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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region

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    The fossilized remains of Eoconfuciusornis, a beaked bird with no teeth, still contains traces of its original color.

    Image: Xiaoli Wang.  DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617168113  

    We report fossil evidence of feather structural protein (beta-keratin) from a 130-My-old basal bird (Eoconfuciusornis) from the famous Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota, which has produced many feathered dinosaurs, early birds, and mammals. Multiple independent molecular analyses of both microbodies and associated matrix recovered from the fossil feathers confirm that these microbodies are indeed melanosomes. We use transmission electron microscopy and immunogold to show localized binding of antibodies raised against feather protein to matrix filaments within these ancient feathers. Our work sheds new light on molecular constituents of tissues preserved in fossils.

    Microbodies associated with feathers of both nonavian dinosaurs and early birds were first identified as bacteria but have been reinterpreted as melanosomes. Whereas melanosomes in modern feathers are always surrounded by and embedded in keratin, melanosomes embedded in keratin in fossils has not been demonstrated. Here we provide multiple independent molecular analyses of both microbodies and the associated matrix recovered from feathers of a new specimen of the basal bird Eoconfuciusornis from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota of China. Our work represents the oldest ultrastructural and immunological recognition of avian beta-keratin from an Early Cretaceous (∼130-Ma) bird. We apply immunogold to identify protein epitopes at high resolution, by localizing antibody–antigen complexes to specific fossil ultrastructures. Retention of original keratinous proteins in the matrix surrounding electron-opaque microbodies supports their assignment as melanosomes and adds to the criteria employable to distinguish melanosomes from microbial bodies. Our work sheds new light on molecular preservation within normally labile tissues preserved in fossils.

    Keywords: keratinous protein, immunogold, ChemiSTEM, melanosome, Early Cretaceous

    Yanhong Pan, Wenxia Zheng, Alison E. Moyer, Jingmai K. O’Connor, Min Wang, Xiaoting Zheng, Xiaoli Wang, Elena R. Schroeter, Zhonghe Zhou and Mary H. Schweitzer. 2016. Molecular Evidence of Keratin and Melanosomes in Feathers of the Early Cretaceous Bird Eoconfuciusornis. PNAS. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617168113  

    Keratin and melanosomes preserved in 130-million-year-old bird fossil via @physorg_com
    Feathers on This 130-Million-Year-Old Fossil Still Contain Traces of Color

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    Tunicate Goby | Lubricogobius tunicatus 
    Allen & Erdmann, 2016


    A new species of goby, Lubricogobius tunicatus, is described from Milne Bay Province, eastern Papua New Guinea, on the basis of 10 adult specimens, 9.1–11.5 mm SL. Diagnostic features include 9 (rarely 10) segmented dorsal-fin rays, 6–7 segmented anal-fin rays, the presence of both anterior and posterior nostrils, the greatest body depth 3.1–3.7 in SL, overall coloration typically pale yellow to whitish (rarely brown), and an exceptionally small maximum size of about 11.5 mm SL. Lubricogobius tunicatus is most similar in appearance to L. nanus Allen, 2015, another diminutive species from Papua New Guinea that differs in having 10–11 dorsal-fin rays and 8–9 anal-fin rays. The new species is apparently invariably associated with a species of tunicate (Polycarpa sp.) on silty-sand bottoms in depths of about 20–28 m. In addition, L. ornatus Fourmanoir, 1966, originally described from Vietnam and also recorded from the Ryukyu Islands in Japan, northern Australia, and New Caledonia, is reported for the first time from the East Indies, based on two specimens collected at Lembeh Strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.
    Key words: ichthyology, taxonomy, systematics, coral-reef fishes, Indo-Pacific Ocean

    Figure 3. Lubricogobius tunicatus, approximately 9–11 mm SL, underwater photographs taken at the type locality, Normanby Island, Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea (G.R. Allen & M.V. Erdmann). 

    Etymology. The new species is named tunicatus (Latinized adjective from tunicate) referring to its commensal host. The specific epithet is a masculine singular adjective in the genitive case.

    Gerald R. Allen and Mark V. Erdmann. 2016. Lubricogobius tunicatus, A New Species of Goby (Pisces: Gobiidae) from Papua New Guinea and the First Record of L. ornatus from the East Indies. Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation. 24; 24–34. 


