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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region

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    Fig 2. Reconstruction of the immature placoderms and diagrammatic model of the Strud nursery.
    Immature placoderms (from top to bottom) Turrisaspis strudensis (left lateral view), Grossilepis rikiki (dorsal view), Phyllolepis undulata (dorsal view). Diagrammatic model of the Strud nursery displaying the habitat partitioning: on the left, shallow waters of the nursery with immature placoderms inside and Rhacophyton plant on the bank; on the right, deeper area with the placoderm adults. Scale bars equal 2 cm. Animal and environmental reconstructions by J. Jacquot Haméon (MNHN, Paris). 


    The placoderm fauna of the upper Famennian tetrapod-bearing locality of Strud, Belgium, includes the antiarch Grossilepis rikiki, the arthrodire groenlandaspidid Turrisaspis strudensis and the phyllolepidid Phyllolepis undulata. Based on morphological and morphometric evidence, the placoderm specimens from Strud are predominantly recognised as immature specimens and this locality as representing a placoderm nursery. The Strud depositional environment corresponds to a channel in an alluvial plain, and the presence of a nursery in such environment could have provided nutrients and protection to the placoderm offspring. This represents one of the earliest pieces of evidence for this sort of habitat partitioning in vertebrate history, with adults living more distantly from the nursery and using the nursery only to spawn or give live birth.

    Fig 2. Reconstruction of the immature placoderms and diagrammatic model of the Strud nursery.
     Immature placoderms (from top to bottom) Turrisaspis strudensis (left lateral view), Grossilepis rikiki (dorsal view), Phyllolepis undulata (dorsal view). Diagrammatic model of the Strud nursery displaying the habitat partitioning: on the left, shallow waters of the nursery with immature placoderms inside and Rhacophyton plant on the bank; on the right, deeper area with the placoderm adults. Scale bars equal 2 cm. Animal and environmental reconstructions by J. Jacquot Haméon (MNHN, Paris).

    Sébastien Olive, Gaël Clément, Edward B. Daeschler and Vincent Dupret. 2016. Placoderm Assemblage from the Tetrapod-Bearing Locality of Strud (Belgium, Upper Famennian) Provides Evidence for a Fish Nursery. PLoS ONE. 11(8): e0161540.

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    Ompok argestes 
     Sudasinghe& Meegaskumbura, 2016  


    Ompok argestes, a new species of silurid catfish, is described from the southwestern lowlands of Sri Lanka. The new species is distinguished from all other species of Ompok in the Indian subcontinent by a combination of the following characters: body color pattern mottled; predorsal profile uniformly convex; maxillary barbels reach or extend slightly beyond base of dorsal fin; eye diameter 14.2–17.1% head length (HL); body depth at anus 19.8–22.3% standard length (SL); head width 14.3–16.8% SL; caudal peduncle depth 5.6–6.5% SL. Callichrous ceylonensis Günther is shown to be a valid species that is apparently restricted to Sri Lanka, distinguished by a combination of the following characters: distinct concavity in predorsal profile; origin of pelvic fin beneath or slightly posterior to the origin of the dorsal fin; maxillary barbels 108–166 % HL; mandibular barbels 16.1–33.7 % HL; and 58–66 anal-fin rays.

    Keywords: Pisces, Ostariophysi, Ompok bimaculatusCallichrous ceylonensis, India, Tranquebar

    H. Sudasinghe and M. Meegaskumbura. 2016. Ompok argestes, A New Species of Silurid Catfish Endemic to Sri Lanka (Teleostei: Siluridae). Zootaxa. 4158(2); 261-271.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4158.2.7


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    Beipiaognathus jii 
     Hu, Wang & Huang, 2016 

    The paper reports a new genus and species of compsognathids: Beipiaognathus jii (gen. et sp. nov.). It possesses not only the diagnostic characters of Compsognathidae,such as the fan-shaped dorsal neural spines and robust phalanx Ⅰ-1,but also some unique characteristics different from other compsognathids,including the un-serrated conical-shaped teeth,relatively long ulna,robust and long phalanx Ⅱ-1,and relatively short tail. The discovery further reveals the great diversity of Compsognathidae and provides more information for understanding the anatomical characters of compsognathids.

    Key Words: Coelurosauria, Compsognathid, Early Cretaceous, Yixian Formation, Western Liaoning 

    Yuanchao Hu, Xuri Wang and Jiandong Huang. 2016. A New Species of Compsognathid from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, China.
    Journal of Geology. 40(2); DOI:  10.3969/j.issn.1674-3636.2016.02.191

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    Figure 2. Geographical ancestral range reconstruction on a chronogram of Western Ghats bush frogs Raorchestes shows two sister clades, North and South, divided by an ancient barrier, the Palghat Gap (PG), with limited dispersal (see map). The range on the map does not incorporate dispersal across the PG and an isolated lineage from one of the eastern massifs. Inset map shows global geographical extent of the lineages used in the reconstruction. 


    The historical processes underlying high diversity in tropical biodiversity hotspots like the Western Ghats of Peninsular India remain poorly understood. We sampled bush frogs on 13 massifs across the Western Ghats Escarpment and examined the relative influence of Quaternary glaciations, ecological gradients and geological processes on the spatial patterns of lineage and clade diversification. The results reveal a large in situ radiation (more than 60 lineages), exhibiting geographical structure and clade-level endemism, with two deeply divergent sister clades, North and South, highlighting the biogeographic significance of an ancient valley, the Palghat Gap. A majority of the bush frog sister lineages were isolated on adjacent massifs, and signatures of range stasis provide support for the dominance of geological processes in allopatric speciation. In situ diversification events within the montane zones (more than 1800 m) of the two highest massifs suggest a role for climate-mediated forest-grassland persistence. Independent transitions along elevational gradients among sub-clades during the Miocene point to diversification along the elevational gradient. The study highlights the evolutionary significance of massifs in the Western Ghats with the high elevations acting as centres of lineage diversification and the low- and mid-elevations of the southern regions, with deeply divergent lineages, serving as museums.

    KEYWORDS: diversification; bush frogs; Western Ghats; Earth processes

    Figure 1. Alternative processes driving diversification in a mountain setting and expected patterns of sister-lineage distributions (summarized in the electronic supplementary material, table S1). 

