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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region

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    A uniquely colored dwarfgoby, Eviota erdmanni n. sp., with a cup-like urogenital papilla in males, a cephalic sensory-canal pore system lacking only the IT pore (pattern 2), some branched pectoral-fin rays, and a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula of 9/8 is described from south Flores, Indonesia. We use molecular data from both mitochondrial and nuclear genes to infer the phylogenetic relationship of the new species with respect to its congeners, with specific emphasis on species with uniquely shaped urogenital papillae.

    Key words: taxonomy, systematics, phylogenetics, coral-reef fishes, gobies, Pacific Ocean, urogenital papilla, molecular data.

     Luke Tornabene and David W Greenfield. 2016. Eviota erdmanni (Teleostei: Gobiidae), A New Dwarfgoby from the Savu Sea, Flores, Indonesia. Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation. 22, 1–9. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.56572


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    Euprepes beddomei 
    (Jerdon, 1870)


    Euprepes beddomei was described by Jerdon (1870) from “Mysore” (Karnataka State, India). Simultaneously, Euprepes (Tiliqua) septemlineatus, which is morphologically similar to E. beddomei, was described by Blanford (1870) based on a single specimen collected from the Ganga River Valley, Southeast Berar, Madhya Pradesh, India. Smith (1935) synonymised the latter species (published in September, 1870) with Euprepes beddomei which in turn was published earlier (March, 1870). Jerdon’s publication should therefore be given priority. A comprehensive comparison between the holotypes of the above two species confirms that E. septemlineatus is a junior synonym of E. beddomei. Based on morphological characters, Eutropis beddomei is here clearly identified and can be considered a widespread species in India and Sri Lanka. The original description of E. beddomei is very short and lacks a description containing most of the important diagnostic characters; hence, we hereby provide a comprehensive description of the species based on the examination of its holotype.

    Keywords: Reptilia, Biogeography, Euprepes, India, Mabuya, species complex, Sri Lanka, synonymy

    A.A. Thasun Amarasinghe, Patrick D. Campbell, S. R. Chandramouli, Kaushik Deuti, Sujoy Raha, D.M.S. Suranjan Karunarathna and Ineich Ivan. 2016. Taxonomy and Natural History of Eutropis beddomei (Jerdon, 1870) (Reptilia: Scincidae), including a Redescription of the Holotype. Zootaxa. 4132(4); DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4132.4.3

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    Teleocichla preta  
      Varella, Zuanon, Kullander & López-Fernández, 2016 
    DOI: 10.1111/jfb.13053 

    Teleocichla preta nov. sp. inhabits the rapids along the Rio Xingu and lower portion of the Rio Iriri. It is the largest species in the genus, reaching 121·3 mm standard length (LS) while others do not reach more than 87·8 mm LS. Teleocichla preta is distinguished from all other species of Teleocichla by the unique blackish (in live specimens) or dark brown (preserved specimens) overall colouration of the body, which masks the faint vertical bars or zig-zag pattern of blotches on the flanks. Teleocichla preta also has a deeper body and a deep laterally compressed caudal peduncle, unlike any other congener, as well as a stout lower pharyngeal tooth plate bearing molariform teeth on its median area.

    Keywords: Amazon basin; durophagy; endemism; rapids; rheophilic species; taxonomy

    Teleocichla preta nov. sp.

    Teleocichla PR Zuanon, 1999: 48 (diagnosis, schematic illustration and aspects of natural history of the species). 
    Teleocichla sp. Xingu II (or Schwarzel Teleocichla) Stawikowski & Werner, 2004: 247 (comments on distinctive characteristics and ecology of the species, photographs of live specimens). 
    Teleocichla sp. preta Arbour & López-Fernández, 2013: 4. Arbour & López-Fernández, 2014: 7 (inclusion of the species in biomechanical analyses in the context of the Crenicichla clade and of other Neotropical lineages of Cichlidae, respectively).

    Distribution: Teleocichla preta is known from the Rio Xingu between Cachoeira Chadasinho upstream of São Félix do Xingu and Cachoeira do Jericoá at Volta Grande do Xingu downstream of Altamira, Pará State. The species is also known from the lower portion of the Rio Iriri, the largest tributary of the Rio Xingu (Fig. 4).

    Figure 5. (ad) Typical moderate to fast, shallow rapids at Cachoeira Grande in the Rio Iriri, Rio Xingu basin in which Teleocichla preta is found.
    Underwater photographs of typical substratum with (e) an adult individual and (f) a pair of T. preta in the Rio Xingu, Altamira.
    Habitat and natural history: In the region of Volta Grande do Xingu and the lower Rio Iriri, specimens of T. preta were collected in moderate to fast, shallow rapids [Fig. 5(a)–(d)], with clear water and the riverbed composed mainly of large rocks and little accumulated sediment [Fig. 5(e), (f)]. During underwater exploration by snorkelling, individuals of T. preta were observed performing short excursions out of their rocky hideouts, moving alone amidst small rocks and in crevices of large rocks (J. Zuanon. and H. R. Varella, pers. obs).

    Etymology: The specific epithet preta, an adjective of the Portuguese language that means black, refers to the diagnostic dark overall colouration of the body and to the previous denominations for the species in the scientific and aquarium literature, as well as among fishermen of the Rio Xingu. Noun in apposition.

    H. R. Varella, J. Zuanon, S. O. Kullander and H. López-Fernández. 2016. Teleocichla preta, A New Species of Cichlid from the Rio Xingu Basin in Brazil (Teleostei: Cichlidae). Journal of Fish Biology.   DOI: 10.1111/jfb.13053

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    Stenolicmus ix 
    Wosiacki, Coutinho & de Assis Montag, 2011 


    Stenolicmus ix, new species, is described from Igarapé Curuá, left tributary of the Rio Amazonas, Pará, Brazil. It can be distinguished from S. sarmientoi by the length of the nasal barbels that reach the base of the first opercular odontodes; length of the maxillary barbels that reach the posterior margin of the opercular odontode plate; seven well-developed opercular odontodes; seven well-developed interopercular odontodes; color pattern of the dorsal region of trunk composed of agglomerated chromatophores forming circular patches twice the diameter of the eye; proportionally large eyes, 11.8% HL; caudal peduncle tall, 11.6% SL, without dark bar at base of the caudal fin; length of the head proportionately larger, 17.9% SL; unbranched rays of caudal fin reaching distal margin of fin. Comparisons with other Sarcoglanidinae and Trichomycteridae are presented. Some comments on the systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the group are made.

    Keywords: New catfish; Sarcoglanidinae; lower Amazon basin

    Wolmar Benjamin Wosiacki, Daniel Pires Coutinho and Luciano Fogaça de Assis Montag. 2011. Description of A New Species of Sand-dwelling Catfish of the genus Stenolicmus (Siluriformes; Trichomycteridae). Zootaxa.

    Jaguar-like species of catfish discovered in the Amazon

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    Coenobita lila Rahayu, Shih & Ng, 2016 [A, B, C]
    previously confused with C. cavipes Stimpson, 1858 [E]

     A new species of land hermit crab in the genus Coenobita Latreille, 1829 (Anomura: Coenobitidae), Coenobita lila, is described from Singapore and adjacent countries. The new species has previously been confused with C. cavipes Stimpson, 1858, but they can be distinguished by the former possessing dense tubercles on the outer face of the palm of the left cheliped and the presence of a large sternal protuberance between the male fifth pereopods. Recognition of the new species is further supported by molecular data. In this study, the presence of C. cavipes in Taiwan is confirmed, and the status of C. baltzeri Neumann, 1878, is discussed.

    Key words: Land hermit crab, taxonomy, Coenobita lila, new species, C. cavipesC. baltzeri, molecular data

    Fig. 11. A–CCoenobita lila n. sp. A, holotype male (sl 16.7 mm) (ZRC); B, paratype ovigerous female (sl 10.8 mm) (ZRC); C, female (sl 11.8 mm) (ZRC);
     D–F, C. cavipes Stimpson, 1858, Houwan, Kenting, Pingtung, Taiwan (NCHUZOOL 13637). D, female (sl 13.8 mm); E, female (sl 13.5 mm); F, female (sl 14.9 mm). 


