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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region

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      Curculionichthys karipuna
      Silva, Roxo, Melo & Oliveira, 2016   

     DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4175.3.7 

    We describe a new species of Curculionichthys from northern Brazil. The new species is known from the rio Cassiporé, an Atlantic coastal river and an unnamed affluent of the rio Jari, left tributary of the Amazon river. It can be distinguished from congeners by (1) the irregular concentration of chromatophores that cover the anal-fin origin and adjacent region, and distal portions of the first unbranched anal-fin ray, (2) lack of dark-brown spots scattered over the body, (3) lack of contrasting dark spots over the anterodorsal region of the body, (4) presence of papillae randomly distributed across the lower lip, (5) small, inconspicuous odontodes that form rows over the head and trunk, (6) anterior profile of the head pointed, (7) higher number of premaxillary and dentary teeth, (8) lack of an unpaired platelet on the dorsal portion of the caudal peduncle, (9) lower number of vertebrae, and (10) higher number of lateral abdomen plates. A discussion on the morphological variation of diagnostic features within Curculionichthys is also provided.

    Keywords: Pisces, Amazon basin, Cascudinhos, Freshwater fishes, Otothyrini, taxonomy

    Gabriel S. C. Silva, Fábio F. Roxo, Bruno F. Melo and Claudio Oliveira. 2016. New Species of Curculionichthys (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the eastern Guiana Shield.
    Zootaxa. 4175(3); 281–291. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4175.3.7

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    Batagur affinis affinis (Cantor, 1847) ||  เต่ากระอาน, River Terrapin
    Batagur affinis edwardmolli Praschag, Holloway, Georges, Päckert, Hundsdörfer & Fritz, 2009
    || เต่ากระอานเขมร, Cambodian River Terrapin

     (c) west coast form of B. affinis, male, Klong La-ngu River, Satun Province, Thailand – photo: B. Horne; (d) west coast form of B. affinis, female, Perak River, Malaysia – photo: E.O. Moll;
    (e) east coast form of B. affinis, male, Dungun River, Malaysia – photo: E.H. Chan; (f) east coast form of Baffinis, female, Terengganu River, Malaysia – photo: E.O. Moll; (g) Cambodian Batagur male, Sre Ambel River system, Cambodia – photo: R. Holloway; (h) Cambodian Batagur female, Sre Ambel River system, Cambodia – photo: B. Horne.
     Note differences in head shape, soft part and iris coloration.

    Estuarine Batagur are among the most critically endangered chelonian species. We assess the taxonomic status of the recently discovered Cambodian relic population of Batagur by phylogenetic analyses of three mitochondrial (2096 bp) and three nuclear DNA fragments (1909 bp) using sequences from all other Batagur species and selected allied geoemydids. Furthermore, we calculated haplotype networks of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene for Cambodian terrapins, B. affinisBbaska, and B. kachuga and compare external morphology of estuarine Batagur populations. Genetically, Cambodian Batagur are closely related with, but distinct from B. affinis from Sumatra and the west coast of the Malay Peninsula. Morphologically, Cambodian Batagur resemble the distinctive B. affinis populations from the eastern Malay Peninsula that were not available for genetic study. We suggest that the Batagur populations from the eastern Malay Peninsula and Cambodia represent a new subspecies of B. affinis that once was distributed in estuaries surrounding the Gulf of Thailand (Batagur affinis edwardmolli subsp. nov.). Its patchy extant distribution is most probably the result of large-scale habitat alteration and century-long overexploitation. In addition, our phylogenetic analyses suggest repeated switches between riverine and estuarine habitats during the evolution of the extant Batagur species.

    Key words: Southeast Asia, South Asia, Batagur affinis affinisBatagur affinis edwardmolli subsp. nov., Batagur baskaBatagur kachuga, endangered species

    Batagur affinis edwardmolli

    Etymology. The new subspecies is named in recognition of Professor Edward O. Moll, one of the foremost experts on river turtles, who substantially contributed to the knowledge of Batagur affinis and its natural history.

    Diagnosis. Adults differ from nominotypical subspecies of Batagur affinis by their distinctly more
    elongated head with upturned snout; males with chocolate brown to almost black head (east coast of peninsular Malaysia) or sometimes rusty brown to reddish head (Sre Ambel River system, Cambodia), edges of mouth orange; iris golden or bright yellow. Females and juveniles with conspicuous whitish grey to silvery blotches in temporal and parietal region; hatchlings with distally yellow marginal scutes. For corresponding characters of B. a. affinis, see Table 2.

     Description of holotype. Specimen slightly macerated; some epidermal scutes detached from shell. Carapace roundish when viewed from above, with weakly serrated central and posterior marginal scutes; medial keel distinct, with posteriorly directed, slightly pointed spines. Plastron anteriorly truncated, posteriorly with anal notch. Straight line carapace length approximately 86 mm, carapace width 84 mm; medial plastron length 74 mm, maximum plastron length (to tips of anal scutes) 78 mm. 

    Range: East coast of peninsular Malaysia and adjacent Thailand; Sre Ambel River system, Cambodia (Fig. 5).

    FIGURE 3. (aBatagur baska, male, Sundarbans, Bangladesh – photo: S.M.A. Rashid; (bB. baska, semiadult female (the pointed, upturned snout develops only with increasing age), Sundarbans, Bangladesh – photo: P. Praschag;
     (c) west coast form of B. affinis, male, Klong La-ngu River, Satun Province, Thailand – photo: B. Horne; (d) west coast form of B. affinis, female, Perak River, Malaysia – photo: E.O. Moll;
     (e) east coast form of B. affinis, male, Dungun River, Malaysia – photo: E.H. Chan; (f) east coast form of Baffinis, female, Terengganu River, Malaysia – photo: E.O. Moll;
     (g) Cambodian Batagur male, Sre Ambel River system, Cambodia – photo: R. Holloway; (h) Cambodian Batagur female, Sre Ambel River system, Cambodia – photo: B. Horne.
     Note differences in head shape, soft part and iris coloration.

    Peter Praschag, Rohan Holloway, Arthur Georges, Martin Päckert, Anna K. Hundsdörfer and Uwe Fritz. 2009. A New Subspecies of Batagur affinis (Cantor, 1847), One of the World’s Most Critically Endangered Chelonians (Testudines: Geoemydidae). Zootaxa. 2233: 57–68. 

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        Paraboea crassifila 
     W.B. Xu & J. Guo 

        Paraboea crassifila, a new species of Gesneriaceae from Danxia landform in Guangxi, China is described and illustrated, based on morphological and anatomical features. Paraboea crassifila sp. nov. is reported firstly from Danxia landform in China, with the special feature of enlarged filaments differing from the others of Paraboea distributed in China. Paraboea crassifila is similar to Paraboea guilinensis L. Xu & Y.G. Wei in the habit, but it can be distinguished by the obovate to narrowly obovate leaf blade, the peduncle and calyx covered with ferrugineous matted indumentums, the corolla arachnoid outside, the enlarged filaments, and 3 staminodes.

     Keyword:     Danxia landform, Gesneriaceae, new species, taxonomy

    Fig 2.   Paraboea crassifila. A: Habit. B: Flowers face view. C: Flowers side view.   

    Paraboea crassifila is similar to Paraboea guilinensis L. Xu & Y.G. Wei in the habit, but it can be distinguished by the leaf blade obovate, narrowly obovate, rare oblong (vs. obovate-elliptic or elliptic), peduncles 7–12.5 cm long, covered with ferrugineous matted indumentums (vs. 3.5–6.5 cm long, glabrous), calyx with ferrugineous matted indumentum outside (vs. glabrous), corolla arachnoid outside (vs. glabrous), filaments 6–8 mm long, enlarged (vs. 4.5–5 mm long, geniculate near middle), staminodes 3 (vs. 2).