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    Floral bracts (B Red and coriaceous in Scaphochlamys pusilla (C) Scarious and marcescent in Borneocola petiolatus.
    Variegation on labellum (E) White labellum with red streaks beside the band in Scaphochlamys concinna (F) Lilac labellum without coloured streaks beside the band in Borneocola petiolatus
    Photographs by Y.Y. Sam.   DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.75.9837

    A new genus from Borneo, Borneocola Y.Y.Sam, is described here. The genus currently contains eight species previously classified as members of the Scaphochlamys Baker. The finding is based on the results of the morphological and molecular studies of Scaphochlamys throughout its geographical range and its closely allied sister groups, Distichochlamys M.F.Newman and Myxochlamys A.Takano & Nagam. Borneocola is nested within the tribe Zingibereae and its monophyly is strongly supported by both ITS and matK sequence data. The genus is characterised by several thin, translucent and marcescent floral bracts, absence of coloured streaks on the labellum and capitate stigma with two dorsal knobs. The genus is distributed in northwest Borneo and all species are very rare and highly endemic.

    Keywords: DistichochlamysMyxochlamysScaphochlamys, morphology, phylogeny, taxonomy

    Borneocola Y.Y.Sam, gen. nov.

     Diagnosis: Similar to Scaphochlamys and MyxochlamysBorneocola has thin, translucent and marcescent floral bracts, absence of coloured streaks on labellum and two dorsal knobs on the stigma versus the coriaceous and persistent floral bracts, coloured streaks on labellum and absence of dorsal knobs on the stigma in Scaphochlamys. The mucilage on the floral bracts and the versatile anther of Myxochlamys are absent in Borneocola.

    Type species: Borneocola reticosus (Ridl.) Y.Y.Sam, comb. nov.
     Gastrochilusreticosa Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 44: 195 (1905).

    Morphology: The Borneocola and Scaphochlamys species look similar in their vegetative morphologies. They are mostly small-sized gingers without the conspicuous pseudostem, with one to several leaves arranged spirally and tightly on a very short stem at the base. So far, all the Borneocola species examined are unifoliate. Similarly, most of the Scaphochlamys species also bear one leaf except for several species which have leafy shoots composed of multiple leaves, for example, S. grandis, S. lanceolata, S. kunstleri, S. malaccana and S. minutiflora. The basal part of the leaves is covered with a few bladeless sheaths which are rather different for both groups in terms of their texture and colour. For Scaphochlamys, the sheaths are coriaceous, green, green with a red tinge or red and mostly persistent until the end of flowering (Figure 4A, B). On the other hand, the sheaths of Borneocola are thinner in texture with a lighter shade of green or brown. The thin sheaths normally dry up early (Figure 4C) and sometimes they are completely shredded during the time of flowering.

    Figure 4.: Bladeless sheaths Green and coriaceous in Scaphochlamys klossii (Peninsular Malaysia) Red and coriaceous in Scaphochlamys abdullahii (Peninsular Malaysia) Papery and marcescent in Borneocola calcicola (Sarawak).
    Photographs by Y.Y. Sam.   DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.75.9837

    Figure 5. AC Floral bracts A Green and coriaceous in ScaphochlamysklossiiB Red and coriaceous in Scaphochlamyspusilla C Scarious and marcescent in Borneocolapetiolatus. 
     DF Variegation on labellum D White labellum with purple lines beside the median band in ScaphochlamysmalaccanaE White labellum with red streaks beside the band in ScaphochlamysconcinnaF Lilac labellum without coloured streaks beside the band in Borneocolapetiolatus.
     Photographs by Y.Y. Sam.   DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.75.9837 

    The inflorescences of Borneocola and Scaphochlamys are terminal, stalked and consisted of few to many floral bracts. The differences lie in the characteristics of the floral bracts and flowers. Borneocola species have thin, translucent, early decaying and marcescent floral bracts. The colours of the bracts can be pink, pale brown, pale or light green (Figure 5A). On the contrary, the bracts of Scaphochlamys are coriaceous and sometimes hard in texture. They are usually green, green tinged red, red or reddish brown and remain fresh throughout the flowering (Figure 5B, C).

    Etymology: This new genus is named after the island of Borneo and -cola (Latin) means dweller or inhabitant. This is to recognise the extremely rich and unique biodiversity that is found in Borneo.