    S. P. Vijayakumar, Riya C. Menezes, Aditi Jayarajan and Kartik Shanker. 2016. Glaciations, Gradients, and Geography: Multiple Drivers of Diversification of Bush Frogs in the Western Ghats Escarpment. Proc. R. Soc. B 283: 20161011.  DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2016.1011
    An evolutionary museum of bush frogs - Nature India DOI: 10.1038/nindia.2016.105

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     Indirana chiravasi 
    Padhye, Modak & Dahanukar, 2014

     Indirana chiravasi, a new species of leaping frog is described from the northern Western Ghats around Amboli, Sindhudurg District, Maharashtra, India. It differs from all its congeners based on a combination of characters including presence of median single internal vocal sac, head longer than wide, distinct canthus rostralis, tympanum 2/3rd to 3/4th the diameter of eye, vomerine teeth in two oblique series at the posterior border of choanae, long midventral lingual papilla, first finger longer than or equal to second, presence of double outer palmer tubercle, thin and elongated inner metatarsal tubercle, absence of outer metatarsal tubercle, webbing moderate, dorsal skin with glandular folds but without warts, ventral skin smooth without mottling and palms and soles dark brown. Molecular analysis based on mitochondrial 12S and 16S genes and nuclear rhodopsin and rag1 genes suggests that the species is genetically distinct from other species for which genetic data is available. Preliminary observations on the development of the species are also provided. We also provide genetic data and images for Indirana gundia collected from the type locality.

    Keywords: Endemic frogs, Indirana gundia, molecular phylogeny, new species, taxonomy.

    Image 6.  Indirana chiravasi sp. nov. in life (a) paratype (BNHS 5890) and (b) paratype (WILD-14-AMP-491).

    Image 6.  Indirana chiravasi sp. nov. in life (a) paratype (BNHS 5890) and (b) paratype (WILD-14-AMP-491).
    Image 8. Eggs of Indirana chiravasi sp. nov. laid in the moss on a lateritic rock.
    Image 9. Indirana chiravasi sp. nov. hatchlings and egg (a), early phase tadpoles without forelimb (b), late phase tadpoles with fore limbs (c) and different stages in tail regression and completion of metamorphosis (d–e).
    Photos: (a, b) Abhijeet Bayani and (c–e) Avishkar Munje. DOI: 10.11609/JoTT.o4068.6293-312 

    Etymology: The specific epithet, a combination of words ‘chir’ (singular) or ‘chira’ (plural) which means crevice or crevices in Marathi and ‘vasi’ in Sanskrit means ‘inhabitant of’, which emphasizes crevice dwelling habit of this species. The specific name is noun in apposition.

    Distribution: The species is currently known only from its type locality at Amboli (15.9560
    N & 73.9970 E; 744m), which is a small hill station in the southwestern Maharashtra, India (Fig. 1).

    Anand D. Padhye, Nikhil Modak and Neelesh Dahanukar. 2014. A New Species of Leaping Frog (Anura: Ranixalidae) from Western Ghats of India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 
     6(10): 6293–6312. DOI: 10.11609/JoTT.o4068.6293-312 

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    Aorun zhaoi 
     Choiniere, Clark , Forster, Norella, Eberth, Erickson Chu & Xu, 2014


    We describe the anatomy of a new coelurosaurian theropod Aorun zhaoi gen. et sp. nov., from the Middle–Late Jurassic of Xinjiang, China. Histological analysis of the holotype and only known specimen shows that the new taxon is represented by the skeleton of a juvenile individual aged no more than one year. A phylogenetic analysis of theropod relationships places Aorun as a basal member of the Coelurosauria. Although the sole use of a sub-adult ontogenetic exemplar is potentially problematic for phylogenetic reconstruction, we show that the phylogenetic position of Aorun as a member of Coelurosauria is robust to the exclusion of characters known to change during theropod ontogeny. Aorun is the seventh theropod taxon, and temporally oldest coelurosaur, known from the Shishugou Formation, which has one of the most taxonomically diverse Jurassic coelurosaurian theropod faunas in the world.

    Keywords: coelurosaur, juvenile, Middle Jurassic, Late Jurassic, Shishugou Formation, China

     Choiniere J.N., Clark J.M., Forster C.M., Norella M.A., Eberth D.A., Erickson G.M., Chu H, Xu X 2014. A Juvenile Specimen of A New Coelurosaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Middle–Late Jurassic Shishugou Formation of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology.  DOI: 10.1080/14772019.2013.781067

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    A, the ‘beard’ of the turkey, Meleagris gallopavo (Galliformes). B, the spine on the head of the horned screamer, Anhima cornuta (Anseriformes). C, bristles on the head of the Congo peafowl, Afropavo congensis (Galliformes).

     Psittacosaurus sp. from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota of China (SMF R 4970).  A, overview of specimen. B, detail of tail section with bristles. Both scale bars represent 10 cm. 
      DOI:  10.1111/pala.12257 


    We examined bristle-like appendages on the tail of the Early Cretaceous basal ceratopsian dinosaur Psittacosaurus with laser-stimulated fluorescence imaging. Our study reveals previously unknown details of these structures and confirms their identification as integumentary appendages. For the first time, we show that most bristles appear to be arranged in bundles and that they exhibit a pulp that widens towards the bristle base. We consider it likely that the psittacosaur bristles are structurally and developmentally homologous to similar filamentous appendages of other dinosaurs, namely the basal heterodontosaurid Tianyulong and the basal therizinosauroid theropod Beipiaosaurus, and attribute the greater robustness of the bristles of Psittacosaurus to a higher degree of cornification and calcification of its integument (both skin and bristles). Although the psittacosaur bristles are probably homologous with avian feathers in their origin from discrete cell populations, it is uncertain whether they developed from a follicle, one of the developmental hallmarks of true feathers. In particular, we note a striking resemblance between the psittacosaur bristles and the cornified spine on the head of the horned screamer, Anhima cornuta, an extant anseriform bird. Similar, albeit thinner keratinous filaments of extant birds are the ‘beard’ of the turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, and the crown of the Congo peafowl, Afropavo congensis. All of these structures of extant birds are distinct from true feathers, and because at least the turkey beard does not develop from follicles, detailed future studies of their development would be invaluable towards deepening our understanding of dinosaur filamentous integumentary structures.