    Family Coenobitidae Dana, 1851
    Genus Coenobita Latreille, 1829

    Coenobita lila n. sp.
    (Figs. 1–3, 4A–C, 5A–C, 6A–C, 10, 11A–C)
    Coenobita cavipes– Lim et al., 1994: 29, 1 un-numbered fig.; Ng & Sivasothi, 1999: 85, 1 un-numbered fig.; Ng et al., 2007: 69. (not Coenobita cavipes Stimpson, 1858).
    Coenobita rugosus – Ng et al., 2007: 70, 71, 3 un-numbered figs. (not Coenobita rugosus H. Milne Edwards, 1837).
    Coenobita purpureus– Ng et al., 2008: 107, 2 un-numbered figs. (not Coenobita purpureus Stimpson, 1858).

    Etymology. The name is derived from the Latin “lila” for lilac or light purple, alluding to the live colour of adult individuals. The name is used as noun in apposition.

    Habitat. Upper intertidal to 100 m inland from the beach, sometimes crowding in the supralittoral grass beds or under stones during the day. It is typically found in reef habitats, but may also occur at the edge of mangroves and other estuarine habitats. It is the only species of Coenobita found in Singapore thus far.

    Distribution. Singapore; Malaysia; and Indonesia.

    Rahayu, D. L,. H.-T. Shih and P. K. L. Ng. 2016. A New Species of Land Hermit Crab in the Genus Coenobita Latreille, 1829 from Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia, previously confused with C. cavipes Stimpson, 1858 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Coenobitidae).
     The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology.   34 (Part II): 470–488. 

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    Bulbophyllum pingnanense 
    J.F. Liu, S.R. Lan & Y.C. Liang

    A new orchid species, Bulbophyllum pingnanense, is described and illustrated from Fujian, China. It is similar to B. brevipedunculatum and B. albociliatum in vegetative and floral morphology, but it can be distinguished from Bbrevipedunculatum by having a longer dorsal sepal with longer white ciliate on margin, longer and lanceolate lateral sepals, and a glabrous lip. It can be distinguished from B. albociliatum by having a shorter inflorescence, and a longer dorsal sepal.

    Keywords: Bulbophyllum, Eastern China, Fujian, Orchidaceae


    Bulbophyllum pingnanense J.F. Liu, S.R. Lan & Y.C. Liang, sp. nov. 

    Type: China. Fujian: Pingnan County, Shuangxi Town, on rock along Yuanyan River, 800–900 m, 27°01'N, 119°05'E, 23 June 2013, J.F. Liu 201312 (holotype: FAFU!; isotype: NOCC!).

    Bulbophyllum pingnanense is similar to B. brevipedunculatum T.C. Hsu & S.W. Chung and B. albociliatum (T.S. Liu & H.Y. Su) K. Nackejima. It differs from Bbrevipedunculatum by having a longer dorsal sepal with either an obtuse or an acute apex and longer white ciliate on margins; longer and lanceolate lateral sepals; and glabrous lip. It can be distinguished from B. albociliatum by its shorter inflorescence, a longer dorsal sepal with either an obtuse or an acute apex.

    Figure 2. Bulbophyllumpingnanense J.F. Liu, S.R. Lan & Y.C. Liang.
    A habitat and habit B–D flower E dorsal sepal F lateral sepal G petal H lip I lip, column, pedicel and ovary, side view J pollinia and anther cap. 

    Etymology: The species epithet refers to Pingnan County where this new species was found.

     Distribution and habitat Bulbophyllum pingnanense is so far only known within Pingnan, Fujian, China (Fig. 3). It is epiphytic on steep rock in the edge of evergreen coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, which is mainly composed of Castanopsis eyrei (Champ. ex Benth.) Hutch. (Fagaceae), Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. (Taxodiaceae). Other orchids, Amitostigma gracile (Bl.) Schltr., Pholidota cantonensis Rolfe, Cymbidium floribundum Lindl. and Pleione formosana Hayata, were found growing nearby this new species.

    Phenology: Flowering from June to July.

    Conservation status: Bulbophyllum pingnanense is known only from the type locality, and only one population of ca. 3000 individual plants was discovered in a small area of ca. 0.002 km2 during two years of botanical surveys. Based on the extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 100 km2 (CR B1) and the area of occupancy less than 10 km2 (CR B2), species existing at a single location (CR B1a + B2a), B. pingnanense is assigned a preliminary status of Critically Endangered (CR B1a + B2a) according to the IUCN Categories and Criteria (IUCN 2012). In addition, the plants of Bulbophyllum are used as herbal medicine in the locality. It is possible that B. pingnanense might also be collected for using as herbal medicine. Therefore, immediate conservation strategy should be taken.

     Jiangfeng Liu, Si-Ren Lan, Bi-Zhu He and Yi-Chi Liang. 2016. Bulbophyllum pingnanense (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae, Dendrobiinae), A New Species from Fujian, China. PhytoKeys. 65: 107-112. DOI:  10.3897/phytokeys.65.8254

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    Bulbophyllum aureoflavum  
    Karuppusamy & Ravichandran 


    Bulbophyllum aureoflavum, a new orchid from Western Ghats of southern India, is described and illustrated. The new species, Bulbophyllumaureoflavum, is rare and known presently only from the type locality in southern Western Ghats. This species is related to B. elegantulum and B. fischeri,but differs by having a thick rhizome, subglobose pseudopbulb, bendant filiform scape, and a light golden yellowish, glabrous flower.

    Keywords: Bulbophyllum aureoflavum; new species; pantropical; taxonomy

    Diagnosis: The species can be differentiated from its allied species only when flowering during the dry months of May and June. The species is easily overlooked because its small bulbs and leaves are similar to those of Bulbophyllumelegantulum J. J. Sm. and B. fischeri Seidenf. Bulbophyllumaureoflavum which can be distinguished by its long, filiform, pendent, 12-flowered scape and by its golden yellowish, elliptic, connate, glabrous, and lateral sepals. Haec species Bulbophyllum elegantulum et B. fischeri similes, rhizome crassis, pseudobulbis subglobosis, scapus filiformis, flores aureo-flavo, sepalum elongato-ovatum, labello profunde sulcate differt.

    Distribution: Endemic to the Munnar-Devicolam Range of Western Ghats, Kerala State, India, growing on shaded rocks at about 1200m. It is known only from the type locality.

    Remarks: The present study noticed only 15 well-separated clumps, each of no more than 100 bulbs on shaded rocks next to the road from Devicolam to Poopara. 

    S. Karuppusamy and V. Ravichandran. 2013. A New Orchid of the Genus Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae) from Western Ghats of Southern India.
      TAPROBANICA. 5(2); 120-123. DOI:  10.4038/tapro.v5i2.6285 

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    Vipera walser
    Ghielmi, Menegon, Marsden, Laddaga & Ursenbacher, 2016

    We describe Vipera walser, a new viper species from the north-western Italian Alps. Despite an overall morphological resemblance with Vipera berus, the new species is remarkably distinct genetically from both V. berus and other vipers occurring in western Europe and shows closer affinities to species occurring only in the Caucasus. Morphologically, the new species appear to be more similar to V. berus than to its closest relatives occurring in the Caucasus, but can be readily distinguished in most cases by a combination of meristic features as confirmed by discriminant analysis. The extant population shows a very low genetic variability measured with mitochondrial markers, suggesting that the taxon has suffered a serious population reduction/bottleneck in the past. The species is extremely range-restricted (less than 500 km2) and occurs only in two disjunct sites within the high rainfall valleys of the Alps north of Biella. This new species should be classified as globally ‘endangered’ due to its small and fragmented range, and an inferred population decline. The main near-future threats to the species are habitat changes associated with reduced grazing, along with persecution and collecting.

    Keywords: Vipers; Vipera berusVipera walser; reptile conservation; new species; bPTP species delimitation model; Alps; biogeography; climate change

    Vipera walser
    Ghielmi, Menegon, Marsden, Laddaga & Ursenbacher, 2016 

    Figure 6. Pattern variation in adult male (left) and adult female (right) of Vipera walser sp. nov.

    Figure 7. Variation in head scalation in adult female (upper four photographs) and adult male (lower four photographs) of Vipera walser sp. nov.
     DOI: 10.1111/jzs.12138  


    Vipera walser
    Ghielmi, Menegon, Marsden, Laddaga & Ursenbacher sp. nov. 

    Holotype: Adult female: MSNG34485, collected in S. Giovanni d'Andorno, on the road to Oropa in the Biella prealps, at about 1300 m a.s.l. by A. Rosazza in the summer of 1930 (Fig. 5).