    Distribution: Borneo. The genus is currently known to occur only in the northwest and possibly central Borneo. Eight species are recorded from Sarawak, Malaysia and many more are undescribed.

    1. Borneocolaargenteus (R.M.Sm.) Y.Y.Sam, comb. nov.
    Scaphochlamysargentea R.M.Sm., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 44: 209 (1987).
    Scaphochlamysdepressa Mas Izzaty, A.Ampeng & K.Meekiong, Folia Malaysiana 14(2): 19 (2013).

    2. Borneocolabiru(Meekiong) Y.Y.Sam, comb. nov.
    Scaphochlamysbiru Meekiong, Folia Malaysiana 16(1): 37 (2015).

    3. Borneocolacalcicola(A.D.Poulsen & R.J.Searle) Y.Y.Sam, comb. nov.
    Scaphochlamyscalcicola A.D.Poulsen & R.J.Searle, Gard. Bull. Singapore 57: 29 (2005).

    4. Borneocola iporii (Meekiong & A.Ampeng) Y.Y.Sam, comb. nov.
    Scaphochlamysiporii Meekiong & A.Ampeng, Folia Malaysiana 12(1): 19 (2011).

    5. Borneocolapetiolatus(K.Schum.) Y.Y.Sam, comb. nov.
    Haplochoremapetiolatum K.Schum. in Engler, Pflanzenr. IV, 46 (Heft 20): 90 (1904). Scaphochlamyspetiolata (K.Schum.) R.M.Sm., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 44: 210 (1987).

    6. Borneocolareticosus(Ridl.) Y.Y.Sam, comb. nov.
    Gastrochilusreticosa Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 44: 195 (1905).
      Boesenbergiareticosa (Ridl.) Merr., Bibl. Enum. Born. Pl. 122 (1921).
      Scaphochlamysreticosa (Ridl.) R.M.Sm., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 44: 209 (1987).

    7. Borneocolasalahuddinianus (Meekiong, A.Ampeng & Ipor) Y.Y.Sam, comb. nov.
    Scaphochlamyssalahuddiniana Meekiong, A.Ampeng & Ipor, Folia Malaysiana 12(1): 22 (2011).

    8. Borneocolastenophyllus(I.H.Ooi & S.Y.Wong) Y.Y.Sam, comb. nov.
    Scaphochlamysstenophylla I.H.Ooi & S.Y.Wong, Willdenowia 44(2): 241-245 (2014).

    Incompletely known species

    Scaphochlamys anomala (Hallier f.) R.J.Searle, Edinburgh J. Bot. 67: 85 (2010).

    Kaempferiaanomala Hallier f., Bull. Herb. Boissier 6: 357 (1898).
      Gastrochilusanomalum (Hallier f.) K.Schum. in Engler, Pflanzenr. IV, 46 (Heft 20): 92 (1904). Boesenbergiaanomala (Hallier f.) Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 12: 315 (1913).

    Gastrochilus hallieri (Hallier f.) Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 32: 109 (1899), nom. illegit.

     Yen Yen Sam, Atsuko Takano, Halijah Ibrahim, Eliška Záveská and Fazimah Aziz. 2016. Borneocola (Zingiberaceae), A New Genus from Borneo. PhytoKeys. 75; 31-55. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.75.9837


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     Litorosuchus somnii 
     Li, Wu, Zhao, Nesbitt, Stocker & Wang, 2016  

    Reptiles have a long history of transitioning from terrestrial to semi-aquatic or aquatic environments that stretches back at least 250 million years. Within Archosauria, both living crocodylians and birds have semi-aquatic members. Closer to the root of Archosauria and within the closest relatives of the clade, there is a growing body of evidence that early members of those clades had a semi-aquatic lifestyle. However, the morphological adaptations to a semi-aquatic environment remain equivocal in most cases. Here, we introduce a new Middle Triassic (245–235 Ma) archosauriform, Litorosuchus somnii, gen. et sp. nov., based on a nearly complete skeleton from the Zhuganpo Member (Ladinian [241–235 Ma]) of the Falang Formation, Yunnan, China. Our phylogenetic analyses suggest that Litorosuchus is a stem archosaur closely related to the aberrant Vancleavea just outside of Archosauria. The well-preserved skeleton of L. somnii bears a number of morphological characters consistent with other aquatic-adapted tetrapods including: a dorsally directed external naris, tall neural spines and elongate chevrons in an elongated tail, a short and broad scapula, webbed feet, long cervical vertebrae with long slender ribs, and an elongated rostrum with long and pointed teeth. Together these features represent one of the best-supported cases of a semi-aquatic mode of life for a stem archosaur. Together with Vancleavea campi, the discovery of L. somnii demonstrates a growing body of evidence that there was much more diversity in mode of life outside Archosauria. Furthermore, L. somnii helps interpret other possible character states consistent with a semi-aquatic mode of life for archosauriforms, including archosaurs.