    Keywords:  ceratopsian dinosaur; feather evolution; LSF imaging; Psittacosaurus; tail bristles

    Figure 4. A, the ‘beard’ of the turkey, Meleagris gallopavo (Galliformes; uncatalogued mounted specimen on display in Senckenberg Natural History Museum). B, the spine on the head of the horned screamer, Anhima cornuta (Anseriformes; uncatalogued mounted specimen on display in the Senckenberg Natural History Museum). C, bristles on the head of the Congo peafowl, Afropavo congensis (Galliformes; uncatalogued mounted specimen on display in Senckenberg Natural History Museum). D, detail of longitudinal section through the base of an Anhima spine attached to a macerated skull (SMF 2479) to show the pulp, which is infilled with dense connective tissue; the tip of this spine is broken. EF, detail of two psittacosaur bristles with pulp indicated by dashed lines in the greyscale images to the right. All scale bars represent 10 mm.

    Figure 1. Psittacosaurus sp. from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota of China (SMF R 4970).
    A, overview of specimen. B, detail of tail section with bristles. Both scale bars represent 10 cm. 

    Gerald Mayr, Michael Pittman, Evan Saitta, Thomas G. Kaye and Jakob Vinther. 2016. Structure and Homology of Psittacosaurus Tail Bristles. Palaeontology. DOI: 10.1111/pala.12257


    Gerald Mayr, D. Stefan Peters, Gerhard Plodowski and Olaf Vogel. 2002. Bristle-like Integumentary Structures at the Tail of the Horned Dinosaur PsittacosaurusNaturwissenschaften. 89; 361–365.  DOI: 10.1007/s00114-002-0339-6

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    FIGURE 3. Holotype R157 (AF1284) of Hypsiboas diabolicus sp. nov. compared to R143 (AF1285), a specimen of H. aff. semilineatus 1 (both recently preserved) collected along the same stream at the same time, and H. geographicus [preserved specimen MZUSP157060 (MTR36895) from Tefé]. a: in life (Hgeographicus from Rio Purus active at night); b: dorsal view; c: ventral view; d: lateral view of the head; e ventral face of right hand and foot.


    We used molecular and morphological data to investigate the hidden diversity within the Hypsiboas semilineatus species group, and more specifically within H. geographicus, an allegedly widespread species in northern South America. As a result, the identity of H. geographicus was clarified, several candidate species were detected and one of them, from the eastern Guiana Shield, is described herein as a preliminary step to resolve the taxonomy of the group. Hypsiboas diabolicus sp. nov. is mainly distinguished from closely-related species by an acuminate snout in lateral view, well-developed webbing between fingers and toes, and unspotted carmine/crimson colouration on the concealed surfaces of legs, feet and hands in life. The tadpole of the new species is described and is characterized by a large A-2 gap, a mostly single row of large marginal papillae, and a dark brown to black colouration. We also describe the advertisement call of the new species, which is defined as a soft call consisting of short clusters of 2–3 chuckles with a dominant frequency ranging between 1.11–1.19 kHz. Hypsiboas diabolicus sp. nov. is currently known only from the eastern Guiana Shield, and is probably endemic to that region. The new species’ range overlaps broadly with another candidate species referred to as H. aff. semilineatus 1. Our preliminary results stress out a high cryptic diversity in that species group and the need for a formal redescription of Hypsiboas geographicus based on more topotypic material than what is currently available  to properly sort out the taxonomic status of several lineages in that clade.

    Keywords: Amphibia, Anura, conservation, endemism, Guiana Shield, taxonomy

    Holotype of Hypsiboas diabolicus sp. nov.  R157 (AF1284) 

    Hypsiboas diabolicus sp. nov. 

    Hypsiboas geographicus Fouquet et al., 2007 
    Hypsiboas aff. geographicus Dewynter et al., 2008

    Definition and diagnosis. The new species is morphologically characterized by the following unique combination of characters: (1) medium size, adult males X=43.5 mm (38.5–48.0 mm, n=17), adult females X=56.3 mm (55.9–56.7 mm, n=2; Table 3); (2) thighs long (ThL/SVL 0.50–0.58); (3) dorsal skin finely granular; (4) dorsal colour pattern generally consisting of a X-shaped mark on the scapular region; (5) typically 6–8 large dark brown bands on the granular dorsal surface of tibia and thighs, not extending towards the ventral face of the leg; (6) granular skin on upper thigh covering a narrow surface (narrower than inner and outer smooth faces of thigh); (7) flanks black with white speckles, well delimited ventrally; (8) ventral surface immaculate; (9) lower eyelid translucent with thin brownish reticulations; (10) snout long ETS/EN 0.67–0.89 and slightly acuminate in lateral view; (11) superelliptical pupils when contracted; (12) hands, feet and concealed surfaces of legs carmine/crimson (in life) to light grey (in preservative) without white spots; (13) large and rugous dark P-shaped nuptial pad on the medial surface of Finger I extending onto the dorsal surface in males; (14) prepollex not modified into a projecting spine; (15) concealed surface of upper arm, axillary region, flanks, and groin black with numerous small bluish white speckles; (16) fingers fully webbed; (17) feet fully webbed; (18) small calcar on heel, sometimes barely visible and often coloured with a cream spot.

    Etymology. The specific name is a noun in apposition and refers to the “Diables Rouges” (Red Devils), traditional characters of the carnival in French Guiana who dress in red and black, reminiscent of the black flanks and the carmine/crimson legs and webbing of the new species (colours 62, 64 in Köhler 2012). 

     Antoine Fouquet, Quentin Martinez, Lauren Zeidler, Elodie Courtois, P. Gaucher, Michel Blanc, Jucivaldo Dias Lima, Sergio Marques Souza, Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues and Philippe J. R. Kok. 2016. Cryptic Diversity in the Hypsiboas semilineatus species group (Amphibia, Anura) with the Description of A New Species from the eastern Guiana Shield.
    ZOOTAXA. 4084(1):79-104. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4084.1.3

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    Schizoglossum austromontanum  Bester & Nicholas


    A new species from southern Africa namely Schizoglossum austromontanum is described. Line-drawings, scans of the type material, images and a conservation assessment are provided.