    Distribution and habitat:Paraboea crassifila is only found from type locality (Fig 3), and only four populations have so far been identified by us during field investigations in 2015. Paraboea crassifila grows on rock faces of Danxia landform, at an elevation between 130 and 280 m.

    Phenology: Flowering from March to April, and fruiting May to June.

    Etymology: The specific epithet 'crassifila' is derived from the enlarged filaments.

    Notes: The special feature of Paraboea crassifila is the enlarged filaments (Fig. 2 D and E; Fig. 3 G and H), which is reported firstly from the genus of Paraboea in China. Paraboea crassifila is similar to Paraboea guilinensis L. Xu & Y.G. Wei in the habit, but it is easily distinguished from the latter by some characters. A detailed morphological comparison of the two species is shown in Table 1.

        Jing Guo, Zhao-Cen Lu, Jing Liu and Wei-Bin Xu. 2016. Paraboea crassifila, A New Species of Paraboea (Gesneriaceae) from Danxia landform in Guangxi, China.
    Taiwania. 61(1)

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    Hanguana thailandica 
    Wijedasa & Niissalo 


    A new species of Hanguana (Hanguanaceae), Hanguana thailandica, is described and illustrated from Trang province, Peninsular Thailand. This is the second Hanguana species recorded in Thailand, along with the widespread helophytic H. malayana. The species is morphologically similar to Hanguanaexultans and H. nitens found in swamp forests habitats in southern Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. The conservation status of this species is accessed as Endangered according to the IUCN Red List Category and Criteria.

    Keywords: Commelinales, IUCN, Peat swamp forest, Peninsular Thailand, Trang, Monocots

    FIGURE 1. Hanguana thailandica. a. Habitat, b. habitat, c. close up of fruiting specimen; d. infructescence.

    Scale bar = 2 mm.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.280.2.10 

    Hanguana thailandica Wijedasa & Niissalo, sp. nov.  

    Type:—THAILAND. Trang: Peninsular Botanical Garden (Thungkhai), peat swamp forest, beside boardwalk, 15 May 2013. Wijedasa, Chamchumroom, Pudjaa & Thaweechock VC5771 (Holotype: BKF! [barcode SN204335]; Isotype: BKF!).

    Diagnosis:— The new species is similar to H. exultans, but differs by having larger inflorescences up to 80 cm (not up to 60 cm) and the inflorescence branches arranged in a horizontal angle (not ascending), and stigmatic lobes ca. 1.5 mm (not 1.2 mm) long, very narrowly lanceolate (not rounded) in shape and raised from the gynoecium (not adpressed to it). 

    Ecology, distribution and conservation:— Evergreen primary peat swamp forest in the Peninsular Botanical Garden in Thung Khai. 80-90% canopy cover. The soil is made up of peat (i.e. >65% organic matter by weight) with a thick leaf litter layer. The water level was a few centimeters below surface. The plants were scattered in different parts of the peat swamp where they were locally common.

    This species is only known from the Peninsular Botanical Garden, where is under protection. The lack of botanical surveys in swamps of the Peninsular Thailand region makes it difficult to assign the IUCN conservation status (2012). We estimate the number of individuals to be about 100. Based on the currently known range, the extent of occurrence (EOO) of this species is less than 5, with only one known locality, which is under protection as it is within the Peninsular Botanical Garden. The conservation status of the species is assessed to be Endangered (EN D) based on the very small, restricted population of less than 250 individuals.

    The species is currently only known from peat swamp forest habitats which are understood and still undergoing rapid deforestation (Posa et al. 2010, Wijedasa et al. 2012, Chisholm et al. 2016). More botanical work in this habitat is needed to help understand and conserve the unique flora in these habitats.

    Etymology:— The specific epithet ‘thailandica’ is derived from Thailand, where this species was collected and it is the first new species of Hanguana found in Thailand.

    Lahiru S. Wijedasa, Matti A. Niissalo, Voradol Chamchumroon,  Pachok Puudjaa, Thaveechok Jumruschay and Peter C. Boyce. 2016.
    Hanguana thailandica (Hanguanaceae): A New Peat Swamp Forest Species from Thailand.
     Phytotaxa. 280(2); 195–199. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.280.2.10

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    Lutjanus alexandrei
     Moura & Lindeman, 2007 

    Snappers of the family Lutjanidae contain several of the most important reef-fishery species in the tropical western Atlantic. Despite their importance, substantial gaps exist for both systematic and ecological information, especially for the southwestern Atlantic. Recent collecting efforts along the coast of Brazil have resulted in the discovery of many new reef-fish species, including commercially important parrotfishes (Scaridae) and grunts (Haemulidae). Based on field collecting, museum specimens, and literature records, we describe a new species of snapper, Lutjanus alexandrei, which is apparently endemic to the Brazilian coast. The newly settled and early juvenile life stages are also described. This species is common in many Brazilian reef and coastal estuarine systems where it has been often misidentified as the gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus, or the schoolmaster, L. apodus. Identification of the new species cast doubt on prior distributional assumptions about the southern ranges of L. griseus and L. apodus, and subsequent field and museum work confirmed that those species are not reliably recorded in Brazil. The taxonomic status of two Brazilian species previously referred to LutjanusBodianus aya and Genyoroge canina, is reviewed to determine the number of valid Lutjanus species occurring in Brazil. Twelve species of Lutjanus are now recognized in the western Atlantic, eight of which occur in Brazil (one endemic). A key for the identification of all western Atlantic Lutjanus species and their known distributional ranges is also provided.

    Key words: Lutjanus alexandrei new species; snappers; biogeography; Brazil

    FIGURE 2. Underwater photograph of Lutjanus alexandrei. Parcel das Paredes (17°53’54”S, 38°57’13”W), Abrolhos Bank, Bahia, Brazil (R.L. Moura).

     FIGURE 3. Early juvenile individual of Lutjanus alexandrei, 27 mm SL, collected in the mouth of Rio Mamucabas, Tamandaré (08°49'S, 035°05'W), State of Pernambuco, Brazil, 1 m depth (Beatrice P. Ferreira & Sérgio Resende, 18 February 2005).

    Etymology. The specific name honors the pioneer Brazilian naturalist Alexandre Rodrigues Ferreira (1756–1815), whose many years of field work in Brazil during the late 18th Century remain underrecognized due to the confiscation of his and others’ collections at Lisbon’s Museu da Ajuda in 1808 (Oliveira & Daly 2001). Ferreira collected many specimens that were ultimately described as new without any reference to his efforts. The common name Brazilian snapper is proposed for L. alexandrei.

    Distribution, ecology and behavior. The Brazilian snapper, Lutjanus alexandrei is only recorded from the tropical portion of the southwestern Atlantic continental shelf, and has a narrower latitudinal range than other Western Atlantic species of Lutjanus. It is known from the state of Maranhão (00°52’S) to the southern coast of the state of Bahia (18°0’S), Brazil, in areas under the influence of the west-flowing Equatorial Current (northern Brazil) and the south-flowing Brazil Current (northeastern Brazil). It is apparently absent from oceanic islands. Additional collections may show an even broader distributional range for this species, as was the case with 48 other poorly known reef-fish species in the southwestern Atlantic (Moura et al. 1999).