    Keywords: Adaptation; Morphology; Phylogeny; Reptile; Semi-aquatic

    Systematic paleontology
    Diapsida (Osborn 1903).
    Archosauromorpha (von Huene 1946) sensu (Benton 1985).

    Archosauriformes (Gauthier et al. 1988).

    Litorosuchus somnii gen. et sp. nov.

    Etymology: From Latin litoralis, indicating the coastal region where the archosauriform may have lived and Greek soukhos crocodile. From Latin somnium —“dream” in reference to a dream the first author (Li) had the day after he searched for a name for the animal, in which he saw an archosauriform wandering on the beach.


    Holotype: IVPP V 16978, a nearly complete skull and skeleton embedded in a slab of limestone with much of its right lateral side exposed.

    Locality and horizon: Jiyangshan, west of Huangnihe River, southeast Fuyuan County, Yunnan Province, China; Zhuganpo Member of the Falang Formation, Late Middle Triassic (Ladinian (241–235 Ma)) (Chen 1985).

    Diagnosis: A medium-sized reptile (snout to tip of the tail length = ∼2.0 m), differing from other non-archosaur archosauriforms in having the following unique combination of character states: premaxilla bearing only two anteriorly positioned teeth with a short diastema anterior to and a long diastema posterior to the teeth, respectively; posterodorsal (maxillary) process of the premaxilla long and extending just posteriorly; nasal process of the premaxilla extending posteriorly beyond the posterodorsal margin of the external naris; large caniniform tooth in each tooth-bearing bone (shared with V. campi); midline length of the snout (measured from anterior edge of the orbit to the anterior tip of the premaxilla) more than twice that of the post-snout region (shared with species of Chanaresuchus, Q. mixtus, and D. fuyuanensis); T-shaped prefrontal with an elongate and bar-like descending process extending as ventrally as the lacrimal; lacrimal excluded by the prefrontal from the orbit; interfenestral region of the skull roof very narrow, less than one fifth of interorbital width; body completely covered by variously shaped osteoderms in certain regions (e.g., spine-like dorsal osteoderms on caudal vertebrae 10 to 13); tail long, about 60 % of the total length; vertical ridge present on the lateral surface of the neural spine of caudal vertebrae 9 to 35; cervical ribs slender and elongate; astragalus-calcaneum contact a simple butt joint, calcaneal tuber nearly absent. Asterisks denote autapomorphies.

    Chun Li, Xiao-chun Wu, Li-jun Zhao, Sterling J. Nesbitt, Michelle R. Stocker and Li-Ting Wang. 2016.  A New Armored Archosauriform (Diapsida: Archosauromorpha) from the Marine Middle Triassic of China, with Implications for the Diverse Life Styles of Archosauriforms Prior to the Diversification of Archosauria.
    The Science of Nature [Naturwissenschaften].  103: 95. DOI: 10.1007/s00114-016-1418-4


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    Rubovietnamia nonggangensis  F.J.Mou & D.X.Zhang

     A new Rubiaceae species, Rubovietnamia nonggangensis F. J. Mou & D. X. Zhang, is described and illustrated from Guangxi, China. The somatic chromosome number (2n = 22) and pollen morphology of the species are reported. The new species is characterized prominently by having dense hairs on many organs, such as young branches, leaves, and inflorescences, enlarged and foliaceous calyx lobes caducous after anthesis, and indehiscent and globose fruits with persistent yellowish annular floral disks on the apex. All morphological data support that it belongs to the genus Rubovietnamia, a genus distributed in Vietnam and southern China, currently classified in the tribe Gardenieae of the subfamily Ixoroideae.