    Keywords: Drakensberg Alpine Center, Eastern Cape Province, flora, taxonomy, Eudicots, South Africa

     Stoffel P. Bester and Ashley Nicholas. 2016.  Schizoglossum austromontanum, A Novel New Species from South Africa (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae).
    Phytotaxa. 273(1); 43-50.  DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.273.1.4

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    Epinephelus kupangensis
    Tucker, Kurniasih & Craig, 2016  

    Fig. 1. Top: holotype MZB 23005 (320 mm TL), Sahul Banks, Timor Sea. Middle: paratype MZB 23006 (366 mm TL), Sahul Banks, Timor Sea. Bottom: paratype MZB 23008 (385 mm TL), purchased at a fish market in Kupang, Indonesia. Lower pane shows fish freshly caught; top two panes show fish in a more advanced state of decomposition. The pale patch on the ‘‘cheek’’ of the fish in mid-pane is an artifact of the dead fish in contact with a surface and not a true color characteristic of the species. The enlarged abdomen in the top pane is a result of an overinflated swim bladder, and the indentation on the head is likely a result of damage to the specimen after landing. This is the only specimen we have noted with a pronounced depression on the dorsal part of the head.

    A new species of Indo-Pacific grouper is described from nine specimens, 165–391 mm in SL. Epinephelus kupangensis, new species, is similar in appearance to, and has been treated as, Epinephelus amblycephalus (Bleeker, 1857). The two species are both found in deep waters of the Indo-Pacific and have overlapping ranges in eastern Indonesia, and likely beyond. Epinephelus kupangensis, new species, can be distinguished from Epinephelus amblycephalus on the basis of coloration, counts, and measurements. The species is characterized by the following set of characters: dorsal rays XI, 16; anal rays III, 8; pelvic rays I, 5; pectoral rays 18; caudal rays 18; caudal fin rounded; gill rakers 8+16; lateral line scales 48; longitudinal scale series 99; body scales ctenoid; scales on head cycloid and particularly large in size on opercle; orbit diameter 5.1 in head; pelvic fin 4.0 in head; maxillary streak orange; color when freshly dead pale grayish brown with five dark brown bars; orange-brown spots present dorsally on head and at edges and within dark bars.

    Distribution.— Several type specimens were provided by commercial fishermen landing at Kupang, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia and Benoa Harbor, Bali, Indonesia. Fishing grounds for these vessels (equipped with GPS tracking for fisheries observation programs) confirms the Savu Sea and Timor Sea as locations of catch for these specimens. Museum and photographic records are also known from Sulawesi and Maluku, Indonesia, Timor-Leste, Philippines, Taiwan, and Fiji. We suspect this species has a broad Indo-West Pacific distribution.

    Etymology.— The Latin suffix -ensis (denoting place or locality) is appended to the locality of Kupang, Indonesia, the center of the Timor Sea fishery that provided the first author with the holotype and several paratypes.

    Sarah J. Tucker, Eka M. Kurniasih and Matthew T. Craig. 2016. A New Species of Grouper (Epinephelus; Epinephelidae) from the Indo-Pacific. Copeia. 104(3); 658-662. DOI: 10.1643/CI-16-398

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     Black Tinamou Tinamus osgoodi 
    in Alto Fragua National Park, Colombia [8 February 2014] 
     photo: Pablo J. Negret 

    DOI:  10.1642/AUK-14-183.1

    The Black Tinamou (Tinamus osgoodi) is a rare species with 2 recognized subspecies distributed locally. This is one of the most poorly known tinamous; few sound recordings exist, and few behavioral or sighting records are found in the literature or in ornithological databases. We compiled all the information on its geographic distribution and climate to provide a greater understanding of its current distribution. We also compiled all available sound recordings of the species in order to perform bioacoustic analyses to evaluate differences between subspecies. The 2 subspecies seem to be isolated by an ample distance, and each inhabits an area with a distinct climate. We also found some differences between their vocalizations. Future work should consider reevaluating the taxonomic status of the 2 subspecies. Conservation status of the resulting taxa must be reassessed, although more information on their ecology and natural history is needed.

    Keywords: South America, species limit, Tinamidae, Tinamus osgoodi, vocalizations

    RESUMEN: Tinamus osgoodi es una especie rara y muy local con dos subespecies reconocidas. Es uno de los tinamús menos conocidos: hay pocas observaciones de su comportamiento en la literatura, pocas grabaciones de su canto y muy pocos registros en las bases de datos ornitológicas. Recopilamos toda la información de su distribución geográfica y clima para entender mejor su distribución actual. Adicionalmente buscamos todas las grabaciones de sonido disponibles de la especie para determinar si existen diferencias entre las subespecies. Las dos subespecies parece están aisladas por una distancia considerable para un tinamú y habitan áreas con características climáticas distintas. Adicionalmente existen muchas diferencias entre sus vocalizaciones. Futuras investigaciones deben reevaluar el estatus taxonómico de las dos subespecies. El estado de conservación de los taxones resultantes debe ser reevaluado, y mas información de la historia natural y ecología para las dos formas es necesaria.

    Palabras clave: América del sur, limites de especie, Tinamidae, vocalizaciones

    Pablo Jose Negret and Oscar Laverde-R. 2015. The Enigmatic Black Tinamou: Do Distribution, Climate, and Vocalizations Reveal More Than One Species? [El enigmatico Tinamus osgoodi : su distribucion, caractersiticas climaticas y vocalizacion revelan mas de una especie?].
    The Auk. 132(1); 132-139. DOI:  10.1642/AUK-14-183.1

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    Monanthotaxis komorensis P.H.Hoekstra
    Monanthotaxis latistamina P.H.Hoekstra

    As part of an ongoing revision of the genus Monanthotaxis Baill. (Annonaceae), nine new species are described and one variety is reinstated to species rank. Two new species from West Africa (Monanthotaxis aquila P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov. and Monanthotaxis atewensis P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov.), four new species from Central Africa (Monanthotaxis couvreurii P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov.Monanthotaxis latistamina P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov.Monanthotaxis tripetala P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov. and Monanthotaxis zenkeri P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov.), one new species from Tanzania (Monanthotaxis filipes P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov.), one new species from the area around Maputo (Monanthotaxis maputensis P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov.), one new species from the Comoro Islands (Monanthotaxis komorensis P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov.) and Monanthotaxis klainei (Engl.) Verdc. var. angustifolia (Boutique) Verdc. is raised to species level leading to the replacement name Monanthotaxis atopostema P.H.Hoekstra, nom. nov. (not Monanthotaxis angustifolia (Exell) Verdc.). Complete descriptions, comparisons with related species, ecological information and IUCN conservation assessments are given for the new species. Five species were classified as critical endangered, two species as endangered, one as vulnerable and one as least concern, warranting the need of further collecting and studying those species.

