lei and Urban Olsson. 2018. Complete Species-level Phylogeny of the Leaf Warbler (Aves: Phylloscopidae) Radiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.  126; 141-152. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2018.03.031 

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    Acropogon horarius Gâteblé & Munzinger

    in Gâteblé & Munzinger, 2018.
     Novitates neocaledonicae X.

    A new species, Acropogon horarius Gâteblé & Munzinger, sp. nov. (Malvaceae, Sterculioideae), is described from New Caledonia. It is known only from two very small subpopulations in the rainforests of the Petchécara Pass between Thio and Canala, in the southeast of Grande-Terre, New Caledonia’s main island. This shrub to small tree has hastate leaves and minute sessile tubular whitish-yellowish flowers and is strikingly different from all other members of the genus. The type locality is geologically complex and located within one of only four amphibolite lenses known in New Caledonia. A line drawing and colour photos are provided for the new species, along with a preliminary risk of extinction assessment, which indicates that the species is Critically Endangered.

    Keywords: Acropogon, geology, Malvaceae, New Caledonia, new species, Sterculioideae, taxonomy, threatened species

    Figure 2. Acropogon horarius Gâteblé & Munzinger sp. nov. A flowering branch B inflorescence and a zoom on stellate trichomes of the flower tube C female flower D male flower E infructescence F detail of erect stellate trichomes on the follicle’s surface G detail of an open follicle H close-up of the abaxial leaf reticulum.
    Drawings by Laurence Ramon (A–H Gâteblé et al. 806).

    Figure 3. Acropogon horarius Gâteblé & Munzinger sp. nov. A overview of a single mature shrub in habitat B juvenile plant C leaf D flowering branch E inflorescence F male flower G female flower H follicles. Photographs by G. Gâteblé
     (A Gâteblé et al. 803 B Gâteblé et al. 804 C–H Gâteblé et al. 806).

    Acropogon horarius Gâteblé & Munzinger, sp. nov.

    Diagnosis: Acropogon horarius Gâteblé & Munzinger differs from all other members of the genus by the combination of its long and thin petioles, hastate and cordate leaves and minute sessile tubular whitish-yellowish flowers.


    Distribution and ecology: The new species is only known from the south-eastern part of the Grande-Terre, at the Petchécara Pass between Thio and Canala (Fig. 1), where it grows on slopes in rainforest on a soil of complex geological origin.
    Etymology: The plant is named after the last of New Caledonia’s scheduled roads or “route à horaire” along which it grows.

     Gildas Gâteblé and Jérôme Munzinger. 2018. Novitates neocaledonicae X: A Very Rare and Threatened New Microendemic Species of Acropogon (Malvaceae, Sterculioideae) from New Caledonia. PhytoKeys. 110: 1-8.  DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.110.27599


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    Tylototriton ngarsuensis  
    Grismer, Wood, Quah, Thura, Espinoza, Grismer, Murdoch & Lin, 2018

    A phylogenetic taxonomic analysis of a monophyletic subgroup of the salamandrid genus Tylototriton revealed that a newly discovered population from Ngar Su Village, 1 km south of Ywangan, Shan State, Myanmar is a new species and most closely related to T. shanorum from approximately 80 km to the west in the vicinity of Taunggyi, Shan State. Tylototriton ngarsuensis sp. nov. differs from other closely related species of Tylototriton on basis of varying combinations of characteristics associated with it shorter head, larger size, rib nodule morphology, and overall drab, very dark, coloration, along with its genetic differentiation. Tylototriton ngarsuensis sp. nov. also appears to breed later in the year than most other species. Unfortunately, this species like many other Asian newts, is being harvested for the pet and medicinal trade and given its restricted distribution, this could pose a serious threat to its long-term survival.

    Keywords: Reptilia, Integrative taxonomy, Tylototriton, Shan State, Ywangan, new species, Myanmar, conservation, pet trade

    FIGURE 4. Tylototriton ngarsuensis sp. nov. from Ngar Su Village, Ywangan Township, Taunggyi District, Shan State, Myanmar at 1212 m in elevation.
    A. Gravid female holotype LUSHC 13762. B. Adult male paratype LSUHC 13764. C. Adult male paratype LSUHC 13763. D. Stage 44 larva (Grosse 2013) from lot LSUHC 13761 (SVL = 30 mm).