    Habitats of the Brazilian snapper include coral reefs, rocky shores, coastal lagoons with brackish water, mangroves and other shallow habitats with a mixture of soft- and hard-bottom. Recorded depths range from intertidal (early stages only) to at least 54 m (Feitoza et al. 2005 — identified as L. apodus). During the day, adults of Lalexandrei were observed on reefs as solitary individuals or in small groups showing restricted activity. Adults can co-occur with L. jocu (see figure on page 40 in MMA 2002, several L. alexandrei were misidentified as L. jocu). These mixed groups are often composed of large (> 20 cm), probably adult, individuals. Similar to several other Lutjanus species, this species appears to be active predominantly during crepuscular and nocturnal periods. Juveniles smaller than 10 cm SL can be common in mangroves and rocky tidepools, sometimes together with L. jocu juveniles, and may also occur in other shallow habitats. Based on available information, early juvenile stages of L. alexandrei are uncommon or rare in deeper, offshore reef habitats, as in many congeners (Lindeman et al. 1998, Lindeman & DeMaria 2005).

    Rodrigo L. Moura and Kenyon C. Lindeman. 2007. A New Species of Snapper (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) from Brazil, with Comments on the Distribution of Lutjanus griseus and L. apodus.  Zootaxa. 1422: 31–43.

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    Carapoia patafina 
    Huber, 2016


    The Atlantic Forest along the eastern South American coast is widely recognized as a hotspot with extreme levels of diversity, endemism, and threat. A megatransect study (2003–2015) focusing on pholcid spiders and covering 48 localities across a large part of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest resulted in 132 morphospecies, of which 81% were new to science. The present paper deals with the species of Carapoia González-Sponga, 1998 collected during this campaign. The endemism level is 100%, i.e. all 26 species of Carapoia in the Atlantic Forest are not known from (and not likely to occur) anywhere else. While few species (all of them with non-overlapping ranges) occur in the most southern and northern regions, the central region (between Rio Doce and Rio Paraguaçu; largely equivalent to what has been called the ‘Bahia refuge’) is characterized by high diversity and up to five species per locality. The following species are newly described (from South to North): Carapoia voltavelha (Santa Catarina); C. macacu, C. divisa (Rio de Janeiro); C. nairae, C. capixaba, C. mirim, C. patafina (Espírito Santo); C. pau, C. gracilis, C. zumbii, C. dandarae, C. marceloi, C. viridis, C. jiboia, C. carvalhoi, C. carybei (Bahia); C. alagoas (Alagoas); C. saltinho, C. abdita (Pernambuco); C. septentrionalis (Pernambuco to Rio Grande do Norte). New records and amendments are given for most previously described Atlantic Forest species.

    Keywords: Araneae, Atlantic Forest, Brazil, Carapoia, taxonomy, distribution ranges, endemism

    Bernhard A. Huber. 2016. Spider Diversity and Endemism in A South American Hotspot: 20 New Species of Carapoia (Araneae: Pholcidae) from Brazil’s Atlantic Forest. Zootaxa. 4177(1); 1-69. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4177.1.1

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    Strongylodon juangonzalezii  
    Hadsall, Alejado & Cajano  


    A new speciesStrongylodon juangonzalezii Hadsall, Alejado & Cajano, collected from Buenavista Protected Landscape, Mulanay, Quezon, is hereby described. The new species is remarkable for its plagiotropic dense inflorescence made up of 27–31 flowers per cluster in a lateral branch. Flowers are lilac when young, then gradually turn blue when mature. A comparison of the morphology of S. juangonzalezii and related species of Strongylodon in the Philippines is provided. Detailed illustration based on the holotype and photos from its natural habitat are also included. With this new species, the Philippines now harbors eight endemic species of Strongylodon. A key to distinguish the species is provided.

    Keywords: Mulanay, Fabaceae, Quezon, Philippines, Strongylodon

    Figure 4. Strongylodon juangonzalezii sp. nov.
    inflorescence B inflorescence showing point of attachment C opened pod to show seeds D young pod E mature seeds from the wild.
    Photographs by Mary Ann O. Cajano (deceased 6 December 2015) and Michelle DR. Alejado. 

    Diagnosis: Strongylodon juangonzalezii a habens inflorescentiae racemi spicae densi plagiotropici, lilacinus cum iuvenibus et caerulei cum maturibus, et cum brachyblastae cylindricae et magis quam tres flores in congeners differt.

    Strongylodon juangonzalezii differs from other species of Strongylodon in having dense plagiotropic raceme inflorescence with flowers that are lilac when young and turn blue when mature, and with brachyblasts that are cylindrical and more than 3 flowered.

    Figure 2. Strongylodon juangonzalezii sp. nov.
    A growth habit, inset shows the distinct middle and lateral stipules B portion of a flowering branch C Detached flower D dissected flower E calyx F androecium and anther G intact pod H pod opened to show the seeds I seeds, front and side view J brachyblast. 

    Etymology: This new species is named after Dr. Juan Carlos Tecson Gonzalez, current director UPLB-MNH, professor of zoology, one of the Philippines ten outstanding young scientists in 2011, a passionate conservationist and ornithologist.

    Distribution: So far only two thriving lianas of this species are known from Buenavista Protected Landscape, Mulanay, Quezon Province where it was collected.

    Habitat and ecology: This liana thrives in a disturbed secondary growth forest climbing atop a large tree at an altitude of 295 m. The area is adjacent to an old coconut plantation.

    Phenology: Flowering and fruiting from February to mid-March.

    Annalee S. Hadsall, Michelle D.R. Alejado, Ariel R. Larona and Ivy Amor F. Lambio. 2016. Strongylodon juangonzalezii, A Remarkable New Species of Strongylodon (Fabaceae) from Mulanay, Quezon Province, Philippines.   PhytoKeys. 73: 1-12. DOI:  10.3897/phytokeys.73.10055

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    Basilochelys macrobios  
    Tong, Claude, Naksri, Suteethorn, Buffetaut, Khansubha, Wongko, & Yuangdetkla, 2009 

    'เต่าทรงพระเจริญ'   DOI: 10.1144/SP315.12

     A large cryptodiran turtle, Basilochelys macrobios n. gen. n. sp. is described from the latest Jurassic–earliest Cretaceous Phu Kradung Formation of NE Thailand, on the basis of skull, shell and other postcranial elements. Basilochelys presents a combination of primitive and derived characters. The derived characters include sculptured skull roof and shell surface; deeply embedded canalis caroticus internus; foramen posterius canalis carotici interni completely surrounded by pterygoid; neural formula of 6 > 4 < 6 < 6 < 6 < 6; anteroposteriorly expanded eleventh and twelfth marginal scutes extending onto the suprapygal and costal plates; narrow vertebral scutes; plastron sutured to the carapace, with large and wide anterior and posterior lobes, long and narrow bridge, very narrow axillary and inguinal notch; wide entoplastron; humeropectoral sulcus located on the posterior part of the entoplastron; anal notch absent. This taxon is placed in Trionychoidae and considered as the most basal member of that group.

    Systematic palaeontology
    Megaorder Cryptodira Cope
    Parvorder Eucryptodira Gaffney

    Epifamily Trionychoidae Fitzinger (fide Meylan & Gaffney 1989)

    Genus Basilochelys new genus

    Type species. Basilochelys macrobios sp. nov.

    Etymology. Basileus: Greek, kingchelys: Greek, turtle. In honour of His Majesty King Bhumibol of Thailand; Macrobios: Greek, long life. In honour of His Majesty King Rama IX’s eightieth birthday.

    Holotype. A nearly complete carapace articulated with a partial plastron, pelvic girdle and a cervical vertebra (MD8-2, collection of the Sirindhorn Museum, Phu Kum Khao, Sahatsakhan, Kalasin Province, Thailand).

    Type locality. Kham Phok, Mukdahan Province, Khorat Plateau, NE Thailand.

    Horizon. Phu Kradung Formation, terminal Jurassic–basal Cretaceous.