    Keywords: Chromosome number; Gardenieae; Molecular phylogeny; New species; Pollen morphology; Rubiaceae; RubovietnamiaRubovietnamia nonggangensis

     Feng-Juan Mou and Dian-Xiang Zhang. 2010. Rubovietnamia nonggangensis (Rubiaceae), A New Species from China. Botanical Studies (Taipei) 51:119-126.

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    Narcine baliensis 
     De Carvalho & White, 2016  


    A new species of numbfish, Narcine baliensis, sp. nov., is described from the tropical eastern Indian Ocean from Indonesia. It is superficially similar to N. brevilabiata and N. atzi in aspects of its color pattern, but is distinguished from both congeners in details of its color pattern, in tooth band morphology, and in proportions of its dorsal fins, among other features. Narcine baliensis, sp. nov., is unique in having a dorsal color pattern composed of large, circular, ovoid or elongate dark brown spots or blotches on dorsal disc along with more numerous small (about eye-sized or slightly greater) brownish, subcircular spots, with large blotches and small spots surrounded by a very slender creamy-white pattern, as well as in having broadly circular upper and lower tooth bands of about the same width and shape. The genus Narcine is now composed of 20 valid species, but uncertainty remains concerning the identification and morphological variation of some of its species in the tropical Indo-West Pacific region.

    Keywords: Pisces, Narcinidae, lesser electric rays, numbfishes, taxonomy, morphology, Indonesia

    Geographical distribution.— Known from four specimens from southern Indonesia. The holotype was collected during the JETINDOFISH Survey (Gloerfelt-Tarp & Kailola, 1984) from between the islands of Bali and Lombok in depths of about 60 m. The paratypes were collected from the Cilacap fishing port in Central Java from bycatch landings of the local trammel net fishery, which operates off southern Java where it is based. The image of the live specimen was taken farther east on the other side of Wallace's line from the island of Komodo.Narcine baliensis probably occurs at least off most of Java and the western Lesser Sunda Islands, therefore crossing Wallace's line between Bali and Lombok. As far as presently known, N. baliensis and the Australian species of Narcine (= Narcinops Whitley, 1940; Carvalho et al., unpubl.) are the only numbfishes to occur east of the line.

    Etymology.— Named in reference to the nearby island of Bali, close to the type locality between the islands of Bali and Lombok, Indonesia.

    Marcelo R. De Carvalho and William T. White. 2016.  Narcine baliensis, A New Species of Electric Ray from southeast Asia (Chondrichthyes: Torpediniformes).
     Zootaxa. 4127(1);  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4127.1.8

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    Zaglossus attenboroughi 
    Flannery & Groves, 1998  

    A systematic revision of monotremes of the genus Zaglossus has revealed unexpected morphological diversity. Statistical and non-metric analysis indicate that three species can be recognised: Zaglossus bruijnii (Peters and Doria, 1876), which inhabits the Vogelkop, Fak Fak and possibly the Charles Louis Mountains regions; Zaglossus bartoni Thomas, 1907, which occurs on the central cordillera between the Paniai Lakes and the Nanneau Range, as well as the Huon Peninsula; and Zaglossus attenboroughi n. sp. from the Cyclops Mountains. Four distinct subspecies of Z. bartoni can be discerned. The three subspecies inhabiting the central cordillera increase in size from east to west: Z. bartoni smeenki n. ssp. of the Nanneau Range being the smallest, the nominotypical form intermediate in size, and Z. bartoni diamondi n. ssp. the largest. Zaglossus b. clunius inhabits the Huon Peninsula.

     Flannery, T.F. and C.P. Groves. 1998. A Revision of the Genus Zaglossus (Monotremata, Tachyglossidae), with Description of New Species and Subspecies. Mammalia. 62(3); 387–390. DOI:  10.1515/mamm.1998.62.3.367 

    Jonathan E.M. Baillie , S amuel T. Turvey and Carly Waterman. 2009. Survival of Attenborough’s long-beaked Echidna Zaglossus attenboroughi in New Guinea. Oryx. 43(1); 146–148. DOI:  10.1017/S0030605309002269


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    Eigenmannia besouro 
    Peixoto & Wosiacki, 2016


    A new species of the Eigenmannia trilineata species-group is described from the rio São Francisco basin, Brazil. It is distinguished from closely related species by a unique set of characters, including a subterminal mouth, the presence of ii,13–14 pectoral-fin rays, a coronomeckelian bone that is 30% the length of Meckel’s cartilage, the specific pattern of the dentition of the premaxilla and dentary, and the more anterior origin of the superior midlateral stripe. Comments on species of the E. trilineata species-group are presented.