    FIGURE 1. Distribution of Tylototriton ngarsuensis sp. nov., T. shanorum, and Tylototriton sp. nov. from Shan State, Kachin State, and Sagaing Region, Myanmar.

    Tylototriton ngarsuensis sp. nov. 
    Suggested common name: Ywangan Crocodile Newt

    Etymology. The specific epithet ngarsuensis is a toponym in reference to Ngar Su Village, the type locality. 

      L. Lee Grismer, Perry L. Jr. Wood, Evan S. H. Quah, Myint K. Thura, Robert Espinoza, Marta S. Grismer, M. L. Murdoch and Aung Lin. 2018. A New Species of Crocodile Newt Tylototriton (Caudata: Salamandridae) from Shan State, Myanmar (Burma). Zootaxa.  4500(4); 553-573. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4500.4.5

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    Laosuchus naga
    Arbez, Sidor & Steyer, 2018

    Chroniosuchians were a clade of non-amniotic tetrapods known from the Guadalupian (middle Permian) to Late Triassic, mainly from Russia and China. The rarity of complete or articulated remains means that relatively little is known about this group in terms of its anatomy, palaeobiology or evolutionary history. Based on a nearly complete skull with a left hemimandible, we describe the first chroniosuchian from Laos from rocks preserving the Permian–Triassic boundary in the Luang Prabang Basin, which is located on the tectonic Indochina Block. This specimen is referred to a new genus and species, Laosuchus naga, based on numerous diagnostic features, including an extremely reduced pineal foramen; absence of palatal dentition; well-developed transverse flange of the pterygoid that contacts the maxilla; internal crest on and above the dorsal side the palate; otic notch closed by the tabular horn and the posterior part of the squamosal, forming a continuous wall; thin and high ventromedial ridge on parasphenoid. A phylogenetic analysis of 51 characters and 25 taxa reveals a basal position for Laosuchus naga among Chroniosuchia. In addition, CT scan data reveal internal structures and provide new insights about the anatomy and palaeobiology of chroniosuchians. Laosuchus naga was likely amphibious and spent most of its time in water, rather than in terrestrial environments. As chroniosuchians are non-marine tetrapods previously known on the North China Block, South China Block and Laurussia, the occurrence of Laosuchus naga on the Indochina Block supports the hypothesis of physical connections between all these tectonic plates by the time of the Permo–Triassic boundary.

    Keywords: braincase, Reptiliomorpha, sensory system, palaeobiogeography, phylogeny, tomography

    Systematic palaeontology
    Superclass Tetrapoda Goodrich, 1930
    Order Reptiliomorpha Säve-Söderbergh, 1934 (sensu Benton, 2004)
    Suborder Chroniosuchia Tatarinov, 1972 (sensu Witzmann & Schoch, 2017)

    Family incertaesedis

    Genus Laosuchus gen. nov

    Etymology. From the country of origin (Laos) and the ancient Greek soukhos, ‘crocodile’, for its crocodilian-like appearance. 

     Laosuchus naga sp. nov.

    Etymology. From the mythological monster ‘Naga’ (or Phaya Naga) believed to live in the Mekong River, which is close to the type locality.

    Thomas Arbez, Christian A. Sidor and J.-Sébastien Steyer. 2018. Laosuchus naga gen. et sp. nov., A New Chroniosuchian from South-East Asia (Laos) with Internal Structures Revealed by micro-CT Scan and Discussion of its Palaeobiology. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology.  DOI: 10.1080/14772019.2018.1504827

    La forme de la Pangée mieux comprise grâce à un fossile de proto-reptile via @Sciences_Avenir

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    Karstarma vulcan 
     Poupin, Crestey & Le Guelte, 2018

    Sesarmid crabs of the genus Karstarma Davie & Ng, 2007 are reported for the first time in the Western Indian Ocean: they were discovered in the lava tubes of the volcano ‘Piton de la Fournaise’, Réunion Island. A new species, morphologically similar to Karstarma jacksoni (Balss, 1934) from Christmas Island, Eastern Indian Ocean, is recognized and described. A redescription of K. jacksoni is also provided. A second species is recognized, but being represented in the collection by a single juvenile, it cannot be identified to species level until more collections are made in the lava tubes. 