    Keywords: Monanthotaxis, Annonaceae, Africa, Gilbertiella, new species, Mayotte, Comoros, Gabon, Cameroon, Tanzania, Mozambique, Ivory Coast, Ghana, South Africa, Republic of Congo, Atewa Range, Ottotomo, Rondo

     Paul H. Hoekstra, Jan J. Wieringa and Lars W. Chatrou. 2016. A Nonet of Novel Species of Monanthotaxis (Annonaceae) from around Africa. PhytoKeys. 69: 71-103. DOI:  10.3897/phytokeys.69.9292
    A nonet of new plant species from Africa emphasizes the importance of he... via @Pensoft @EurekAlertAAAS

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    Gastrodia selabintanensis  
    Tsukaya & A.Hidayat 

    Gastrodia Brown (1810: 330) is a mycoheterotrophic genus of Orchidaceae that consists of ca. 50 species (Tan et al. 2012, Suetsugu 2014, Huang et al. 2015). It is characterized by a fleshy tuber or coralloid root system, fused sepals and petals, and two mealy pollinia without caudicles. Since most Gastrodia species have completely fused sepals and petals, observation of the perianth is difficult, and identification of this genus is often imprecise. As a result of re-examination of floral characters, several new taxa in this genus have been reported in China, Taiwan, Japan, Madagascar and other countries during the last decade (Meng et al. 2007, Hsu et al. 2010, Hsu & Kuo 2011, Yeh et al. 2011, Hsu et al. 2012, Tan et al. 2012, Suetsugu 2013, 2014, Huang et al. 2015, Martos et al. 2015). Most of these new taxa belong to the section Codonanthus (Schlechter 1911), which has a short inflorescence (<40 cm).

    In 2016, we visited Selabintana, West Java, Indonesia, and conducted a preliminary survey of the phenology of perennial herbs. There we found flowering individuals of this genus. Selabintana is located at the southern foot of Mounts Gede and Pangrango, twin volcanoes 2,958 and 3,019 m, respectively, covered with a biodiverse montane forest. A detailed examination of the specimens revealed that they belong to a new taxon. Here, we describe this new species and provide a detailed morphological account. We also include a key to the species of Gastrodia in Java.

    Gastrodia selabintanensis Tsukaya & A.Hidayat, sp. nov. (Fig. 1,2)
    Type:—INDONESIA. Java: Selabintana, along a trail under montane forest, 6°50’40”S; 106°57’54”E,. ca. 1,030 m, 10 March 2016, Hidayat AH5405 (holotype: BO!, a flower in spirit and a standard dried specimen; isotype: TI!, a flower in spirit and a standard dried specimen).

    Gastrodia selabintanensis differs from other members of Gastrodia sect. Codonanthus by having a long perianth tube (17 mm), a short, open mouth of the perianth tube (5 mm), a lip longer than the column (10–12 mm), and stelidia on the column that are slightly shorter than the anther cap. 

    Figure 2. Gastrodia selabintanensis  Tsukaya & A.Hidayat  at the type locality.
    A. Gross morphology. B. Lateral inside view of the perianth tube after splitting the sepals. C. Front inside view of the column, lip, sepals, and petal after splitting the sepals. D. A flower from the joint of two lateral sepals. E. Opening of the perianth tube.

    Scale: A, the diameter of coin is 2 cm. B–D, one grid line = 1 mm. A–E: from Hidayat AH5405 (BO & TI); photographs by H. Tsukaya at the type locality of Selabintana, West Java, Indonesia.   DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.273.1.9 

     Hirokazu Tsukaya and Arief Hidayat. 2016. A New Species of Gastrodia (Orchidaceae: Gastrodieae, Epidendroideae) from Java. Phytotaxa 273 (1): 77–80. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.273.1.9

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    Madagascarophis lolo 
    Ruane, Burbrink, Randriamahatantsoa & Raxworthy, 2016
     DOI: 10.1643/CH-15-346  

    The cat-eyed snakes of the genus Madagascarophis are among the most commonly encountered snake species in Madagascar. Yet despite their broad distribution and frequent occurrence in human-disturbed habitat, Madagascarophis still contains unrecognized species diversity. Here, we describe a new species of Malagasy cat-eyed snake from a specimen found in the tsingy karst system of Ankarana in northern Madagascar. Using multiple loci from all currently described species, including the never-before-sequenced M. ocellatus, we delimit a new species and also determine its placement within the genus in a Bayesian coalescent framework, using BPP and *BEAST, respectively. Our results indicate that molecular data are sufficient to delimit this new taxon. These data also support its placement as the sister taxon to the recently described M. fuchsi which is endemic to the Montagne des Français karst massif also in northern Madagascar. We also provide a morphological description of this new snake species, which can be readily diagnosed based on external morphological characters, and include a species identification key for the entire genus based on external morphology.

    Madagascarophis lolo, pronounced “luu luu,” which means ghost in Malagasy.
    Photo by Sara Ruane. 

    Natural history.— Similar to other species of Madagascarophis, M. lolo appears to be crepuscular/nocturnal; the specimen was found active on the ground at 1930 hours on tsingy karst rocks, in an exposed area with low scrub habitat. This is very similar to what has been described for M. fuchsi (Glaw et al., 2013a), and our own observation of the M. fuchsi sample included here, which we found outside a small cave in the karst system of the Montagne des Fran¸cais massif, approximately 70 km away. By contrast, the other species of Madagascarophis found at Ankarana, M. colubrinus, was common in canyon forests and surrounding relict forests, as well as in anthropogenically disturbed habitat. We suspect the reason that M. lolo has gone undetected for so long at Ankarana is that the exposed tsingy plateau has been poorly surveyed at night in previous expeditions due to problems of gaining safe access to these areas. Madagascarophis lolo may be endemic to the karst habitats of Ankarana, and possibly Analamerana, which is the closest karst system to the east.

    Etymology.— The species name, lolo, is taken from the Malagasy word for ghost; it is a noun in apposition to the genus name. This name refers to 1) the ghostly pale gray color of the holotype, and 2) that M. lolo has eluded discovery for so long at Ankarana, arguably one of the better surveyed sites in Madagascar.

    Tsingy in Ankarana National Park.
     Photo by Sara Ruane. 