    Paratypes: One adult male: MSNG33638M collected at Monte Rosso del Croso, on 30 August 1933. One juvenile male: MSNG33637B and one subadult male: MSNG30818C collected at Alpe Finestre by Felice Capra, respectively, on 28 July 1930 and 15 August 1928. One adult female: MSNG30818A, one subadult female: MSNG30818B, and two juvenile females: MSNG33637C and MSNG33637D collected by Felice Capra at Alpe Finestre between August 1928 and August 1939. One juvenile female: MSNG30286 collected by F. Capra at Monte Rosso del Croso on 12 September 1934; one adult female MSNG33637A collected by F. Capra at Alpe le Piane on 5 August 1937; one adult female MSNG41663 collected by A. Margiocco at Piedicavallo in September 1967.

    Type locality: San Giovanni d'Andorno, strada per Oropa at 1300 m a.s.l. in the Alps north of town of Biella, a subrange of the Pennine Alps, north-western Italy.

    Differential diagnosis: Vipera walser sp. nov. is generally similar to the species of the subgenus Pelias and can be confused with V. berus, which co-occurs on the Alps in allopatry (Fig. 6, Table 2). The species differs in a generalized higher count of cephalic scales, in particular the ones listed below (V. berus in parentheses): higher number of crown scales: 7–30, mean 17.4 (versus 4–22, mean 13.0); loreals: 4–15, mean 9.36 (versus 2–12, mean 6.72); and, to a lesser extent, perioculars: 16–23, mean 19.8 (versus 13–23, mean 18.4) (see Table 2). V. walser, in contrast to V. berus, also shows a marked tendency towards fragmentation of the cephalic large shields: the parietal scales are often completely broken down into several smaller scales: 2–14, mean 6.3 (versus 2–10, mean 2.4; see also Fig. 7). Less commonly, also the frontal scale is fragmented into smaller scales. Some individuals exhibit a dorsum of the head covered in small, irregular scales, like in V. aspis. V. walser has between 1.5 and 2 rows of subocular scales on both sides of the head in 85% of the analysed specimens (V. berus has typically one row of suboculars, with the exception of some populations in the southern Alps). The dorsal zigzag is often broken down into separate bars as in Vipera aspis (Linnaeus, 1758) or Vipera berus bosniensis (see Fig. 6). Despite the lack of a strictly diagnostic morphological character, V. walser can be readily distinguished from populations of V. berus from Central and northern Europe by a combination of several characters (e.g. the number of subocular scales, fragmentation of parietals and number of apicals). Identification based solely on observation of external morphology is less obvious if individuals of V. berus from southern Alps are considered. Despite this, discriminant analysis correctly identified individuals to species in 94% of females and 88% of males, based on a set of analysed characters (see Figs 2 and 3). The mean p-distance, based on a combined dataset of about 3000 base pairs of mitochondrial genes, between V. berus and V. walser is 5.36%. Based on our current knowledge of its distribution, Vipera walser is restricted to the Alps north of town of Biella, a subrange of the Pennine Alps, west of the river Ticino, north-western Italy (Fig. 8).

    Etymology: Vipera walser sp. nov. is named after, and dedicated to, the Walser people with whom it shares an extraordinary beautiful and wild area of the south-western Alps.

    Figure 8. Currently known extent of occurrence of Vipera walser sp. nov. (in blue) and V. berus (in red) in north western Italy
     DOI: 10.1111/jzs.12138  

    Figure 6. Pattern variation in adult male (left) and adult female (right) of Vipera walser sp. nov.
    Figure 9. Habitat of Vipera walser sp. nov; Valle Mastallone at 2,070 m (left) and Valle Strona at about 1,800 m (right)

    The present study described and named a new viper species, V. walser, which shows strong genetic divergence and clear morphological differentiation from all other known European viper species. The new taxon occurs in a restricted area of the south-western Italian Alps and shows close affinities with the Caucasian species V. dinniki, V. darevskii and V. kaznakovi, opening unexpected and interesting biogeographic scenarios. The very small extent of occurrence of the new species implies a particularly high threat level, and thus conservation managements should be developed. The protection of its habitat, the limitation of the forest regrowth, but also the evaluation of its likely future distribution given climatic changes (for the long term) or struggle against culling (short term) are key elements to investigate. Involvement of local authorities, foundations and other stakeholders will be crucial in realizing effective protection of this species.

    Samuele Ghielmi, Michele Menegon, Stuart J. Marsden, Lorenzo Laddaga and Sylvain Ursenbacher. 2016. A New Vertebrate for Europe: The Discovery of A Range-restricted Relict Viper in the western Italian Alps. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research.  54(3); 161–173.  DOI: 10.1111/jzs.12138

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    Generalised body colour patterns of the species of the Diplodus sargus group 
    Diplodus levantinus
    Fricke, Golani & Appelbaum-Golani, 2016

    The sea breamDiplodus levantinus n. sp. is described from off the coasts of Israel in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, where it replaces Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus, 1758). The new species is characterized by 11-12 spines and 10-16 soft rays in the dorsal fin, 3 spines and 11-13 soft rays in the anal fin, 15-17 pectoral fin rays, 6-9 + 8-12 gill rakers on the first gill arch, upper and lower jaws with a single row of 4 incisors on each side, followed by a total of 16-19 molariform teeth in the upper jaw and 12-14 molariform teeth in the lower jaw, with the molariforms of the upper jaw separated from the incisors by a wide, toothless gap, and the sides of the body in adults with 8 vertical bars of equal width which are present even in large adults, followed by a broad bar on the caudal peduncle which usually nearly reaches the ventral margin of the caudal peduncle. An updated checklist of the species of the genus Diplodus, and a key to species of the Diplodus sargus species group from the eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea, are presented.

    Keywords: taxonomy; fishes; new species; Mediterranean Sea; neotype designation; checklist; key

    Diplodus levantinus new species (Figs 1-4, Table 1)

    Sargus Rondeletii (non Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830): Steinitz 1927: 338 (Haifa, Israel).
    Sargus sargus (non Linnaeus, 1758): Liebman 1934: 323 (Palestine/ Israel; most frequent and abundant species).
    Diplodus sargus (non Linnaeus, 1758): Hornell 1935: 83 (Palestine/ Israel). Bodenheimer 1937: 273 (Palestine/Israel). Ben-Tuvia 1953a: 23 (Israel, common along the shores). Ben-Tuvia 1953b: 439 (off Caesarea, Israel). Ben-Tuvia 1971: 32 (Israel). Golani 1996: 39 (Israel). Golani 2005: 43 (Israel). Golani 2006: 182- 183 (Israel). Golani et al. 2006: 163.
    Sargus rondeletti (non Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830): Bodenheimer 1935: 462 (Palestine/Israel).
    Diplodus X (probably a hybrid of Diplodus annularis × Diplodus sargus): Paz et al. 1974: 126. Paz 1975: 57-61 (Tantura Bay, Israel).
    Diplodus sargus sargus (non Linnaeus, 1758): Whitehead et al. 1986: 894-895 (part: Israel).

    Holotype: HUJ 20535, 184.1 mm SL, eastern Mediterranean Sea, Israel, off Jaffa, ca. 32°03’N 34°45’E, collected by local fishermen, 30 Oct. 2015. 

    Diagnosis. A species of Diplodus Rafinesque 1810 with 11-12 spines and 10-16 soft rays in the dorsal fin, 3 spines and 11-13 soft rays in the anal fin, 15-17 pectoral fin rays, 6-9 + 8-12 gill rakers on the first gill arch, upper and lower jaws with a single row of 4 incisors on each side, followed by a total of 16-19 molariform teeth in the upper jaw and 12-14 molariform teeth in the lower jaw, with the molariforms of the upper jaw separated from the incisors by a wide gap, and the sides of the body
    in adults with 8 vertical bars of equal width, which are present even in large adults, followed by a broad bar on caudal peduncle, which usually nearly reaches the ventral margin of the caudal peduncle.

    Etymology. The name of the new species, levantinus, refers to the Levant, a historical name for the coasts of the eastern Mediterranean.

    Distribution and habitat. Known only from the coast of Israel, eastern Mediterranean Sea, between Haifa and Jaffa (Fig. 5). The species is found from shallow water to 50 m depth, usually on sand bottom near rocks; juveniles are found above sandy substrate near rocks at depths of 0.2-2 m.