     Key words: Crustacea, Grapsoidea, Indian Ocean, endemic species, cave-dwelling species, taxonomy

    Family Sesarmidae Dana, 1851
    Genus Karstarma Davie & Ng, 2007

    Karstarma vulcan sp. nov.

    Sesarmoides ?longipes—ACSP 2014: webpage (Réunion, colour photograph).—Robert 2014: 1, 17 (same color photograph as ACSP). Not Sesarmoides longipes (Krauss, 1843).

    Etymology. This new species is named after ‘Vulcan’ (used as an appositive noun) the ancient Roman god of fire, including fire of volcanoes, in allusion to the crab’s being discovered in the lava tubes of the volcano ‘Piton de la Fournaise’.

    Distribution. Known only from Réunion Island. This is the first record of Karstarma in the WIO (Fig. 6). This is a cryptic species that has remained unnoticed in Réunion for a long time despite numerous studies of wildlife in the Island in the past. It is probably most active at night and is potentially present in all lava tubes allowing an easy access to the shoreline where the crab is likely to lay its eggs. In WIO it is perhaps also present in the Islands of Madagascar, Mauritius and/or Rodrigues in similar cave biotopes. In Rodrigues Island (~ 820 km east to Réunion Island), for example, karstic caves are known in the wildlife park, ‘François Leguat Giant Tortoise and Cave Reserve’ where more investigations for Karstarma crabs would be interesting.

    Live colour of Karstarma sp. female juv. 8.6 × 9.8 mm (MNHN-IU-2013-7242), probably from lava tube ‘Brûlé des Citrons Galets’.
     photograph: A. Barrère, 19 February 2016

      Live colour of Karstarma jacksoni (Balss, 1934), Christmas Island.
    Photographs outside cave by Hitoshi Takakura. 

     Joseph Poupin, Nicole Crestey and Jean-Paul Le Guelte. 2018. Cave-dwelling Crabs of the Genus Karstarma from Lava Tubes of the Volcano ‘Piton de la Fournaise’, in Réunion Island, with Description of A New Species and Redescription of Karstarma jacksoni (Balss, 1934) from Christmas Island (Decapoda, Brachyura, Sesarmidae). Zootaxa. 4497(3); 381–397.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4497.3.3

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    Eupolyphaga nigrinotum
    Qiu, Che & Wang, 2018

    The cockroach genus Eupolyphaga is revised. Twenty species and two subspecies are recognized, with thirteen species and two subspecies are new to science: Eupolyphaga daweishana sp. nov., E.dongi sp. nov., E. fengi sp. nov., E. hanae sp. nov., E. hupingensis sp. nov., E. maculata sp. nov., E. nigrifera sp. nov., E. nigrinotum sp. nov., E. pilosa sp. nov., E. robusta sp. nov., E. shennongensis sp. nov., E. wooi sp. nov., E. xuorum sp. nov., E. everestiana reni subsp. nov., and E. fengi yongshengensis subsp. nov. Homœogamia sinensis Saussure is placed as a junior synonym of E. sinensis (Walker) and the replaced name E. limbata (Kirby) for Homœogamia sinensis is invalid, the status of Eupolyphaga thibetana (Chopard) is recovered. Male genitalia of species in the genus is described and illustrated. Females and oothecae of some species are described and illustrated. Distribution maps and a checklist of Eupolyphaga are provided. A key to males of Eupolyphaga is given. Plenty habitat photographs are shown.

    Keywords: Blattaria, Polyphagini, new species, male genitalia, ootheca, cockroach

    Eupolyphaga nigrinotum sp. nov. from Mt. Jizushan, Yunnan.
    Female with a large ootheca.
    photographed by Lu Qiu.

     Lu Qiu, Yang-li Che and Zongqing Wang. 2018. A Taxonomic Study of Eupolyphaga Chopard, 1929 (Blattodea: Corydiidae: Corydiinae).  Zootaxa. 4506(1); 1–68.   DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4506.1.1

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    Gastrochilus deltoglossus T.C. Hsu, S.I Hsieh, J.H. Wu & H.C. Hung

    in Hsu, Hsieh, Wu & Hung, 2018. 