    Conclusion: The large turtles from the terminal Jurassic–earliest Cretaceous Phu Kradung Formation of the Khorat Group, NE Thailand, described herein represent anew genus and new species of Eucryptodira, Basilochelys macrobios n. gen. n. sp. This taxon is placed in Trionychoidae and considered as the most basal member of that group. The combination of primitive and derived characters of Basilochelys suggests that the group Trionychoidae may have originated from xinjiangchelyids and their close relatives. Siamochelys from the Middle Jurassic of the southern peninsula of Thailand may represent the sister taxon of Trionychoidae, because of its ligamentous carapace–plastron attachment, sculptured shell surface and wide entoplastron. These new discoveries add significantly to the still poorly known turtle fauna from the Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous of SE Asia and provide important information about the origin and early evolution of modern cryptodiran turtles.

    Haiyan Tong, Julien Claude, Wilailuck Naksri, Varavudh Suteethorn, Eric Buffetaut, Sasidhorn Khansubha, Kamonrak Wongko and Phisit Yuangdetkla. 2009.  Basilochelys macrobios n. gen. and n. sp., A Large Cryptodiran Turtle from the Phu Kradung Formation (latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous) of the Khorat Plateau, NE Thailand. In: Buffetaut, E.; Cuny, G.; Le Loeuff, J. & Suteethorn, V. (eds.). Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Ecosystems in SE Asia. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 315: 229-243.  DOI: 10.1144/SP315.12

    เต่าทรงพระเจริญ Basilochelys macrobios n. gen. and n. sp., a large cryptodiran turtle from the Phu Kradung Formation ซึ่งผู้ศึกษาตั้งใจให้ชื่อเพื่อ เฉลิมพระเกียรติพระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาภูมิพลอดุลยเดช ในวโรกาสมหามงคล เฉลิมพระชนพรรษา 80 พรรษา
    ต้นตระกูลเต่าน้ำจืดชนิดใหม่โลก อายุ150ล้านปี แถมพบกระดูกไดโนเสาร์"ซอโรพอด"สมบูรณ์สุดในโลก

           อธิบดีกรมทรัพยากรธรณี ยังเปิดเผยถึงการค้นพบฟอสซิลของสัตว์โบราณหลายชนิดกระจายอยู่ตามผิวหน้าหินเนินเขาเล็กๆ ประกอบไปด้วย ฟอสซิลจระเข้ ปลาเลปิโดเทส กระดูกไดโนเสาร์ และฟอสซิลเต่าขนาดใหญ่คู่หนึ่งอยู่ใกล้ๆกัน แหล่งฟอสซิลเต่ายักษ์คู่อยู่ในพื้นที่บ้านคำพอก อ.หนองสูง จ.มุกดาหาร ขนาดของเต่าตัวที่ 1 ยาว 96 ซม. ตัวที่ 2 ยาว 90 ซม. กว้าง 80 ซม.โดยคณะผู้วิจัยไทย-ฝรั่งเศล นำโดย ดร.ไฮยั่น ตง ได้ทำการอนุรักษ์ตัวอย่างเต่า และศึกษาวิจัยรายละเอียดจนพบลักษณะของหัวกะโหลก กระดองหลัง กระดองท้อง กระดูกคอ กระดูกสันหลัง กระดูกซี่โครง กระดูกขาหน้า และขาหลังที่ชัดเจนระบุว่าเป็นเต่าชนิดใหม่ สกุลใหม่ จึงได้ส่งพิมพ์ในวารสาร Geological Society, London, Special Publications ในปี 2552 โดยตั้งชื่อว่า"Basilochelys macrobios” เพื่อเฉลิมพระเกียรติพระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาภูมิพลอดุลยเดช ในวโรกาสมหามงคลเฉลิมพระชนมพรรษา 80 พรรษา โดยชื่อเป็นภาษากรีก มีความหมายว่า "ขอให้พระมหากษัตริย์ไทยทรงมีพระชนมายุยิ่งยืนนาน”

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    FIGURE 1. A-B. Abrus precatorius; C. A. pulchellus ssp. pulchellus; D-E. A. pulchellus ssp. cantoniensis; F. A. pulchellus ssp. mollis,
    A., C. and D. flowers; B. pods and seeds; E. and F. pods. 

     Two species and four taxa of the genus Abrus Adans. are found in Thailand viz. Abrus precatorius, A. pulchellus ssp. pulchellus, A. pulchellus ssp. cantoniensis and A. pulchellus ssp. mollis. Keys to species and subspecies are provided. Micromorphology of leaf surface and pollen were prepared by peeling and acetolysis methods, respectively. The leaf surface characteristics are used to construct a key. Pollen of Abrus is monad, isopolar, radial symmetry and tricolporate apertures.

    KEY WORDS: Abreae, Leaf surface, Pollen, Revision

    Wanniga Munsuk, Pranom Chantaranothai and Boonsong Kongsook. 2016. The Genus Abrus Adans. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) in Thailand.
     Tropical Natural History 16(2); 67-77.

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    Herpetofauna of northern Mozambique inselbergs
    Figure 3. A selection of amphibians from northern Mozambique inselbergs.
    AArthroleptis francei (Mt. Namuli, PEM A11303), B Arthroleptis xenodactyloides (Mt. Mabu), C Arthroleptis stenodactylus (Mt. Mabu), D Amietia delalandii (Mt. Namuli, PEM A11319), E Nothophryne cf. broadleyi (Mt. M’pàluwé, PEM A11370), F Nothophryne cf. broadleyi (Mt. Namuli), G Strongylopus cf. fuelleborni (Mt. Mabu, PEM A11184), H Scolecomorphus cf. kirkii (Mt. Mabu, PEM A11248).

    Figure 4. A selection of reptiles from northern Mozambique inselbergs.
    A Nadzikambia baylissi (Mt. Namuli, PEM R21165), B Rhampholeon tilburyi (Mt. Namuli, PEM R21157), CRhampholeon sp. (Mt. M’pàluwé, PEM R21209), D Lygodactylus cf. rex (Mt. Mabu, PEM R21147), E Holaspislaevis (Mt. Mabu, PEM R21146), F Dipsadoboa cf. shrevei shrevei (Mt. Mabu, PEM R21123), G Duberria shirana (Mt. Namuli, PEM R21184), HPsammophylax variabilis (Mt. Namuli, PEM R21186).

    We carried out a survey of reptiles and amphibians within Afromontane forest and woodland slopes of three inselbergs in northern Mozambique (Mount Mabu, Mount Namuli, and Mount Ribáuè). A total of 56 species (22 amphibians and 34 reptiles) were recorded during the current survey. Our findings substantially increase the number of herpetofaunal species recorded from these mountains (Mount Ribáuè 59%, Mount Mabu 37%, and Mount Namuli 11% of the total species), including one new country record and several putative new species. An updated checklist of the herpetofauna of these mountains is presented.

    Key Words: Amphibia, Reptilia, conservation, diversity, new species

    Figure 2. Study area, northern Mozambique sky islands.
    A – Mount Mabu, B – Mount Namuli, C– Mount M’pàluwé to the left. 

    Figure 3. A selection of amphibians from northern Mozambique inselbergs. 
    A – Arthroleptis francei (Mt. Namuli, PEM A11303), – Arthroleptis xenodactyloides (Mt. Mabu), – Arthroleptis stenodactylus (Mt. Mabu), – Amietia delalandii (Mt. Namuli, PEM A11319), – Nothophryne cf. broadleyi (Mt. M’pàluwé, PEM A11370), – Nothophryne cf. broadleyi (Mt. Namuli), – Strongylopus cf. fuelleborni (Mt. Mabu, PEM A11184), – Scolecomorphus cf. kirkii (Mt. Mabu, PEM A11248). 