    Fig. 7.– Generalised body colour patterns of the species of the Diplodus sargus group; large adults, medium adults and small adults.
    Diplodus sargus: A, MNHN A-8098 (255 mm SL), France, Marseille; B, MNHN 1961-0894 (192 mm SL), Monaco, 1961. C, MNHN uncat. (92 mm SL), France, Villefranche-sur-Mer.
     Diplodus capensis: D, MNHN A-8096 (315 mm SL), South Africa, Cape Province. E, MRAC 97894 (215 mm SL), South Africa, Elephant Bay. F, SAIAB 1638 (109 mm SL), South Africa, Cape Province.
     Diplodus cadenati: G, BMNH 1895.5.28.24 (310 mm SL), Madeira. H, BMNH 1858.8.3.7-8 (182 mm SL), Canary Islands. I, IFAN 867 (89 mm SL), Senegal, Dakar.
    Diplodus levantinus n. sp.: J, HUJ 7462 (281 mm SL, paratype), Israel, Caesarea, 12 Aug. 1959. K, HUJ 2134 (176.3 mm SL, paratype), Israel, Wadi Hadera, 24 Oct. 1955. L, HUJ 20257 (spec. 1, 95 mm SL, paratype), Israel, Sdot Yam, 21 Jan. 2014.
    Diplodus lineatus: M, HUJ 20368 (spec. 1, 222 mm SL), Cape Verde Islands, Boa Vista, 9 Sept. 2014. N, HUJ 20369 (spec. 2, 177 mm SL), Cape Verde Islands, Boa Vista, 9 Sept. 2014. O, MNHN 1971-0002 (98 mm SL), Cape Verde Islands. This figure follows Paz (1975: 47), but is corrected and updated; figures A-I and O based on Paz (1975: Fig. 23).
     Scales indicate 20 mm. | 

    Ronald Fricke, Daniel Golani and Brenda Appelbaum-Golani. 2016. Diplodus levantinus (Teleostei: Sparidae), A New Species of Sea Bream from the southeastern Mediterranean Sea of Israel, with A Checklist and A Key to the Species of the Diplodus sargus Species Group. SCIENTIA MARINA. 80(3); DOI:  10.3989/scimar.04414.22B

    Diplodus levantinus (Teleostei: Sparidae), una nueva especie de sargo del Mediterráneo sudeste frente a Israel, con una lista de especies y una clave de clasificación de las especies del grupo Diplodus sargus 

    Resumen: El sargo levantino Diplodus levantinus n. sp. se describe a partir de ejemplares de las costas de Israel, en el Mediterráneo oriental, donde reemplaza a Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus, 1758). La nueva especie se caracteriza por: 11-12 espinas y 10-16 radios blandos en la aleta dorsal, 3 espinas y 11-13 radios blandos en la aleta anal, 15-17 radios en las pectorales, 6-9 + 8-12 branquispinas en el primer arco branquial; las mandíbulas superior e inferior con una sola fila de 4 incisivos en cada lado, seguidos por un total de 16-19 molares en la mandíbula superior y 12-14 molares en la mandíbula inferior, con los molares de la mandíbula superior separados de los incisivos por una gran distancia sin dientes; los lados del cuerpo, en los adultos, con 8 bandas verticales de igual anchura, presentes incluso en adultos de gran tamaño, seguidas de una amplia banda en el pedúnculo caudal que, por lo general, casi alcanza el margen ventral del pedúnculo caudal. Se diferencia principalmente de D. sargus por el menor número de dientes molares en las mandíbulas superior e inferior, y por la amplia separación, sin dientes, entre molares e incisivos de la mandíbula superior. Se presenta una lista actualizada de las especies del género Diplodus y una clave para las especies del grupo de especies Diplodus sargus del Atlántico este y el Mediterráneo. 

    Palabras clave: taxonomía; peces; nueva especie; mar Mediterráneo; designación de neotipo; lista de especies; clave

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    Pristimantis urani 
    Rivera-Correa& Daza, 2016 


    The Pristimantis lacrimosus species group, with 24 species distributed in the Neotropics, is a group of arboreal frogs commonly inhabiting bromeliads. Previous studies have claimed the group to be monophyletic but few species have been included in phylogenetic analyses. In this paper, we included five additional species from the northern Andes in Colombia and tested the monophyly of this phenetic group using genetic data under a Bayesian approach. Our results show that the P. lacrimosus group represents two distant and unrelated clades. Clade “A” is endemic to Colombia while Clade “B” encompasses species distributed in Central America, Ecuador and Peru. For the first time, we reveal the phylogenetic position of P. boulengeri and a new species is described. The new taxon is most closely related to P. brevifrons from southwestern Colombia with a genetic distance of 4.3% for 16S and 10.6% for COI. Our results suggest, one more time, that morphological similarity among species in the most diverse vertebrate genus not necessarily agree with its evolutionary history and that more effort in alpha taxonomy needs to be done in order to understand the tremendous radiation of this lineage in the Neotropics.

    Keywords. Cordillera Occidental, diversity, external morphology, molecular phylogenetics, taxonomy, systematics.

    Fig. 2. Pristimantis urani sp. nov. in life: MHUA-A 7471, SVL 24.2 mm, holotype, adult female

    Photo by F. Duarte-Cubides. DOI: 10.13128/Acta_Herpetol-16434  

    Morphological description 

    Pristimantis urani sp. nov. (Figs 2,5) 

    Holotype. MHUA-A 7471, adult female. Colombia, Departamento de Antioquia, Municipio de Urrao, Corregimiento La Encarnación, Vereda El Maravillo, (6º30’36” N, 76º08’40” W; 2295 m a.s.l.), collected on March 14, 2012 by José Fang.

     Paratypes. MHUA-A 7467–68 adult males; MHUA-A 7469–70, MHUA-A 7472 adult females; all collected with holotype.

    Diagnosis:  We assigned the new species to the genus Pristimantis on the basis of our phylogenetic results (Fig. 1). The new species is characterized by a combination of (1) skin texture of the dorsum smooth, venter weakly areolate; dorsolateral folds and discoidal fold absent; (2) tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus evident, supratympanic fold not differentiated; horizontal diameter of tympanum 33-38% of eye diameter; (3) snout broadly rounded in dorsal view (truncated by protruding nostrils), truncate in profile; (4) tubercles on upper eyelids and cranial crests absent; (5) dentigerous process of the vomer absent; (6) males with vocal slits and median subgular vocal sac; white, nonspinous nuptial pads present; (7) first finger shorter than the second; fingers III– IV bearing expanded and rounded discs about twice as wide as digits; (8) fingers with narrow lateral fringes; (9) antebrachial and ulnar tubercles absent, but a low ulnar fold present; (10) tubercles on heel and outer edge of tarsus absent; inner tarsal fold absent; (11) inner metatarsal tubercle oval, two-to-three times as long as round outer metatarsal tubercle; supernumerary plantar tubercles small and low, at the base of toes III and IV; (12) toes with narrow lateral fringes; webbing absent; fifth toe longer than third; (13) in life, dorsum light yellow to green-yellow with dark brown marks and blotches (Fig. 2); venter creamy white; (14) adults small, SVL in males 18.7–19.1 mm (18.9 ± 0.28, n = 2), in females 21.0–23.4 mm (22.5 ± 1.02, n = 4).

    Fig. 1. Phylogenetic relationships within Clade “A” Pristimantis lacrimosus species group. 
    Fig. 3.Pristimantis species of Clade “A”. (A) Pristimantis angustilineatus TG 1484 (Vereda Las Amarillas, Municipio del Cairo, Valle del Cauca, Colombia), adult female; (B) Pristimantis boulengeri MHUA-A 8952 (Parque Regional Natural Ucumarí, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia), SVL 22.0 mm, adult male; (C) Pristimantis brevifrons (Finca San Pedro, Municipio de Dagua, Valle del Cauca, Colombia; not collected), adult male; (D). Pristimantis dorsopictus MHUA-A 7855, (Corregimiento de Santa Elena, Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia), SVL 24.0 mm, adult male. TG: Taran Grant field number. Photos by Taran Grant (A), J.J. Ospina-Sarria (C), M. Rivera-Correa (B, D). DOI: 10.13128/Acta_Herpetol-16434

    Geographic distribution and natural history: Pristimantis urani sp. nov. is known only from type locality at elevations ca. 2300 m a.s.l., on the north-western flank of the Cordillera Occidental, Antioquia department of Colombia (Fig. 5). Limited natural history data were obtained during the collection of the series type, except that specimens were found near a creek inside a cloud montane forest, hidden in the axils of Araceae plants. The individuals were collected inactive in the morning (between 11:00–12:20 h). Female MHUA-A 7470 had developed follicles. The only other Pristimantis found to be syntopic with P. urani was P. erythropleura. Vocal behaviour or any aspect of the reproductive ecology of the species is currently unknown.

     Etymology: The specific name is a patronym for Rigoberto (Rigo) Urán, a Colombian cyclist born in Urrao, Antioquia, type locality of the new species. Rigo Uran represents, despite adversity, the struggle to become a great athlete. The new taxon is native to the northern Andes, mountains widely conquered by the Colombian cyclists.