    A new species, Gastrochilus deltoglossus, is described and illustrated from Taiwan. This species is characterized by the presence of pendulous stems, leaves without awned apex, 3.5–4.0 mm tall subconical hypochile, and broadly deltoid, ciliate, adaxially sparsely short-hairy epichile that are approximately as wide as hypochile. Notes on its distribution, ecology, conservation status and taxonomic affinities are presented.

    Keyword: Gastrochilus ciliaris, Gastrochilus raraensis, Orchidaceae, Taiwan, Taxonomy

    Fig. 2. Line drawing of Gastrochilus deltoglossus, from J.H. Wu 525.
    A–B. Flowering habits (A, bottom view; B, top view). C. Leaves. D. Inflorescence. E. Bract. F–H. Flower (F, top view; G, side view; H, front view). I. Dorsal sepal. J. Petal. K. Lateral sepal. L–N. Lip and column (L, top view; M, side view; N, front view). O–P. Anther cap (O, top view; P, bottom view). Q–S. Pollinarium (Q, top view; R, side view; S, bottom view).
    Illustrated by Hsin-Chieh Hung.

    Fig. 1. Morphology of Gastrochilus deltoglossus, from J.H. Wu 525.
    A–C. Flowering habits. D. Leaf. E–H. Flower (E, top view; F, front view; G–H, side view). I. Dorsal sepal, adaxial view. J. Petal, adaxial view. K. Lateral sepal, adaxial view. L–N. Lip and column (L, front view; M, top view; N, side view). O–P. Anther cap (O, top view; P, bottom view). Q–S. Pollinarium (Q, top view; R, side view; S, bottom view). T. Capsules.
     Scale bars: A = 5 cm. B–D & T = 1 cm. E–N = 5 mm. O–S = 1 mm.

    Gastrochilus deltoglossus T.C. Hsu, S.I Hsieh, J.H. Wu & H.C. Hung, sp. nov.

    Type: TAIWAN. Nantou County: Ren'ai Township, 2000–2500 m elev., 8 Jun 2018, J. H. Wu 525 (holotype: TCF!; isotypes: TAIF!, TNM!). 

    Diagnosis:This new species is similar to Gastrochilus raraensis, from which it differs in having a wider (3.0–3.5 vs. ca. 2.0 mm) saccate lip hypochile and a smaller, deltoid (vs. semiorbicular to reniform), adaxially sparsely short-hairy (vs. densely long hairy) lip epichile. It is also similar to G. ciliaris but can be differentiated on the basis of its pendulous (vs. creeping) stems, larger (3.5–4.0 vs. 2.0–3.0 mm long) tepals, much larger (3.5–4.0 mm tall and 3.0–3.5 in diam. vs. 1.5–2.0 mm tall and ca. 2.0 mm in diam.) subconical (vs. semispherical) lip hypochile with acute (vs. rounded) bottom, and obtuse (vs. rounded or emarginate) epichile. 

     Chinese name:三角唇松蘭. 

    Etymology: The specific epithet is a combination of “delta”, triangular, and “glossus”, tongue, derived from the characteristic deltoid lip epichile of the new species.

    Gastrochilus deltoglossus T.C. Hsu, S.I Hsieh, J.H. Wu & H.C. Hung

    in Hsu, Hsieh, Wu & Hung, 2018. 

    Tian-Chuan Hsu, Szu-I Hsieh, Jin-Hua Wu and Hsin-Chieh Hung. 2018. Gastrochilus deltoglossus (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae: Vandeae: Aeridinae), A New Species from Taiwan. Taiwania. 63(4); 360-365. DOI: 10.6165/tai.2018.63.360  


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    Ambrysus spicatus La Rivers, 1953

    in Reynoso-Velasco & Sites, 2018. 
    DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4491.1.1 