    Sara Ruane, Frank T. Burbrink, Bernard Randriamahatantsoa, and Christopher J. Raxworthy. 2016. The Cat-eyed Snakes of Madagascar: Phylogeny and Description of A New Species of Madagascarophis (Serpentes: Lamprophiidae) from the Tsingy of Ankarana. Copeia. 104(3); 712-721. DOI: 10.1643/CH-15-346

    ‘Ghost Snake’ Discovered in Madagascar

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    Fig. 1. APagurus fungiformis Komai & Rahayu, 2004, male (sl 2.7 mm), PANGLAO 2004, stn M51, Mayacabac, Panglao Island, ZRC 2013.0645; BPagurus kulkarnii Sankolli, 1962, male (sl mm), PANGLAO 2004, stn R66, Sungcolan inlet, Panglao Island, ZRC 2014.0300; CPagurus moluccensis Haig & Ball, 1988, male (sl 3.2 mm), PANGLAO 2004, stn M2, west end of Alona Beach, Panglao Island, ZRC 2013.0644; DPagurus pergranulatus (Henderson, 1896), PANGLAO 2004, stn R16, Black Forest, Balicasag Island, ovigerous female (sl 6.0 mm), ZRC 2014.0301.


     Although Pagurus Fabricius, 1775 is the most species-rich genus in the hermit crab family Paguridae, only two species of the genus, P. hirtimanus (Miers, 1880) and P. spinulentus (Henderson, 1888), were heretofore known from the Philippines. In this paper, 10 species of the genus, including eight firstly recorded from the Philippines, are reported from the Bohol Sea, based on a collection made during the PANGLAO 2004 Marine Biodiversity ProjectP. conformis De Haan, 1849, P. confusus Komai & Yu, 1999, P. fungiformis Komai & Rahayu, 2004, P. hirtimanusP. kaiensis McLaughlin, 1997, P. kulkarnii Sankolli, 1962, P. moluccensis Haig & Ball, 1988, P. pergranulatus (Henderson, 1896), P. spinulentus, and P. truncatispinosus, new speciesPagurus truncatispinosus, new species, is compared with P. carpoforaminatus (Alcock, 1905), Pcavicarpus Paul’son, 1875, PconformisPspinossior Komai, Reshmi & Biju Kumar, 2013, and Pspinulentus. Detailed descriptions and illustrations are provided for P. pergranulatus and P. spinulentus because no modern descriptions are available for these two species so far.

    Key words. Bohol Sea, Pagurus truncatispinosus, new species, PANGLAO 2004 Biodiversity Project

    Tomoyuki Komai and Dwi Listyo Rahayu. 2014. New Records and New Species of the Hermit Crab genus Pagurus Fabricius, 1775 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Paguridae) from the Philippines.   RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY. 62: 620–646.

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     Zanabatus maculatus 
     Séret, 2016 


    A new species of panray, Zanabatus maculatus sp. nov., is described from 12 type specimens collected in the Gulf of Guinea (Eastern Central Atlantic). The new species is distinguished from its sympatric congener, the striped panray Zanobatus schoenleinii, by its smaller size, heavier thorn pattern, spearhead-shaped dermal denticles and maculate colour pattern.

    Keywords: Pisces, Zanobatidae, Zanobatus maculatus, new species, maculate panray, Gulf of Guinea, eastern central Atlantic


    Bernard Séret. 2016. Zanobatus maculatus, A New Species of Panray from the Gulf of Guinea, eastern central Atlantic (Elasmobranchii: Batoidea: Zanobatidae).
    Zootaxa. 4161(4); 509–522. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4161.4.2

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    Prognathodes basabei  
     Pyle & Kosaki, 2016

    at a depth of approximately 55 m off Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. 
    Photo by G. McFall.   DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.614.10200 

    A new species of the butterflyfish genus Prognathodes is described from specimens collected at a depth of 55–61 m off Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. This species has been observed by mixed-gas divers and from submersibles at depths ranging from 45–187 m throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago, with shallower sightings in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and deeper in the Main Hawaiian Islands. It is similar to P. guezei (Maugé and Bauchot 1976) from the western Indian Ocean, and at least one other undescribed species of Prognathodes from Palau, differing from these species in the number of soft dorsal-fin rays, size of head, and body depth. There are also differences in the life color, and a substantial genetic difference from the Palauan species (d » .08 in mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I).

    Keywords: Mesophotic Coral Ecosystem, Closed-Circuit Rebreather, Endemic, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument

    Figure 1. Holotype of Prognathodes basabei (BPBM 41290), collected at a depth of 61 m off Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.
    Photo by R. L. Pyle.   DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.614.10200

    Prognathodes basabei Pyle & Kosaki, sp. n.
    Prognathodes sp. 1; Allen et al. 1998: 250.
    Prognathodes “basabei”; Randall 2007: 291.

    Type locality: Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, southwest side, “Prognathodes Point”, 27.7641°N, 175.9859°W.

    Holotype: BPBM 41290, female, GenBank KX783257, Barcode of Life PROBA001-16, 93.4 mm SL, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, southwest side, “Prognathodes Point”, 27.7641°N, 175.9859°W, 61 m, 13 September 2015, R. L. Pyle, aboard NOAA ship Hi‘ialakai (Cruise: HA-15-05), hand nets, under limestone ledge (ancient seashore). Collected as part of a group of three associated individuals (along with CAS 242132 and USNM 440272).

    Paratypes: BPBM 41285, 3 specimens: 97.7–106.3 mm SL, same location, habitat, collector, vessel and collecting method as holotype, 55 m, 17 August 2009, Cruise: HI-09-06; CAS 242132, GenBank KX783255, Barcode of Life PROBA003-16, 102.5 mm SL, same location, depth, habitat, collector, vessel, cruise and collecting method as holotype, 14 September 2015; USNM 440272, GenBank KX783256, Barcode of Life PROBA002-16, same data as holotype.

    Non-type specimen: BPBM 38441, 82 mm SL, Hawaiian Islands, O‘ahu, south shore, 116 m, 31 May 1998, R. L. Pyle, hand nets, along limestone ledge (specimen died in captivity and partially deteriorated).