    Mauricio Rivera-Correa and Juan M. Daza. 2016. Molecular Phylogenetics of the Pristimantis lacrimosus species group (Anura: Craugastoridae) with the Description of A New Species from Colombia. Acta Herpetol. 11(1); 31-45. DOI: 10.13128/Acta_Herpetol-16434

    Rana bautizada en honor a Ribogerto Urán via @elespectador

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    The ancestor of all modern domestic cats is the wildcat, Felis silvestris lybica, with archaeological evidence indicating it was domesticated as early as 10,000 years ago in South-West Asia. A recent study, however, claims that cat domestication also occurred in China some 5,000 years ago and involved the same wildcat ancestor (F. silvestris). The application of geometric morphometric analyses to ancient small felid bones from China dating between 5,500 to 4,900 BP, instead reveal these and other remains to be that of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). These data clearly indicate that the origins of a human-cat ‘domestic’ relationship in Neolithic China began independently from South-West Asia and involved a different wild felid species altogether. The leopard cat’s ‘domestic’ status, however, appears to have been short-lived—its apparent subsequent replacement shown by the fact that today all domestic cats in China are genetically related to F. silvestris.

    Fig 2. Geometric morphometric analyses of the five archaeological Chinese cat mandibles.
     Left column: lateral view of the mandibles—the first and the fourth specimens being transposed right side left, the scale bare represents 1cm. Middle column: Boxplot comparison of centroid size of the archaeological specimen (A), with those of modern: domestic cat (Dom), leopard cat (Pb), European wildcat (Fss) and SW Asian wildcat (Fsl). Right column: species identification of the specimen based on discriminant analyses computed on mandible shape variables. Percentages within brackets correspond to the probability of being identified as Pb.

    Fig 1. Modern distribution of wild felid species, archaeological site location and mandible shape relationship between modern wild felid species and domestic cat.
    (A), Modern Old World distribution of the different wild cat subspecies (Felis silvestris) and the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis), and location of the three Middle-Late Neolithic sites of the Shaanxi and Henan Provinces (China) analyzed in this paper: 1, Quanhucun, 2, Wuzhuangguoliang, 3, Xiawanggang;
     (B), Phenotypic relationship (unrooted neighbour joining tree) built on mandible shape distances between modern domestic cat (F. catus), leopard cat (P. bengalensis) and the two relevant sub-species of wild cat (F. s. silvestris; F. s. lybica) from our analyses. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147295 

    Jean-Denis Vigne, Allowen Evin, Thomas Cucchi, Lingling Dai, Chong Yu, Songmei Hu, Nicolas Soulages, Weilin Wang, Zhouyong Sun, Jiangtao Gao, Keith Dobney and Jing Yuan. 2016. Earliest “Domestic” Cats in China Identified as Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). PLoS ONE. 11(1): e0147295.  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147295

    Earliest Cat Domesticated in China Was the Leopard Cat, Scientists Say via @NatGeo

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    Duellman, Marion & Hedges, 2016


    A phylogenetic analysis of sequences from 503 species of hylid frogs and four outgroup taxa resulted in 16,128 aligned sites of 19 genes. The molecular data were subjected to a maximum likelihood analysis that resulted in a new phylogenetic tree of treefrogs. A conservative new classification based on the tree has (1) three families composing an unranked taxon, Arboranae, (2) nine subfamilies (five resurrected, one new), and (3) six resurrected generic names and five new generic names. Using the results of a maximum likelihood timetree, times of divergence were determined. For the most part these times of divergence correlated well with historical geologic events. The arboranan frogs originated in South America in the Late Mesozoic or Early Cenozoic. The family Pelodryadidae diverged from its South American relative, Phyllomedusidae, in the Eocene and invaded Australia via Antarctica. There were two dispersals from South America to North America in the Paleogene. One lineage was the ancestral stock of Acris and its relatives, whereas the other lineage, subfamily Hylinae, differentiated into a myriad of genera in Middle America.

    Keywords: Anura, Hylidae, phylogeny, new classification, new genera (Callimedusa, Colomascirtus, Julianus, Rheohyla, Sarcohyla), resurrected genera (Dryophytes, Dryopsophus, Hyliola, Hylomantis, Ololygon, Pithecopus), new subfamily (Scinaxinae), Amphibia

    Duellman, W. E. A. Marion, and S. B. Hedges. 2016. Phylogenetics, Classification, and Biogeography of the Treefrogs (Amphibia: Anura: Arboranae).
    Zootaxa. 4104(1); DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4104.1.1

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    Iuiuia caeca 
    Hoch & Ferreira, 2016

    Figure 2. A Surface vegetation near Toca do Baixão; cave entrance, Iuiuia caeca sp. n., adult male, on cave floor; cave interior. 
    Photographs by R.L. Ferreira.  DOI: 10.3897/dez.63.8432

    A new obligate cavernicolous (troglobitic) species in the planthopper family Kinnaridae is described from Brazil, and a new genus is established, as it could not be placed in any of the existing genera. Information on distribution and ecology is given. This is the second record of a troglobitic representative of this family from Brazil, and only the 6th cavernicolous kinnarid species worldwide.

    Key Words: Taxonomy, troglobite, troglomorphy, caves, Neotropics


    Kinnaridae Muir, 1925: 158
    Prosotropinae Fennah, 1945: 449
    Kinnocciini Emeljanov, 2006: 1

    Iuiuia Hoch & Ferreira, gen. n.

    Type-species: Iuiuia caeca sp. n. (type locality: Brazil, Bahia State, Iuiu municipality).

    Diagnosis: Small kinnarid (ca. 3 mm body length), strongly troglomorphic: compound eyes absent, tegmina reduced, wings vestigial, body pigmentation reduced (Fig. 3). Iuiuia gen. n. can be distinguished from all other kinnarid genera by the unique combination of the following characters: vertex wide and short; male genitalia with genital segment in caudal aspect approximately in a figure-8-shape; anal segment short, ventrally on each side with a distinct wing-shaped compressed process; parameres slender, narrow throughout, medially converging; aedeagus tubular, stout, periandrium with two large, lateral lobes. Iuiuia gen. n. differs conspicuously from Kinnapotiguara (Hoch & Ferreira, 2013) in the configuration of the male genitalia (Hoch and Ferreira 2013: Figs 4, 5–10): genital segment with caudal margin smooth (vs caudal margin with lateral processes in Kinnapotiguara); anal segment with two short, wing-shaped lateroventral processes (vs anal segment with two pairs of slender processes in Kinnapotiguara); parameres narrow, slender throughout, medially converging (vs parameres differentiated into three processes in Kinnapotiguara) and aedeagus with two large lateral lobes (vs aedeagus without lateral processes in Kinnapotiguara).

    Etymology: The genus name refers to Iuiú, the name of the municipality were the cave (type locality) is situated. The gender is feminine.

    Iuiuia caeca Hoch & Ferreira, sp. n.
    Figs 3, 4, 5, 6

    Diagnosis: Habitus (Fig. 3). Strongly troglomorphic species, predominantly yellowish body pigmentation, compound eyes and ocelli absent, dorsoventrally compressed body shape, tegmina short, in repose slightly surpassing tip of abdomen, wings vestigial.

    Material examined
    Holotype male. Brazil. Bahia State, Iuiu municipality, Toca Lapa do Baixão (14°23’8.13”S, 43°37’35.06”W), 7.viii.2013, R.L. Ferreira leg., in coll. Universidade Federal de Lavras, ISLA.

    Paratypes: 2 males, same data as holotype. 5 males, 2 females, same data as holotype, except 9.vii. 2014, in coll. Universidade Federal de Lavras, ISLA.

    Figure 2. A Surface vegetation near Toca do Baixão; cave entrance, Iuiuia caeca sp. n., adult male, on cave floor; cave interior.
    Photographs by R.L. Ferreira.  DOI: 10.3897/dez.63.8432 

    Distribution: The species is only known from the “Lapa do Baixão” cave in Iuiú municipality, Bahia State, Brazil. The external vegetation in the area corresponds to the “Caatinga” formation, the only xeric biome of the country, with xeromorph, decidual vegetation (Fig. 2A).The cave has not been completely explored, since part of its inner chambers become flooded during rainy periods. However, the known passages extend over 500 meters. The only known entrance is a small opening (around 1m2 – Fig. 2B), which clearly imposes a huge stability to the cave atmosphere. During different surveys in the Iuiú municipality, another eight caves located near Lapa do Baixão cave were also sampled, but no specimen of Iuiuia caeca was found. This strongly suggests that the species is endemic to this cave. Furthermore, this cave was visited five times, and specimens we only found during two visits, which may suggest the low abundance of the species. However, during our last visit to the cave on 9.vii.2014, several adults and nymphs were observed, though they were restricted to a small part of the cave (see “Ecology”).