    Figure 4. A selection of reptiles from northern Mozambique inselbergs.
    – Nadzikambia baylissi (Mt. Namuli, PEM R21165), – Rhampholeon tilburyi (Mt. Namuli, PEM R21157), C – Rhampholeon sp. (Mt. M’pàluwé, PEM R21209), – Lygodactylus cf. rex (Mt. Mabu, PEM R21147), – Holaspis laevis (Mt. Mabu, PEM R21146), – Dipsadoboa cf. shrevei shrevei (Mt. Mabu, PEM R21123), – Duberria shirana (Mt. Namuli, PEM R21184), H – Psammophylax variabilis (Mt. Namuli, PEM R21186). 
     DOI: 10.3897/zse.92.9948  

    We have found eight putative new species through field identification, added additional species known from northern inselbergs (13 species to Mt. Mabu, five species to Mt. Namuli, and 19 species to Mt. M’pàluwé), and one new country record. Additional analyses are necessary, including barcoding and phylogenetic analyses, to determine whether these mountains are exceptionally high in species richness. We now know there are at least 30-40 species of reptiles and amphibians on each of these sky islands, many of which are montane endemics. Although the state of knowledge is growing for Mt. Mabu and Mt. Namuli and can be considered to be relatively well sampled, it is clear that Mt. Ribáuè isolates requires more work given the brevity of our survey. In addition, several other sky islands in the area have received little or no attention in terms of the herpetofaunal survey (e.g. Mt. Inago and Mt. Chiperone).

    The present collection is essentially a preliminary assessment of amphibian and reptile diversity in the region and does not account for seasonal variation in activity of herpetofauna. Future surveys that are more comprehensive in space and over time should considerably increase our understanding of the regional diversity, endemism, and richness of these inselbergs. Although the state of biodiversity knowledge has grown for Mts. Mabu and Namuli, there is an urgent need for a clear understanding of the nature of threats, and mitigation measures that will directly improve protection of habitat. At Mt. Ribàué additional surveys are imperative, given the comparatively limited exploration on that mountain coupled with the apparent high rate of forest clearing. Overall, the sky islands of Mozambique clearly require additional surveys to quantify species richness and endemism for a broad range of taxonomic groups. Ultimately, a better understanding of the threats to biodiversity will allow for prioritisation of conservation interventions.

     Werner Conradie, Gabriela Bittencourt-Silva, Hanlie M. Engelbrecht, Simon P. Loader, Michele Menegon, Cristóvão Nanvonamuquitxo, Michael Scott and Krystal A. Tolley. 2016. Exploration into the Hidden World of Mozambique’s Sky Island Forests: New Discoveries of Reptiles and Amphibians.   Zoosystematics and Evolution. 92(2); 163-180. DOI: 10.3897/zse.92.9948

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    Pseudacanthicus pirarara 
      Chamon & Sousa, 2016  

     DOI: 10.1111/jfb.13184  


    The genus Pseudacanthicus comprises six valid species distributed in the Amazon basin and Caribbean coastal drainages from Guyana to French Guiana: P. serratusP. fordiiP. histrixP. spinosusP. leopardus and P. pitangaA new species of Pseudacanthicus is described from the Rio Xingu Basin, distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of characters: presence of anastomose dark blotches forming continuous zigzag bands alongside longitudinal keels; presence of dark blotches on ventral surface of body and head; all fins with orange to red colour on unbranched rays and sometimes subsequent branched rays. Brief comments on ornamental fisheries and conservation of the new species are also provided.

    Keywords: Amazon Basin; conservation; fish trade; Neotropical; taxonomy

    Figure 2.  Pseudacanthicus pirarara, live specimens showing variation in colour:
    (a) Laboratório de Ictiologia de Altamira, Universidade Federal do Pará, Campus de Altamira—LIA 1466, 58·0 mm standard length (LS), Rio Xingu near São Félix do Xingu; (b) ANSP 197879, 137 mm LS, Rio Irini; (c) LIA 1251, 122·5 mm LS, Rio Xingu near São Félix do Xingu; (d) Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia—ANSP 193003, 193 mm LS, Rio Irini; (e) LIA 1297, 141·0 mm LS, Rio Xingu near São Félix do Xingu; (f) LIA (no number), 173·75 mm LS, Rio Xingu near Altamira. 

    Diagnosis: Pseudacanthicus pirarara is distinguished from congeners (except P. leopardus and P. pitanga) by having fins with intensely orange to red colouration (v. fins with dark background colour with white spots in P. serratus and P. fordii or grey background colour with black blotches in P. histrix and P. spinosus). Pseudacanthicus pirarara is distinguished from P. leopardus by the presence of anastomose dark blotches forming continuous zigzag bands alongside longitudinal keels and having all fins with strong red colour on unbranched rays and sometimes in subsequent branched rays (v. dark blotches distinct, never connected and red colour restricted to dorsal and caudal-fin rays). From P. pitanga, P. pirarara is distinguished by the presence of conspicuous dark blotches on head and abdomen (v. dark blotches usually absent or otherwise faint on head and always absent on abdomen). Pseudacanthicus pirarara is further diagnosed from congeners by the following combination of osteological characteristics: nasal bone L-shaped (v. rectangular); ventral crest of basipterygii straight (v. rounded or triangular); internal crest of posterior process of basipterygii well-developed (v. crest absent or weak).

    Etymology: The specific name (a noun in apposition) is an allusion to Pirarara, the Brazilian common name of the red tail catfish, Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Bloch & Schneider 1801), which was incorporated by local fishermen in the common name of the species (i.e. assacu-pirarara) due to its reddish fins. Assacu is a common name for the Amazon tree Hura crepitans (Euphorbiaceae), which has bark covered with conical spines.

    Distribution: Pseudacanthicus pirarara is endemic to the Rio Xingu Basin and has been collected in the main channel from Vitória do Xingu to São Félix do Xingu and major tributaries to the Xingu like Rio Bacajá and Rio Iriri (Fig. 3).

    Figure 4. Typical habitat where Pseudacanthicus pirarara occurs:
    (a) stretch of the Rio Xingu at Gorgulho da Rita region, a shallow, fast-flowing portion of the river with gravel and conglomerate rocks on the bottom; (b) and (c) Pseudacanthicus pirarara in natural habitat at Gorgulho da Rita. 

    Ecological notes: The species can be found in the main channel of the river, in moderate to strong currents and shallow to deep environments down to 15 m. It is usually collected at depths of 2–3 m, often hiding beneath bedrock or conglomerate plates of rocks and gravel (Figs 4 and 5). Pseudacanthicus pirarara is not a gregarious species and it is not usually found with conspecific individuals or other species. They are carnivorous and feed on small invertebrates. According to local fishermen, they are more easily found during the high-water season (December to April), probably due to reproductive behaviour.

    Fisheries and economical importance: Pseudacanthicus pirarara is highly appreciated by advanced hobbyists in the international aquarium trade because it is a large and colourful species that requires special tank set-ups to best suit their needs. It is also an important resource for local fishermen in the Rio Xingu, being one of the more valuable species depending on season. Local fishermen refer to it as assacu-vermelhoassacu-pirarara or L025 (Schraml & Schäfer, 2004; Stawikowski et al., 2004; Werner et al., 2005). It is usually captured with the aid of an air compressor and hoses that supply breathable air to the fishermen during 20–30 min dives. The safety procedures for such dives, however, are far from satisfactory.

    Chamon, C.C. and Sousa, L.M. 2016. 2016. A New Species of the Leopard Pleco Genus Pseudacanthicus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the Rio Xingu, Brazil.  Journal of Fish Biology.  DOI: 10.1111/jfb.13184 


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    Coelogyne ventrinigra 
     de Vogel, Suksathan & Boonnuang 

    เอื้องนางพญาลิ้นดำ |  ThaiForestBulletin

    Figure 2. Coelogyne ventrinigra de Vogel, Suksathan & Boonnuang,
    A. flowering plant in habitat; B. inflorescence; C. flower with brownish-black spots on labellum.