    Diagnosis: A species of Prognathodes (sensu Smith et al. 2003) distinguished by the following combination of characters: dorsal-fin soft rays 21 or 22; anal-fin soft rays 16 or 17; head 2.63–2.80 in SL; body depth 1.58–1.69 in SL; pelvic-fin spine length 3.63–4.07 in SL; color in life pale yellow dorsally fading to white ventrally (sometimes entirely white) with three black bands with narrow white margins on each side of the body, the first band originating at and including the first dorsal-fin spine, extending diagonally to the eye and continuing horizontally as an orangish brown stripe from the eye to the tip of the snout, the second band originating at and including the fourth to sixth dorsal-fin spines, extending vertically at a slightly posterior angle to the ventral surface of the abdomen just anterior to the anus, tapering slightly and curving slightly posteriorly below the pectoral fin, and the third band originating at and including the last four to five dorsal-fin spines and first four to five dorsal-fin soft rays, extending vertically at a slightly posterior angle to and including the first several anal-fin soft rays, a narrow orange band on the dorso-posterior margin of the operculum, extending ventrally the posterior angle of the operculum, an oblong orange spot with some dark pigmentation on the upper one-third of the pectoral-fin axis, pelvic fins white on the spine and anterior one-third of fin, and bright orange on the posterior two-thirds of fin, a bright orange submarginal band with narrow white posterior margin extending along the posterior margins of the soft portions of the dorsal and anal fins, and continuing across the caudal peduncle.

    Figure 3. Prognathodes basabei at a depth of approximately 55 m off Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.
    Photo by G. McFall.   DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.614.10200

    Figure 5. A group of three Prognathodes basabei at a depth of 90 m off Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.
    Photo by R. L. Pyle. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.614.10200 

    Distribution: Prognathodes basabei has been observed or collected at depths of 45–187 m at several locations throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago, including both the main Hawaiian Islands (Hawai‘I, O‘ahu, Penguin Banks) and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI; French Frigate Shoals, Lisianski, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Midway Atoll, Kure Atoll). No observations of this species were made during 61 submersible dives or eight mixed-gas rebreather dives to appropriate depths at Johnston Atoll (Randall et al. 1985; Wagner et al. 2014), nor has any similar fish been observed or collected anywhere in the central or eastern Pacific. Thus, it appears that P. basabei is endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago (although further exploration of MCEs in nearby regions may yet reveal its presence elsewhere). This is consistent with the observation that fish assemblages on deep coral reefs have proportionally more endemic species than on shallow reefs (Pyle 1996, Kane et al. 2014, Kosaki et al. 2016).

    Habitat: Pyle and Chave (1994: 92) described the habitat for this species based on videotaped observations from submersibles as follows:

    Eighteen (56%) of the observed [fish] were in areas of basalt substrata (e.g., basalt talus, blocky lava, lava tubes and pillows, basalt boulders), 13 (41 %) were in limestone habitats (primarily limestone holes and ledges), and one fish was sighted on a large (2-m diam.) water pipe. Four of the fish were in the vicinity of an unidentified antipatharian coral, three near Cirrhipathes spiralis (Linnaeus), and one near Antipathes dichotoma Pallas.

    Subsequent observations of this species by divers and submersible dives, totaling several dozen individuals mostly off O‘ahu and various sites within the NWHI, were all found in association with limestone ledges and discontinuities representing ancient shorelines (Figures 3–5). In almost all cases, the fish were found underneath, inside of, or in close proximity to small undercut overhangs or caves, often swimming upside-down in association with the roof of the overhangs and caves. There are no obvious associations with other species, such as antipathinarian corals, other corals and sessile invertebrates, or particular fish species; although certain other fish species, such as than anthias Odontanthias fuscipinnis (Jenkins, 1901) and the wrasse Bodianus sanguineus (Jordan & Evermann, 1903), tend to occupy the same depth and habitat.

    Etymology: We take great pleasure in naming this species basabei, in honor of Peter K. Basabe, long-time diver, aquarium fish collector and resident of Kona, Hawai‘i, both for his role in the collection of the first specimen of this new species in 1998, and more generally for his extensive contributions and assistance to many researchers (especially the authors) in the ichthyological community.

     Richard L. Pyle and Randall K. Kosaki. 2016. Prognathodes basabei, A New Species of Butterflyfish (Perciformes, Chaetodontidae) from the Hawaiian Archipelago. ZooKeys. 614: 137-152. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.614.10200

    Scientists discover a new deep-reef Butterflyfish species in Papahanaumokuakea Monument via @physorg_com

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    Yuebeipotamon calciatile  
    Huang, Shih & Mao, 2016

    A new genus and species of freshwater crab, Yuebeipotamon calciatile gen. n., sp. n., is described from southern China. While the carapace features are superficially similar to species of Sinopotamon Bott, 1967, Longpotamon Shih, Huang & Ng, 2016, and Tenuilapotamon Dai, Song, Li, Chen, Wang & Hu, 1984, the new genus possesses a distinctive combination of carapace, ambulatory leg, male thoracic sternal, male abdominal, and gonopodal characters that distinguish it from these and other genera. Molecular evidence derived from the mitochondrial 16S rDNA supports the establishment of a new genus.

    Keywords: China, freshwater crabs, new genus, new species, Potamidae, systematics, Yuebeipotamon calciatile, 16S rDNA

    Figure 1. Yuebeipotamon calciatile gen. n., sp. n., color in life.
    A male, specimen not collected B a limestone hill stream at the type locality.
    Family Potamidae Ortmann, 1896

    Yuebeipotamon gen. n.

    Diagnosis: Carapace subquadrate, with dorsal surface slightly convex, surface generally smooth, rugose on anterolateral regions (Fig. 2A); postorbital and epigastric cristae distinct, not confluent (Fig. 2A); external orbital angle sharply triangular, separated from anterolateral margin by a narrow gap (Fig. 2A, B); median lobe of posterior margin of epistome sharply triangular (Fig. 2B); third maxilliped with relatively broad ischium, exopod of third maxilliped reaches beyond anterior edge of ischium, with short flagellum (Fig. 3D); male abdomen triangular, with short triangular telson (Fig. 2C); G1 generally slender, terminal segment large, elongated, with subbasal flap (Figs 2D, 3B, C); basal segment of G2 subquadrate (Fig. 3A).

    Type species: Yuebeipotamon calciatile sp. n., by monotypy.

    Etymology: The genus name is derived from the Chinese spelling system “Yue Bei”, which means northern Guangdong, for the locality of this genus. The suffix “Potamon” refers to the type genus of the family Potamidae, Potamon. Gender of genus neuter.