    Geology: The “Lapa do Baixão” cave formed within limestones from the “Bambuí” geological group, from the Neoproterozoic, with ages ranging from 650-850 Myr. This group comprises the largest limestone formation in Brazil, embracing most of the known Brazilian limestone caves (Fig. 1). The other two troglobitic planthoppers described from Brazil are Kinnapotiguara troglobia (Hoch & Ferreira, 2013) (Kinnaridae), from limestone caves from the “Apodi” group (Rio Grande do Norte state), and Ferricixius davidi (Hoch and Ferreira 2012) (Cixiidae), known from a single iron ore cave in the “Iron quadrangle” formation (Minas Gerais state) (Fig. 1). The Apodi group comprises limestones from the Cretaceous (around 100 Myr), while the “Iron quadrangle” is much older (around 2.4 Byr).

    Ecology: The Baixão cave possesses dozens of roots, mainly observed in the first portion of the cave (Fig. 2D). This part of the cave adjacent to the entrance comprises a labyrinth-like system of interconnected passages; then narrows into a single vadose and semi-meandrine passage. This deep vadose passage lacks roots, and no specimens of Iuiuia caeca were observed there.

    Unfortunately, it was not possible to associate the roots to any particular plant species in the surface vegetation, but considering the distance between the surface and the cave, it appears likely that such roots belong to substantial trees with pivotant roots systems, capable of penetrating deep inside the cracks into the soil and rock until reaching the cave chambers.

    Such roots shelter a variety of invertebrate species which feed especially in their decomposing parts. However, also many non-troglomorphic Cixiidae (Pintalia spp.) feed on them, especially in those roots located nearer the entrance (but also in aphotic zones). These are supposedly accidentals to the cave, but eventually can become troglophiles. Specimens of Iuiuia caeca were observed only on roots within the labyrinthic part in the deep cave zone.

    They were only rarely observed on the same roots where the non-troglomorphic Cixiidae occur. The root mats where Iuiuia occur are mainly placed in the final portion of this labyrinthic part of the cave, near the connection with the inner single vadose and semi- meandrine passage. Such root mats are considerably smaller than those found in other parts of the cave. During a visit to the cave on 7.viii.2013, most of the observed specimens were nymphs, and only three adult males were found. During this visit, one of the males was found on a small root, near the cave floor, while the other two were found in an upper chamber, without roots, where they were freely walking on speleothems. During our last visit to the cave (9.vii.2014), seven adults and many nymphs were observed, but their spatial distribution was even more restricted. All observed specimens were associated with roots in a single part of the conduit, and no specimens were found in other chambers, as in the previous visit. Since both visits occurred in the dry period of the area, such differences observed on their abundance and distribution cannot be primarily related to seasonal changes. Potential predators include spiders (especially Ochyroceratidae), Amblypygi (Charinus iuiu Vasconcelos & Ferreira, 2016) and a relatively large troglobitic pseudoscorpion species, with a body size of around 5 mm (Spelaeobochica iuiu Ratton, Mahnert & Ferreira, 2012); the latter is well distributed throughout the cave, but less common in the areas where I. caeca occurs.

    Etymology: The species epithet “caeca” (blind, Lat.) refers to the complete reduction of compound eyes in this species. The gender is feminine.

    Remarks: In the cave, several 4th and 5th instar nymphs of Kinnaridae were collected which, due to substantial morphological differences, apparently represent two species. However, none of these nymphs could be associated with certainty to Iuiuia caeca. Thus it is likely that the cave Toca Lapa do Baixão houses at least two, if not three, kinnarid species.

    Brazil – hotspot of cave planthopper diversity

    The discovery of Iuiuia caeca not only represents the 3rd obligate cavernicolous Fulgoromorpha species in Brazil, but also provides evidence of three separate evolutionary lineages which have invaded caves, two within the Kinnaridae, and one within the Cixiidae. All three species were discovered within a few years and are the result of the exploration efforts of a single, but active team of speleologists. Given the vast extension of cavernous substrate in Brazil and the availability of suitable planthopper habitat, Brazil may soon join Hawaii (e.g., Fennah 1973a, Hoch and Howarth 1999, Wessel et al. 2013), Australia (e.g., Fennah 1973b, Hoch and Howarth 1989a, b, Hoch 1990, 1993) and the Canary Islands (e.g., Remane and Hoch 1988, Hoch and Asche 1993, Hoch et al. 2012) as another hotspot for cave planthopper diversity. It is to be hoped that legal measures for the conservation of the subterranean fauna of Brazil–which constitutes one of the country’s unique biological resources–will be developed and consequently reinforced.

     Hannelore Hoch and Rodrigo Ferreira. 2016. Iuiuia caeca gen. n., sp. n., A New Troglobitic Planthopper in the Family Kinnaridae (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha) from Brazil. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift. 63(2): 171-181. DOI: 10.3897/dez.63.8432

    New blind and rare planthopper species and genus dwells exclusively in a... via @Pensoft @EurekAlertAAAS
    New blind and rare planthopper species and genus dwells exclusively in a Brazilian cave via @physorg_com

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    Charinus taboa  
    Vasconcelos, Giupponi & Ferreira, 2016

    Charinus taboa sp. n. comprises the twenty-second species of the genus described for Brazil. The new species belongs to the eastern Brazilian group, in which all species have sucker-like gonopods. Charinus taboa sp. n. has a marked sexual dimorphism in the pedipalps as do other members of the genus in the country. The description of Charinus taboa sp. n. offers an opportunity to discuss some aspects of ecology, troglomorphism and conservation within the genus. A key to the eastern Brazilian species of Charinus is provided.

    Keywords: Neotropics, subterranean species, taxonomy, whip spider

    Figures 18–19. Charinus taboa sp. n. 18 Male inside the Taboa cave 19 Female preying a moth (Noctuidae).

    Charinus taboa differs from other species of the genus by the following combination of characteristics: frontal process with thickened apex; median eyes reduced, with flattened tubercle; lateral eyes not developed and without pigmentation (little pigmentation in smaller individuals); tritosternum with a slightly forked apex; pedipalps sexually dimorphic; femur of the pedipalp with 4-5 dorsal spines (typically 5) and 5-6 ventral spines (typically 5); patella of the pedipalp with 6-7 dorsal spines (typically 6) and 4 ventral spines; distitibia of the leg IV with 16 trichobothria; female gonopod sucker-like, with irregular opening and edges with a small fold; male gonopod with pairs of Pi and LoL1 emerging from each side of the Fi with thin prolongations, and pairs of LoD and LoL2 claw-shaped emerging from the interior of the upper portion of Fi.

    EtymologyThe specific epithet is treated as a noun in apposition and refers to the name of the cave (Taboa) where most of the specimens were collected.

    DistributionThe new species is known from the Taboa and BR 24 caves, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Figures 18–19.Charinus taboa sp. n.18 Male inside the Taboa cave 19 Female preying a moth (Noctuidae). 
    Figure 20–23. 20 Locality of Sete Lagoas (municipality where are located the Taboa and BR 24 caves) in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The blue area corresponds to the Bambui limestone group and the red area correspond to the Sete Lagoas municipality 21 Location of the Taboa cave (the arrow indicates the main entrance of Taboa cave and the circle the location where individuals of C. taboa were found) and BR-24 cave (star represents the entrance) 22 Portion of the Taboa cave where specimens were collected 23 Portion of the Taboa cave with a watercourse where most of the specimens were found.

    Ana Caroline Oliveira Vasconcelos, Alessandro Ponce de Leão Giupponi and Rodrigo Lopes Ferreira. 2016. Description of A New Troglomorphic Species of Charinus Simon, 1892 from Brazil (Arachnida, Amblypygi, Charinidae). ZooKeys. 600: 35-52. DOI:  10.3897/zookeys.600.8580

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    DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148277

    Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (Charinus bichuetteae sp. n.C. bonaldoi sp. n.Ccarajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n.C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and Cricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities) which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation.

    Charinus brescoviti new species. 

    Etymology. This species is named after Dr. Antônio Domingos Brescovit (Instituto Butantan, SP, BR), in recognition of his contribution to arachnology.