     Photos by H. Boonnuang.   ThaiForestBulletin 


    Coelogyne ventrinigraa new species from Umphang District, Tak Province, in the western part of Thailand, is described and illustrated.

    KEYWORDS: Elatae; Conservation status

    Etymology.— The epithet ventrinigra means ‘black belly’, from the Latin venter (belly), and nigra (black), referring to the blackish spots abaxially on the lip.

    Vernacular.— Ueang nang phaya lin dam (เอื้องนางพญาลิ้นดำ).


    กล้วยไม้ชนิดใหม่ของโลก ที่เพิ่งได้รับการตีพิมพ์เมื่อไม่กี่วันมานี้เอง หนึ่งในความภาคภูมิใจของประเทศไทย และหนึ่งในความภูมิใจของผมที่ได้เป็นหนึ่งในผู้ร่วมศึกษากล้วยไม้ชนิดนี้จนได้รับการตีพิมพ์เป็นชนิดใหม่ของโลก หลังจากใช้เวลาหลายปีในการจัดทำคำบรรยายและเรื่องราวต่าง ๆ มาวันนี้ผมเหมือนจะรู้สึกว่ากล้วยไม้ชนิดนี้เหมาะแก่การถวายต่อพระบาทสมเด็จพระเจ้าอยู่หัว รัชกาลที่ ๙ เหลือเกิน ไม่ใช่เพียงเพราะตีพิมพ์ในช่วงเวลาเดียวกัน ทว่าหลายอย่างเป็นความเหมาะเจาะอย่างยิ่ง
    เราเจอกล้วยไม้ชนิดนี้ในช่วงเวลาที่สมเด็จพระเจ้าพี่นางเธอ เจ้าฟ้ากัลยาณิวัฒนา กรมหลวง นราธิวาสราชนครินทร์ สิ้นพระชนม์ ทว่ากว่าจะมาตีพิมพ์ได้สำเร็จก็เมื่อเวลาที่คนไทยทั้งประเทศร่ำให้น้ำตาเป็นสายเลือด ในช่วงที่พระบาทสมเด็จพระเจ้าอยู่หัว รัชกาลที่ ๙ สวรรคต นับเป็นกล้วยไม้ที่มีสีในช่วงเวลาแห่งความชอกช้ำเหลือเกิน เพราะทั้งดอกมีเพียงสีขาวและดำเท่านั้นเอง
    ผมภูมิใจกับการค้นพบกล้วยไม้ไทยเสมอ ๆ ทว่าความภูมิใจใด ๆ หากแลกกับปาฎิหารย์แห่งชีวิตของพระองค์ท่านไว้ได้ผมจะแลกทั้งหมดครับ แต่ตอนนี้คงไม่ทันแล้วได้แต่ถวายความงดงามแห่งธรรมชาติชนิดนี้ไว้ว่าเป็นสิ่งที่คนไทยทั้งหมดได้ถวายงานรับใช้ใต้เบื้องพระยุคคลบาท...
    ขอบคุณทุกท่านที่ช่วยเหลือจนกล้วยไม้ชนิดนี้ได้รับการตีพิมพ์ครับ หลวงพี่กมล เจ๊แมว แสงเดือน ถนอมวงศ์ธนา น้าเสก เสกสรร โตวิวัฒน์ ที่ร่วมทางกันจนได้ตัวอย่างในธรรมชาติ แม้จะต้องใช้เวลา ใช้พลังอย่างมากก็ตาม ขอบคุณไว้ ณ.ที่นี้ด้วยครับ
    ขอบคุณนักพฤกษศาสตร์ ดร.ปิยเกษตร สุขสถาน และ ดร.สันติ วัฒฐานะ ครับที่จัดทำคำบรรยายและศึกษาเพิ่มเติม


    photos: Hassachai Boonuang  —

    นี่เป็นภาพที่ผมถ่ายตอนที่พบเป็นครั้งแรกเมื่อ 8 ปีที่แล่ว Hassachai Boonuang  — Mastercanvas Kitiwattana

     Ed de Vogle, Piyakaset Suksathan, Thitiporn Pingyot, Hassachai Boonuang and Santi Watthana. 2016. Coelogyne ventrinigra (Orchidaceae), A New Species from Thailand.
     Thai For. Bull. 44(1); 49-52.


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    Globba magnibracteata 

    Globba magnibracteata Y.Y.Sam, sp. nov. is described and illustrated. Colour plates, a preliminary conservation assessment and a discussion of its closely related taxa are provided.

    Keywords: Endemic, ginger, Globbeae, taxonomy, Terengganu, Zingiberaceae

    Diagnosis: Globba magnibracteata is similar to G. albobracteata N.E.Br. where both are placed in the subgenus Globba section Sempervirens. They have the same vegetative morphologies and inflorescence structure but differ in having wide spreading or strongly deflexed white sterile bracts versus the green appressed sterile bracts of G. albobracteata. The elliptic fertile bracts of G. magnibracteata are smaller (1.1–1.2 cm long) compared to the obovate bracts of G. albobracteata which are about 3 cm long. The cincinnus stalk of G. magnibracteata is also shorter (less than 1 cm) than that of G. albobracteata (2–4 cm). Globba magnibracteata has bulbils with many roots and one bamboo-like shoot distinct from the one-root-one-shoot bulbils in G. albobracteata.

    Etymology: The epithet is derived from Latin and refers to the large (magnusfloral bract (bractea).

    Distribution and ecology: Globba magnibracteata is only known from Jengai Forest Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia. The plants were found scattered on the shady and moist forest floor with a thick humus layer in the lowland dipterocarp forest, a tropical evergreen rainforest.

    Figure 1. Globba magnibracteata Y.Y.Sam 
    Habit Ligule Inflorescence Sterile floral bracts Flower Bulbils.
    (Photographs A–F by Y.Y. Sam).  DOI:  10.3897/phytokeys.73.9737

    Figure 2. Globba magnibracteata Y.Y.Sam 
    A Habit B Inflorescence C Sterile bract D Bracteole E Flower F Ovary and calyx G Dorsal corolla lobe in front and side view H Lateral corolla lobe in ventral and side view I Lateral staminodes in ventral and side view J Labellum K Anther appendages L Stigma.
    Drawn by M.N. Aidil from Sam & Aidil FRI 68959 (KEP).   DOI:  10.3897/phytokeys.73.9737

    Flowers of Globba corneriGnawawii and Gmagnibracteata G. albobracteata Gcernua G. corneri Gnawawii.
    (Photographs I and K by Y.Y. Sam, H by A. Takano, J by Y.M. Chan).  DOI:  10.3897/phytokeys.73.9737  

     Yen Yen Sam and Halijah Ibrahim. 2016. A New Globba with Large White Floral Bracts from Peninsular Malaysia. PhytoKeys. 73: 117-124. DOI:  10.3897/phytokeys.73.9737


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     Chauligenion camelopardalis 
     McCosker and Okamoto, 2016

    Giraffe-spotted Snake Eel |

    A new genus and species of ophichthid eel, Chauligenion camelopardalis McCosker and Okamoto, is described based on a specimen trawled at 150 m off western Okinawa. It differs from other ophichthids in its elongation, its pointed tail and snout, lower jaw extension, anterior nostril condition, elongate jaws, gill arch reduction, vertical gill openings, numerous small closely packed teeth, lack of pectoral fins, and its yellowish-tan coloration overlain with rows of brown spots. It is similar to genera of the tribe Ophichthini; however, we are unable to assign it with confidence.