    Figure 2. Yuebeipotamon calciatile gen. n., sp. n., male holotype (32.4 × 27.0 mm) (SYSBM 001294).
    A dorsal view B frontal view of carapace C ventral view showing anterior thoracic sternum and abdomen D ventral view showing sterno-abdominal cavity with right G1 in situ (left G1 removed).

    Etymology: The species name, “calciatile”, means living on limestone, relating to its natural habitat.

    Color: Carapace is usually maroon to dark brown, while chelipeds and ambulatory legs are reddish to purplish in life (Fig. 1A).

    Ecology: This primarily aquatic species is found in the pools of limestone hill streams where they hide in crevices. Almost each pool was occupied by at least one crab at the type locality, which is a relatively high density of distribution. Its slender legs indicate that this species has good climbing abilities and mobility on land. These abilities are assumed to be advantageous in the volatile and short-lived nature of limestone hill streams, which may force them to intermittently find new water sources. No other potamids were observed at the type locality.

    Chao Huang, Hsi-Te Shih and Si Ying Mao. 2016. Yuebeipotamoncalciatile, A New Genus and New Species of Freshwater Crab from southern China (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamidae).  ZooKeys. 615: 61-72. DOI:  10.3897/zookeys.615.9964

    Crab from the Chinese pet market turns out to be a new species of a new genus @physorg_com

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    Vivaron haydeni  
     Lessner​, Stocker, Smith, Turner, Irmis & Nesbitt, 2016

     DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2336 


    Rauisuchids are large (2–6 m in length), carnivorous, and quadrupedal pseudosuchian archosaurs closely related to crocodylomorphs. Though geographically widespread, fossils of this clade are relatively rare in Late Triassic assemblages. The middle Norian (∼212 Ma) Hayden Quarry of northern New Mexico, USA, in the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation, has yielded isolated postcranial elements and associated skull elements of a new species of rauisuchid. Vivaron haydeni gen. et. sp. nov. is diagnosed by the presence of two posteriorly directed prongs at the posterior end of the maxilla for articulation with the jugal. The holotype maxilla and referred elements are similar to those of the rauisuchid Postosuchus kirkpatricki from the southwestern United States, but V. haydeni shares several maxillary apomorphies (e.g., a distinct dropoff to the antorbital fossa that is not a ridge, a straight ventral margin, and a well defined dental groove) with the rauisuchid Teratosaurus suevicus from the Norian of Germany. Despite their geographic separation, this morphological evidence implies a close phylogenetic relationship between V. haydeni and T. suevicus. The morphology preserved in the new Hayden Quarry rauisuchid V. haydeni supports previously proposed and new synapomorphies for nodes within Rauisuchidae. The discovery of Vivaron haydeni reveals an increased range of morphological disparity for rauisuchids from the low-paleolatitude Chinle Formation and a clear biogeographic connection with high paleolatitude Pangea.

    Figure 2: Holotype right maxilla of Vivaron haydeni gen. et. sp. nov. (GR 263) in (A) lateral and (B) medial views (with interpretive drawings).
     Abbreviations: a, articulation; al, alveolus; aof, antorbital fenestra; aofo, antorbital fossa; ap, ascending process; dg, dental groove; for, foramen; fos, fossa; idp, interdental plate; j, jugal; pal, palatine; *indicates autapomorphy. Scale bar  = 5 cm.    DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2336 

    Systematic Paleontology

    ARCHOSAURIA Cope, 1870 sensu Gauthier & Padian, 1985
    SUCHIA Krebs, 1974sensu Sereno, 1991
    RAUISUCHIDAE von Huene, 1942sensu Nesbitt, 2011

    Vivaron haydeni gen. et sp. nov.

    Derivation of name: Vivaron, named for the mythical 30-foot rattlesnake demon believed to haunt Orphan Mesa at Ghost Ranch (Poling-Kempes, 2005); haydeni, in honor of John Hayden, who discovered the Hayden Quarry from which the type and referred material was collected.

    Holotype: right maxilla (GR 263).
    Referred material: left premaxilla (GR 391), left maxilla (GR 186), left jugal (GR 641), right quadrate (GR 639), right ectopterygoid (GR 640), right ectopterygoid (GR 451). We tentatively refer to this taxon a right ilium (GR 638), right ilium (GR 642), tooth (GR 560), tooth (GR 664).

    Type Horizon: Petrified Forest Member, Chinle Formation (Late Triassic: middle Norian, ∼212 Ma) (Irmis et al., 2011).

    Type Locality: Hayden Quarry 2 paleochannel, Ghost Ranch, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, USA. Referred material is from Hayden Quarry paleochannels 2, 3, and 4; all three paleochannels are geographically within 30 m of each other and stratigraphically within 15 m of each other (Fig. 1).

    Emily J. Lessner​, Michelle R. Stocker, Nathan D. Smith, Alan H. Turner, Randall B. Irmis and Sterling J. Nesbitt. 2016. A New Rauisuchid (Archosauria, Pseudosuchia) from the Upper Triassic (Norian) of New Mexico Increases the Diversity and Temporal Range of the Clade. PeerJ. 4:e2336. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2336

    Undergraduate researcher leads study naming a new species of reptile from 212 million years ago


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    Lerista cinerea   
    Greer, McDonald & Lawrie, 1983


    Herein we describe two new species of the skink genus Lerista from north-eastern Queensland, based on morphological and genetic data.  Additionally, we redescribe L. cinereaas this species is morphologically more variable than previously suggested.  We allocate these three species to the L. wilkinsi group (Greer et al. 1983) which is here identified as an endemic Queensland radiation, comprising L. ameles, L. cinerea, L. hobsoni sp. nov., L. storri, L. vanderduysi sp. nov., L. vittata and L. wilkinsi.  A number of these species have strong associations with semi-evergreen vine thickets, listed as an endangered habitat under the Australian Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999).

    Keywords: Reptilia, Australia, Einasleigh Uplands Bioregion, endangered habitat, fine-lined slider skinks, semi-evergreen vine thickets

     Patrick J Couper, Andrew P Amey and Jessica Worthington Wilmer. 2016. Cryptic Diversity within the Narrowly Endemic Lerista wilkinsi group of north Queensland — Two New Species (Reptilia: Scincidae). Zootaxa. 4162(1); 61–91. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4162.1.3

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