    Diagnosis. Well-developed median and lateral eyes; small and rounded meta and mesosternum; large basal spine pedipalp distitarsus (2/3 the distal length); basitibia of leg IV divided in two pseudo articles; trichobothria of basitibia IV (bt) on the proximal third of the article; distitibia IV with 16 trichobothriae, equidistant basal trichobothria (bf, bc and sbf); brownish-yellow body color; cushion-like gonopods with small lateral projections directed backwards and internal seminal receptacles.

    Charinus ricardoi new species.

    Etymology. This species is named after Dr. Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha (MZUSP, SP, BR), in recognition of his contribution to arachnology.

    Diagnosis. Absent median eyes and tubercle; weakly developed and pale lateral eyes; small and rounded meta and mesosternum; small basal spine of pedipalp distitarsus, ¼ the distal spine length; pedipalp almost perpendicular to the body, similar to that of Paracharon caecus Hansen, 1921; basitibia of leg IV divided in two pseudo articles; trichobothria of basitibia IV (bt) on the proximal third of the article; distitibia IV with 16 trichobothria; equidistant basal trichobothriae of distitibia IV (bf, bc and sbf); yellowish-brown body color; cushion-like gonopods without projections and with internal seminal receptacles; gonopods very similar to that of Charinus bonaldoi sp. n. (described below), but the pedipalp proportions and the size of the pedipalp articles are larger in C. ricardoi sp. n.

    Charinus bonaldoi new species. 

    Etymology. This species is named after Dr. Alexandre Bragio Bonaldo (Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, PA, BR), in recognition of his contribution to arachnology.

    Diagnosis. Absent median eyes and tubercle; weakly developed and pale lateral eyes; small and rounded meta and mesosternum; small basal spine of pedipalp distitarsus, ¼ the length of the distal; pedipalp almost perpendicular to body, similar to that of C. ricardoi sp. n. and Paracharon caecus; basitibia of leg IV divided in two pseudo articles; trichobothria of basitibia IV (bt) at the proximal third of the article; distitibia IV with 16 trichobothria; trichobothriae bc and sbf closer to each other than to bf; light brown body color; cushion-like gonopods without projections and with internal seminal receptacles.

    Natural history. Collected in the leaf litter.

    Charinus guto new species.

    Etymology. This species is named after the arachnologist José Augusto Pereira Barreiros, nicknamed Guto (in memoriam), who collected some of the specimens of the type series.

    Diagnosis. Absent median eyes and tubercle; well-developed lateral eyes, but pale; small and rounded meta and mesosternum; small basal spine of the distitarsus of the pedipalp, ¼ the length of the distal; tibia I with 21 articles in the and tarsus with 37; basitibia of leg IV divided in three pseudo articles; trichobothria of the basitibia IV (bt) at the proximal third of the article; distitibia IV with 14 trichobothria; equidistant basal trichobothriae of distitibia IV (bf, bc and sbf); light brown body color; cushion-like gonopods with lateral projections directed backwards covering the aperture of the internal seminal receptacles.

    Natural history. Collected in the leaf litter.

    Charinus carajas new species.

    Etymology. This species is named after the mountain range where the species inhabits ("Serra Carajá", Caraja mountains). The name also refers to the important indigenous group called karajas or iny mahãdu, that occupy the region of the rivers Araguaia and Javaés in the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, Tocantins and Pará, Brazil.

    Diagnosis. Median and lateral eyes present, but median tubercle and lateral eyes strongly reduced; small and rounded meta and mesosternum; reduced tritosternun, slightly surpassing the base of the pedipalp coxae; dorsal femur with four spines; small basal spine of pedipalp distitarsus, ¼ the length of the distal; tibia I with 23 articles and tarsus with 42; basitibia of leg IV divided in three pseudo articles; trichobothria of basitibia IV (bt) at the proximal third of the article; distitibia IV with 16 trichobothria; equidistant basal trichobothriae of distitibia IV (bf, bc and sbf); pale yellow body color; cushion-like female gonopod with lateral projections directed backwards covering all the opening of the internal seminal receptacles (atrium); male gonopods with long, curved and wrinkled medial lobes; lateral lobes fimbriated; dorsal lobe surpassing the length of all other lobes and with elevated scales; secondary sexual dimorphism present, males with larger pedipalps, circa of two times the size of the female.

    Natural history.Inside cave, in a region called canga that contains iron ore.

    Charinus orientalis new species. 

    Etymology.  The species name derives from the Latin orientem, which means east, referring to the name of the mountain range where the cave this species inhabits is located ("Serra Leste", east mountains).

    Diagnosis. Median and lateral eyes present, but strongly reduced median tubercle and lateral eyes (as in C. carajas sp. n.); median tubercle inside a depression; small and rounded meta and mesosternum; weakly sclerotized border of the sternum; pedipalp dorsal femur with three spines; basal spine of pedipalp distitarsus circa of ¼ the length of the distal; tibia I with 21 articles and tarsus I with 37; basitibia IV divided in three pseudo articles; trichobothria of basitibia IV (bt) at the proximal third of the article; distitibia IV with 16 trichobothria; equidistant basal trichobothriae of distitibia IV (bf, bc and sbf); pale yellow body color; cushion-like female gonopod with lateral projections directed backwards covering all the opening of the internal seminal receptacles (atrium).

    Fig 10. Habitus and details of the sternum and pedipalp of Charinus ferreus sp. n. (female holotype, MZSP 29104).
    A. Dorsal habitus; B. Live specimen in the soil of a cave in Carajás. C. Sternum; D. Frontal view of the right pedipalp basitiba, distitiba and claw; E. Dorsal view of the right pedipalp; F. Ventral view of the right pedipalp.
    Scale bars: 1 mm. Photo B by Denis Pedroso. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148277 

    Charinus ferreus new species.

    Etymology. The species name derives from Latin ferrum, referring to the iron ore cave from where this species were collected dwells.

    Diagnosis. Absent median eyes and tubercle; weakly developed and pale lateral eyes; small and rounded meta and mesosternum; reduced tritosternun, slightly surpassing the base of the pedipalp coxa; dorsal femur with three spines; subequal spines of pedipalp basitarsus; basal spine of pedipalp distitarsus large, circa of 2/3 the length of the distal; leg tibia I with 21 articles and tarsus I with 37; basitibia IV divided in three pseudo articles; trichobothria of the basitibia IV (bt) at the proximal third of the article; distitibia IV with 16 trichobothria; basal trichobothriae of distitibia IV bc and sbf closer to each other than to bf; pale yellow body color; male gonopod with long, curved and wrinkled medial lobes; lateral lobe fimbriated; median lobe surpassing the lateral and dorsal lobes.

    Natural History. Inside iron caves, in a region of Amazonia called “canga”.

    Remarks. This species have troglomorphic characters, such as the almost complete absence of eyes.

    Fig 11.  Habitus and details of the sternum and pedipalp of Charinus bichuetteae sp. n. (male holotype, MNRJ 09204).
    A. Dorsal habitus; B. Young live specimen in the soil in Altamira. C. Sternum; D. Frontal view of the right pedipalp basitiba, distitiba and claw; E. Dorsal view of the right pedipalp; F. Ventral view of the right pedipalp.
    Scale bars: 1 mm. Photo B by Denis Pedroso.  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148277

    Charinus bichuetteae new species.

    Etymology. This species is named after Dr. Maria Elina Bichuette (UFSCar, SP, BR), in recognition to her contribution to arachnology and cave biology.

    Natural history. The specimens collected were on the wall of the caves (Gruta do China, Gruta do Sismógrafo, Caverna Sugiro-Roncador, Caverna Pedra da Cachoeira).

    Diagnosis. Absent median eyes and tubercle; well-developed lateral eyes; small and rounded meta and mesosternum, strongly sclerotized; dorsal pedipalp femur with two spines; basal pedipalp distitarsus spine small, ¼ the length of the distal; Leg tibia I with 21 articles and tarsus with 37; basitibia IV divided in two pseudo articles; trichobothria of basitibia IV (bt) at the proximal third of the article; distitibia IV with 16 trichobothria; basal trichobothriae of distitibia IV bc and sbf closer to each other than to bf; pale yellow body color; cushion-like female gonopod with lateral projections directed backwards covering all the opening of the internal seminal receptacles (atrium).

    Fig 12. Distributional map of the new species.
    Green: ombrophilous forest. Yellow: white-sand forest (Amazonian Caatinga).