    Keywords: Fish taxonomy, Ophichthidae, Chauligenion camelopardalis, genus and sp. nov, East China Sea.

    FIGURE 1. Holotype of Chauligenion camelopardalis sp. nov., NSMT-P 125489, female, 407 mm Tl, photographed soon after capture and before preservation. arrows indicate origin of dorsal and anal fins. elongate ophichthine with tail longer than head and trunk, body cylindrical, becoming laterally compressed in tail region; snout and tail tip pointed; lower jaw slightly extended; anterior nostril a hole above outer lip, without a tube; posterior nostrils along upper lip; jaws elongate, capable of closing completely; orbit large, in posterior half of upper jaw, its rear margin above rictus; gill openings low lateral, vertical; median fins elongate, not elevated; dorsal-fin origin above gill opening; pectoral fins absent; teeth small, conical, numerous and densely packed; preopercular pores 3; coloration yellowish-tan overlain with rows of brown spots.

    DISTRIBUTION.Known only from the type specimen, collected by trawl in 150 m from the East China Sea. 

    ETYMOLOGY. From the Greek chaulios (prominent) and genion (chin), neuter, in reference to its obtrusive lower jaw tip. The epithet is derived from the latin camelopardalis (giraffe), in reference to its coloration, to be treated as a noun in apposition. 

    New English name: Giraffe-spotted Snake Eel; New Japanese name: Kirin-umihebi

    John E. McCosker and Makoto Okamoto. 2016. Chauligenion camelopardalis, A New Genus and Species of Deepwater Snake Eel (Anguilliformes: Ophichthidae) from the East China Sea.  PROCEEDINGS OF THE CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCESSeries 4, 63(9); 321–328. 

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    Prospea holoserisca  
    Chen, Bever, Yi & Norell, 2016

    Fossils are indispensible in understanding the evolutionary origins of the modern fauna. Crown-group spadefoot toads (Anura: Pelobatoidea) are the best-known fossorial frog clade to inhabit arid environments, with species utilizing a characteristic bony spade on their foot for burrowing. Endemic to the Northern Hemisphere, they are distributed across the Holarctic except East Asia. Here we report a rare fossil of a crown-group spadefoot toad from the late Paleocene of Mongolia. The phylogenetic analysis using both morphological and molecular information recovered this Asian fossil inside the modern North American pelobatoid clade Scaphiopodidae. The presence of a spade and the phylogenetic position of the new fossil frog strongly support its burrowing behavior. The late Paleocene age and other information suggestive of a mild climate cast doubt on the conventional assertion that burrowing evolved as an adaptation to aridity in spadefoot toads. Temporally and geographically, the new fossil provides the earliest record of Scaphiopodidae worldwide, and the only member of the group in Asia. Quantitative biogeographic analysis suggests that Scaphiopodidae, despite originating in North America, dispersed into East Asia via Beringia in the Early Cenozoic. The absence of spadefoot toads in East Asia today is a result of extinction.

    Systematic Paleontology

    Amphibia Linnaeus, 1758.
    Anura Rafinesque, 1815.

    Pelobatoidea Bolkay, 1919.
    Scaphiopodidae Cope, 1865.

    Prospea holoserisca gen. et sp. nov.

    Etymology: Prospea means “before the North American spadefoot toad Spea”, and holoserisca means “silk”, referring to its discovery on the ancient Silk Road.

    Figure 1: IGM 2/001, holotype of Prospea holoserisca.
     (a) The original specimen in rock matrix and jackets before preparation, preserved in part and counterpart; (b) the specimen in ventral and dorsal view after the preparation.

    Holotype: IGM 2/001 (Institute of Geology, Mongolia, Ulanbaatar, Mongolia), a nearly complete specimen preserved as part and counterpart in grey sandy clay (Fig. 1a). The rock matrix was later removed and the specimen was embedded in resin (Fig. 1b; see the Supplementary Experimental Procedures: fossil preparation). The two halves of the holotype were combined digitally to reconstruct the whole skeleton (Fig. 2; Supplementary Movie S1).

    Jianye Chen, Gaberiel S. Bever, Hong-Yu Yi and Mark A. Norell. 2016. A Burrowing Frog from the late Paleocene of Mongolia Uncovers A Deep History of Spadefoot Toads (Pelobatoidea) in East Asia.
    Scientific Reports. 
    6, 19209. DOI: 10.1038/srep19209

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    FIGURE 1. Pycnandra longiflora, A. Habit of open maquis, B. Flowering branch, C. Fruits with long persistent styles.

     Pictures AC from Rosa Scopetra. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.278.2.9 


    Pycnandra longiflora (Sapotaceae) belongs to the largest endemic genus in New Caledonia. It is only known from the type collection made in 1861–67 at the obscure locality “Gatope”. Relocation of this species has been of high priority for more than a decade, but without success. Pycnandra longiflora was therefore recently declared extinct. However, a population was recently discovered near a mining site at Onajiele, in the Ouazangou-Taom massif, and it is revealed that P. longiflora has the most spectacular flowers in the entire genus, being large and bicoloured in red and yellow. A thorough description is here outlined and we propose a preliminary IUCN status as Critically Endangered.

    Keywords: Extinct species, rediscovering, extended description, prospection, Eudicots

    Pycnandra longiflora (Benth.) Munzinger & Swenson,
    Austral. Syst. Bot. 28: 101 (2015)

    Pycnandra longiflora is not extinct and grows less than 600 metres from the main road (RT1) of “Grande-Terre”, close to an accessible track (Figure 2). This is a very important locality of native vegetation as a new species of Myrtaceae, Eugenia plurinervia Snow, Munzinger & Callm. (2016: 212), also occurs here. Several other rare species such as Planchonellaminutiflora Munzinger & Swenson (2009: 182), Croton cordatulus Airy Shaw (1978: 387), Euodia tietaensis (Guillaumin) T.G. Hartley (2001: 56) are also present, which clearly indicates that the place has high conservation value. The rediscovery of this P. longiflora supports continuing botanical surveys in New Caledonia, to provide sound data for conservation assessments.

      Jérôme Munzinger and Ulf Swenson. 2016. Pycnandra longiflora (Sapotaceae) A Species Believed to be Extinct, rediscovered in New Caledonia.
    Phytotaxa. 278(2); 176–180.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.278.2.9

    Jérôme Munzinger and Ulf Swenson. 2015. Revision of Pycnandra subgenus Leptostylis and description of subgenus Wagapensia (Sapotaceae), A Genus endemic to New Caledonia. Australian Systematic Botany. 28; 91–110. DOI:  10.1071/SB15010

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    Morphosphaera chrysomeloides  
    (Bates, 1866)  


    The genus Morphosphaera Baly, 1861 is revised. Eleven species are considered as valid, including, Morphosphaera takizawai sp. nov. (Mt. Basor, 90 km N of Gua Musang, Malaysia, W. Kelantan), described from Malaysia and Indonesia. Color photos of habitus and drawings of diagnostic characters from eleven species are presented. The following synonymies are proposed: M. sodalis Chen, 1935 and M. brunnea Maulik, 1936 are junior synonyms of M. albipennis Allard, 1889; M. margaritacea Laboissière, 1930, M. viridipennis Laboissière, 1930, and M. prava Maulik, 1936 are junior synonyms of M. coomani Laboissière, 1930; M. gracilicornis Chen, 1963 is a junior synonym of M. maculicollis Baly, 1861; M. cavaleriei Laboissière, 1930, M. cincticollis Laboissière, 1930, M. marginata Laboissière, 1930, M. purpurea Laboissière, 1930, M. gingkoae Gressitt & Kimoto, 1963, and M. metallescens Gressitt & Kimoto, 1963 are junior synonyms of M. sumatrana Jacoby, 1886. The type material of M. impunctata Allard, 1890 from the Philippines was not found and its taxonomic status remains uncertain. Morphosphaera peregrina Weise, 1913 is transferred to the genus Borneola Mohamedsaid, 1998 nov. comb. A neotype is designated for Chrysomela japonica Hornstedt, 1788. Lectotypes are designated for the following species: Adorium chrysomeloides Bates, 1866, A. japonicum Baly, 1874, Morphosphaera albipennis Allard, 1889, M. bimaculata Chûjô, 1938, M. caerulea Jacoby, 1896, M. cavaleriei Laboissière, 1930, M. collaris Laboissière, 1930, M. formosa Laboissière, 1930, M. marginata Laboissière, 1930, M. montivaga Maulik, 1936, M. prava Maulik, 1936, M. purpurea Laboissière, 1930, M. sumatrana Jacoby, 1886, M. viridipennis Laboissière, 1930, and Galerucida simplex Weise, 1922.