    The Ambrysus pudicus Stål species complex is revised, its species diagnosed, and an illustrated key is presented. The complex includes A. abortus La Rivers, A. amargosus La Rivers, A. funebris La Rivers, A. hungerfordi Usinger, A. parviceps Montandon, A. pudicus Stål, and A. relictus Polhemus & Polhemus. A new species,Ambrysus chinanteco, belonging to this complex is described from southern Mexico. The subspecies A. hungerfordiangularis La Rivers, A. h. spicatus La Rivers, and A. h. triunfoLa Rivers are herein elevated to full species level and considered members of this species complex. The subspecies A. pudicus barberi Usinger is synonymized with the nominate subspecies. Based on specific combinations of morphological features, two subcomplexes of species are recognized within the complex. The species A. funebris is transferred from the subgenus Acyttarus La Rivers to the subgenus Ambrysus Stål. In order to fix the identity of three species in the complex, neotypes for A. amargosus and A. spicatus and a lectotype for A. pudicus are designated here. The species in the A. pudicus complex are distributed in North America from the southwestern and southern United States to northern Costa Rica. New country records from Central America are presented for A. parviceps and A. pudicus. New state records from Mexico are presented for A. abortus, A. angularis, A. hungerfordi, A. parviceps, A. pudicus, and A. spicatus.

    Keywords: Hemiptera, saucer bugs, taxonomy, distribution, Cryphocricinae

     Daniel Reynoso-Velasco and Robert W. Sites. 2018. Revision of the Ambrysus pudicus Stål Species Complex (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: Naucoridae) with the Description of A New Species from southern Mexico. Zootaxa. 4491(1); 1–64.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4491.1.1

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    Spatuloricaria terracanticum 
    Londoño-Burbano, Urbano-Bonilla, Rojas-Molina, Ramírez-Gil, & Prada-Pedreros, 2018

    A new species of Spatuloricaria is described from the Orinoco River basin, Colombia. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: a broad, dark brown stripe on the first pre-dorsal plate, which occupies the entire plate, reaching the preopercle, and sometimes reaching the second pre-dorsal plate; the possession of a small group of plates posterior to the urogenital pore; the abdominal surface with scattered, very small plates leaving naked areas; the possession of five transverse dark brown bands on the dorsal region; and four to five premaxillary teeth. The new species is the first valid species of Spatuloricaria distributed in the Orinoco River basin. Ecological notes of the species and comments regarding the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the genus are offered.

    Fig. 2. Spatuloricaria terracanticum, coloration in life; MPUJ 13401, Colombia, Meta, Villavicencio, Guayuriba River, tributary to the upper Meta River, Orinoco basin.
    Photograph by A. Ortega-Lara.

    Spatuloricaria terracanticum, new species

    Spatuloricaria sp.—Urbano-Bonilla et al., 2018:74 [listed; included in identification key for Loricariidae genera and species of the Cusiana River, Orinoco River basin].

    Etymology.—The specific epithet is from the latin terra [earth] and canticum [song]. It is dedicated to the Llanos work songs (cantos de vaquería). Its origin dates back to the 16th century and has been transferred from generation to generation in the Llanos region of Colombia and Venezuela. Sung a cappella, melodies reflect the feeling and the close relationship of the llanero with their myths, beliefs, nature, climate, and animals. Although these songs have been gradually lost within modern society due to economic, political, and social causes, UNESCO has declared them as intangible cultural heritage of humanity

    Alejandro Londoño-Burbano, Alexander Urbano-Bonilla, Yecid Rojas-Molina, Hernando Ramírez-Gil, and Saúl Prada-Pedreros. 2018. A New Species of Spatuloricaria Schultz, 1944 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae), from the Orinoco River Basin, Colombia. Copeia. 106(4); 611-621. DOI: 10.1643/CI-18-087   


    Una nueva especie de Spatuloricaria, proveniente del río Orinoco, Colombia, es descrita. La nueva especie se distingue de sus congéneres por los siguientes caracteres: una banda transversal ancha en la primera placa predorsal, la cual ocupa toda la placa y el preopérculo, alcanzado algunas veces la segunda placa predorsal; un grupo de pequeñas placas posterior al poro urogenital; abdomen cubierto por placas pequeñas y dispersas, las cuales dejan áreas desnudas; presencia de cinco bandas transversales marrón oscuro en la región dorsal; y cuatro a cinco dientes en el premaxilar. La nueva especie es la primera especie válida de Spatuloricaria distribuida en la cuenca del río Orinoco. Se presentan notas ecológicas de la especie, y comentarios con relación a la taxonomía y relaciones filogenéticas del género.

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