     Alessandro Ponce de Leão Giupponi and Gustavo Silva de Miranda. 2016. Eight New Species of Charinus Simon, 1892 (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae) Endemic for the Brazilian Amazon, with Notes on Their Conservational Status. PLoS ONE. 11(2):e0148277.  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148277

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     Sixty-two species of inland fishes are recorded from Pulau Tioman, Malaysia, representing an increase of 14 species (29%) since the last published checklist in 1999. Nine native species are recorded for the first time, viz., Neotrygon kuhlii (Dasyatidae), Chanos chanos (Chanidae), Lates calcarifer (Latidae), Selaroides leptolepis (Carangidae), Kraemeria cunicularia, Mangarinus waterousi, Mugilogobiuschulae, Pandaka pygmaea, and Stiphodon multisquamus (Gobiidae). An additional five introduced species are also recorded for the first time, viz., Barbonymus schwanenfeldii (Cyprinidae), Hypsibarbus sp. (Cyprinidae), Poecilia reticulata (Poeciliidae), Oreochromis hybrid (Cichlidae), and Channa striata (Channidae); their likely modes of introduction and potential impacts of the introduced species are briefly discussed. Additional distributional data and natural history observations are also included.

    Key words. Biodiversity, Pulau Tioman, Southeast Asia, inland fishes, alien species

     Heok Hui Tan, Bi Wei Low, Darren C. J. Yeo and Kelvin K. P. Lim. 2015. An Update to the Inland Fishes of Pulau Tioman, Malaysia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 63:555–563. 

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    Tioman Island Bent-toed Gecko |  Cyrtodactylus tiomanensis 
    Das & Lim, 2000 

    photo: Ingomar Kiehlmann  |

     A new species of Cyrtodactylus is described from Pulau Tioman, an island off the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The new species can be differentiated from congeners from south-east Asia in showing the following combination of characters: medium-sized Cyrtodactylus (SVL to 83.2 mm); rostral partially divided by rostral groove, contacted posteriorly by two nostrils and two semi-circular supranasals; pectoral and abdominal scales smooth, rounded, semi-circular, imbricate; no preanal groove, a distinct preanal depression; sharp boundary between small scales on posterior surface of thighs and larger ones on ventral surface of thighs; tail without lateral denticles or tubercles forming whorls or segments; supralabials (to midorbit position) 8-11; infralabials 9-11; midventral scale rows at belly to lowestrow oftubercles 36-40; lamellae undertoe IV 20-22; preanofemoral pores 19; and dorsal pattern comprises four pale yellow transverse bands, each narrower than the intervening pale brown areas, edges with dark brown, and a pale yellow nuchal loop joining posterior edges of eyes.

    KEY WORDS: Systematics, Cyrtodactylus tiomanensis, new species, Sauria, Gekkonidae, Pulau Tioman, Malaysia.

    Cyrtodactylus tiomanensis Palau Tioman Bent-toed Gecko

    Das, I. and Lim, L.J. 2000. A New Species of Cyrtodactylus (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from Pulau Tioman. Raffles Bull. Zool. 48 (2): 223-231. 

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    Murina fanjingshanensis   
     He, Xiao & Zhou, 2016 
    Three tube-nosed bats (one male and two female) were captured during Chiroptera investigation at the Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve in 2014. It was identified as a new species through the morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis. The new species has a higher similarity with Murina leucogaster and Murina bicolor in morphology, however, which has an obvious difference in skull morphology and phylogenetic evolution.

    Keywords: New species, Murina, Chiroptera, China

    Discussion: The M. fanjingshanensisis similar to M. bicolor and M. leucogaster, but in the morphology and molecules, M. fanjingshanensis and the latter two are apparently different.The body size of M. fanjingshanensis is between the latter two species,and the ventral color is different from M. leucogaster, however which is similar to Mbicolor, and without yellow or white patches. The bifid of upper incisors are similar to M. bicolor, however, the lingual cingular cusp of M. fanjingshanensis is not obvious. The head and body length and the greatest length of skull of M. fanjingshanensis are smaller than M. leucogaster, however which is bigger than M. fanjingshanensis significantly in some critical measurements data. The phylogenetic relationships or genetic distances all indicate that the M. fanjingshanensis is having a closest relationship with the M. bicolor, however the genetic distance between the two species is significantly larger than interspecific genetic distance of Murina. Therefore, the M. fanjingshanensis was identified as a new species through the morphology and the molecular evidence.

    Etymology: Because the species was collected from the Fanjingshan Natural National Reserve (FNNR), hence we name the new species as M. fanjingshanensis.

    The distribution and ecology: This new species known only from Luojiawan village of Wuluotown and Pingsuo village of Xinye town, located in the FNNR of Guizhou Province,China. The type species was captured in an abandoned gold mine, where a bamboo grove growing along a stream, and the altitude is 1069m. All the M. fanjingshanensis are hang up together by 1 to 3 individuals, and Rhinolophus luctus, Rhinolophus thomasi, Rhinolophus yunnanensis, and Myotis altarium roosted together in the same cave.

    Fang He, Ning Xiao and Jiang Zhou. 2016. A New Species of Murina from China (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Cave Research. 2: 2

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    Podochilus warnagalensis 
    Wijewardana, Priyadarshana, Arangala, Atthanagoda, Samarakoon & Kumar

    A new species, Podochilus warnagalensis is described from Adam's Peak Nature Reserve, Sri Lanka. A key to all species of the genus Podochilus found in Sri Lanka is provided.

    Keywords: Adam’s peak, biodiversity hotspot, conservation, endemic species, taxonomy, Monocots

    FIGURE 1. Podochilus warnagalensis Wijewardana, Priyadarshana, Arangala, Atthanagoda, Samarakoon & Kumar.
    A. Plant. B. Front view of inflorescence (purple-white form). C. Lateral view of inflorescence (purple-white form). D. Front view of inflorescence (pink-white form). E. Lateral view of inflorescence (pink-white form). F. Fruit. G. Type-locality (Kuru Ganga/Stream).

    Diagnosis:— Podochilus warnagalensis is morphologically close to P. malabaricus; however the new species can be differentiated from the latter on the basis of shorter leaves (0.9–1.0 cm), larger (6–7 mm × 1.2–1.5 mm) completely opened flower, smaller leaves (0.9–1.1 × 0.4 cm), purple coloured peduncle, longer pedicel with ovary (4–4.5 mm ), longer floral bracts (2–2.5 × c. 1 mm), labellum with blunt apex, spur longer and narrower (2.5–3 × 0.8–1 mm) with longer fruit (8–10 mm) in the former in comparison with larger leaves (1.4–1.7 cm), smaller (3.2 x 1.2 mm) incompletely opened flower, longer leaves (1.4–1.7 × 0.5 cm), pale green coloured peduncle, shorter pedicel with ovary (2.2 mm), shorter floral bracts (1.8–2.2 × 1.3–1.4 mm), labellum with pointed apex, short and broad spur (1.5 × 1.2 mm) with shorter fruit (5–6 mm) in latter (see TABLE 1). 

    Habitat and Ecology:— Plants grow on lichen and moss covered granite rocks and boulders in streams.  Plants are loosely attached on substrate, expose to almost 100% sunlight.  We observed the species only between Warnagala (6.8269°N, 80.4424°E, 765 m) and Seethagagula (6.8217°N, 80.4575°E, 1061 m) on Adam’s peak, Kuruwita-Erathna foot path, Ratnapura district, Sabaragamuwa province, Sri Lanka (FIGURE 1. G). 

    Conservation status:— At present, the new species is known only from the Adam’s peak, Kuruwita-Erathna foot path.  We believe further observation is needed to find out other locality of the species and therefore, yet we suggest the species to be assessed as Data Deficient (DD; IUCN 2012) and endemic to Sri Lanka. 

    Etymology:— The specific epithet is based on name of the type locality, Warnagala in Sri Lanka. 

     Ishara H Wijewardana, Tharaka Sudesh Priyadarshana, Nandun S Arangala and Pankaj Kumar. 2016. Podochilus warnagalensis (Orchidaceae), A New Species from Sri Lanka.
    Phytotaxa. 266(2);  151 – 156. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.266.2.10

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    Panisea panchaseensis Subedi sp. nov. (Orchidaceae) is described as a new species from Nepal. The distinguishing characters, a description, detailed illustrations and photographs are provided. The species is genetically compared to P. tricallosa, and a diagnostic key based on the morphology to all species of Panisea is provided.

     Abishkar Subedi, Ram P. Chaudhary, Jaap J. Vermeulen and Barbara Gravendeel. 2011. Panisea panchaseensis sp. nov. (Orchidaceae) from central Nepal.
     Nordic Journal of Botany. 29(3).   DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-1051.2011.01168.x

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