    Keywords: Coleoptera, taxonomy, new synonymy, new species, neotype, lectotype designations, leaf beetles, Moraceae, Urticaceae

    Chi-Feng Lee and Jan Bezdĕk. 2016. Revision of the Genus Morphosphaera Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae). Zootaxa. 4179(1); 1–41. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4179.1.1

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    Wallaceaphytis kikiae 
    Ayshford & Polaszek, 2013 

    Wallaceaphytis Polaszek and Fusu gen. nov. (type species Wallaceaphytis kikiae Ayshford and Polaszek sp. nov.) is described from Danum Valley, Sabah, in Malaysian Borneo. Although known from just a single female individual, the genus is extremely unusual morphologically, being the only member of the large subfamily Aphelininae with four-segmented tarsi. The form of the fore wings and head are also unique in the subfamily, and its status as a new genus is confirmed by analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA. DNA sequence analysis was undertaken by comparison with more than 60 aphelinid sequences from GenBank. The sequence for the standard DNA barcode region (cytochrome oxidase c subunit I; COI) is provided. The new genus is named in honour of Alfred Russel Wallace, co-discoverer of the theory of evolution by natural selection. The new genus and species are published on the exact date of the centenary of his death.

    Keywords: Aphelininae, Chalcidoidea, chalcids, phylogeny, Sabah, Malaysia, Alfred Russel Wallace, DNA barcode, non-destructive DNA extraction, 

    Figure 11.Wallaceaphytis kikiae holotype female; habitus

    Andrew Polaszek, Thomas Ayshford, Bakhtiar Effendi Yahya and Lucian Fusu. 2013. Wallaceaphytis: An Unusual New Genus of Parasitoid Wasp (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from Borneo. Journal of Natural History. 48(19-20). DOI:  10.1080/00222933.2013.852264

    BBC News - Evolution pioneer honoured by statue and new wasp genus
     New Wasp Genus Discovered, ‘Wallaceaphytis’ Named After Evolution Naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace

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    Tetracentrosternus theelorsuensis 
    Likhitrakarn, Golovatch & Panha, 2013

    Figure 1. Tetracentrosternus theelorsuensis sp. n., ♂ holotype. A habitus, live coloration B, D anterior part of body, lateral and dorsal views, respectively C, E, G segments 10 and 11, dorsal, ventral and lateral views, respectively F, H posterior part of body, dorsal and lateral views, respectively I, J sternal lobe between coxae 4, sublateral and subcaudal views, respectively.


    The millipede subfamily Alogolykinae and the tribe Alogolykini are recorded in Thailand for the first time, being represented there by Tetracentrosternus theelorsuensis sp. n. While the new species has characteristics that place it in the genus Tetracentrosternus, it also shows a number of unique features that make it necessary to rediagnose this Oriental genus, as well as to key its three currently known species and map their distributions. The tribes Alogolykini and Polydrepanini, as well as the subfamily Alogolykinae are also briefly redefined.

    Keywords: Millipede, Alogolykinae, Alogolykini, Tetracentrosternus, taxonomy, new species, Thailand


    Family Paradoxosomatidae Daday, 1889
    Subfamily Alogolykinae Hoffman, 1963
    Tribe Alogolykini Hoffman, 1963

    Genus Tetracentrosternus Pocock, 1895

    Type species: Tetracentrosternus subspinosus Pocock, 1895; by monotypy.

    Other species include Tetracentrosternus hoffmani Golovatch, 2013 and Tetracentrosternus theelorsuensis sp. n.

    Tetracentrosternus theelorsuensis sp. n. 

     Holotype: ♂ (CUMZ), Thailand, Tak Province, Umphang District, Thee Lor Sue Waterfall, 590 m a.s.l., 15°55'38"N, 98°45'13"E (converted from GPS data), 19.01.2011, leg. N. Likhitrakarn.
    Paratypes: ♂ (CUMZ), same District, Mokro Subdistrict, roadside, 1, 168 m a.s.l., 16°14'14"N, 98°59'23"E, 20.01.2011, leg. N. Likhitrakarn. 5 ♀, 1 juv. (CUMZ), same District, Pa Wai Waterfall, 804 m a.s.l., 16°34'30"N, 98°50'3"E, 20.01.2011, leg. S. Panha, C. Sutcharit & N. Likhitrakarn.

    Name: After Thee Lor Sue Waterfall, the type locality, which is the largest and highest waterfall in Thailand.

     Likhitrakarn, N., Golovatch, S.I. and Panha, S. 2013 The Millipede genus Tetracentrosternus Pocock, 1895 (Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae, Alogolykinae, Alogolykini), with A Description of the First, New Species from Thailand.
    ZooKeys. 358: 1–10. DOI:  10.3897/zookeys.358.6582

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    Banksia vincentia  M.L.Stimpson & P.H.Weston

    Possession of hooked, distinctively discolorous styles, a broadly flabellate common bract subtending each flower pair, and a lignotuber place a putative new speciesBanksia sp. Jervis Bay, in the B. spinulosa complex. Phenetic analysis of individuals from all named taxa in the B. spinulosa complex, including B. sp. Jervis Bay, based on leaf, floral, seed and bract characters support recognition of this species, which is described here as Banksia vincentia M.L.Stimpson & P.H.Weston. Known only from fourteen individuals, B. vincentia is distinguished by its semi-prostrate habit, with basally prostrate, distally ascending branches from the lignotuber, and distinctive perianth colouring. Its geographical location and ecological niche also separate it from its most similar congeners.

    Keywords: Basipetally, Putative, discolorous, distally, ascending

    FIG 6.   Banksia vincentia  M.L.Stimpson & P.H.Weston, in its natural habitat. 
     A. Habitat and habit of B. vincentia with MLS; B. Branch with developing conflorescence; perianth yellow; C. plant with developing conflorescences; perianth orange, styles turning red; D. Developing conflorescence: perianth yellow, styles turning purple–black.

    Banksia vincentia Stimpson & P.H.Weston sp. nov.
    With affinities to Banksia spinulosa sensu lato, differing from other taxa in the complex by a much lower stature with stems basally prostrate from lignotuber, distally ascending.

    Distribution:— Banksia vincentia is restricted to a small area near Vincentia on the south coast of New South Wales.

    Derivation of Epithet:— The specific epithet is a noun in apposition that refers to the named place nearest to the only known location of this species.

    Margaret L. Stimpson , Jeremy J. Bruhl and Peter H. Weston. 2014. Could this be Australia’s Rarest BanksiaBanksia vincentia (Proteaceae), A New Species Known from Fourteen Plants from south-eastern New South Wales, Australia.
    Phytotaxa 163 (5): 269–286. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.163.5.3

    Could this be Australia’s rarest BanksiaBanksia vincentia sp. nov.

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