    Keywords: Pisces, diversity, glass knifefish, electric fish, species group

    FIGURE 1.Eigenmannia besouro, MZUSP 57890, holotype, 91.9 mm LEA, Brazil, Bahia, São Desidério, rio São Francisco, rio Grande. (A) Left lateral view of body; (B) Head. 

    Distribution. Eigenmannia besouro is known from tributaries of the left margin of rio São Francisco, Bahia, northeastern Brazil (Fig. 5).

    Etymology. The species name, besouro (‘beetle’ in Portuguese) is in honor of Manoel Henrique Pereira, known as Besouro Mangangá (‘The Mangangá Beetle’), a native of the Recôncavo region of Bahia, and a legendary figure in the Afro-Brazilian martial art capoeira; a noun in opposition.

    Peixoto, Luiz A. W. & Wolmar B. Wosiacki. 2016. Eigenmannia besouro, A New Species of the Eigenmannia trilineata species-group (Gymnotiformes: Sternopygidae) from the rio São Francisco basin, northeastern Brazil. Zootaxa. 4126(2); 262–270.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4126.2.6


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    Manamendra-Arachchi’s Whistling Lizard  | Calotes manamendrai 
    Amarasinghe & Karunarathna, 2014 

    FIG. 4. — Calotes manamendrai sp. nov., a live female (not collected) at the type locality (Riverstone, Knuckles massif, Sri Lanka).

    Based on morphological evidence, we describe a new species of agamid lizard of the genus Calotes that is restricted to a single site on the northern face of the Knuckles massif (~1000 m above sea level) of Sri Lanka. The genus Calotes consists of eight species in Sri Lanka, six of which appear to form an endemic radiation. The new species, Calotes manamendrai, most closely resembles Calotes liolepis Boulenger, 1885, which is widely distributed in mid-elevations in the central highlands, lowland rain forests, and a few isolated moist forests in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Females of Calotes manamendrai sp. nov. differ from the females of Calotes liolepis in having nonenlarged pectoral scales; keeled dorsal scales on the body; smaller midgular scales than the rest of the throat scales; brown color, seven distinct stripes each side on gular area; black color shoulder pit; and upper arm with carinate ventral scales. Finally, we provide a complete redescription for Calotes liolepis based on the adult female syntypes.

    Keywords: Agamidae, Biogeography, Calotes manamendrai sp. nov, Conservation, Knuckles massif, Systematics

    Etymology.— The species epithet is an eponym Latinized in the genitive singular, honoring Kelum Nalinda Manamendra–Arachchi for his generous teaching and guidance in taxonomic studies for the first two authors as well as his remarkable contributions to herpetology, zooarchaeology, and biodiversity conservation in Sri Lanka. Suggested English name: Manamendra-Arachchi’s Whistling Lizard; Sinhala (local) name: Manamendra-Arachchige Uruwan Katussa.

     A. A. Thasun Amarasinghe and D. M. S. Suranjan Karunarathna. 2014. A New Calotes Species from Sri Lanka with a Redescription of Calotes liolepisBoulenger, 1885.
     Herpetologica. 70(3); 323-338. DOI:  10.1655/HERPETOLOGICA-D-13-00087

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    Fig. 7. Wallaceodoxa raja-ampat Heatubun & W. J. Baker.
    A crown; B inflorescence, inset showing congested floral triads; C indumentum on petiole base; D close-up of indumentum; E fruit; F endocarp.
    Photos: C.D. Heatubun DOI: 10.1007/S12225-014-9525-X

     Recent botanical exploration in eastern Malesia has resulted in the discovery of three spectacular palm taxa that have proved difficult to assign to genus. New evidence from molecular phylogenetic research indicates that these taxa should now be recognised as three monotypic genera. Here, we describe these genera as new to science, all of which are members of subtribe Ptychospermatinae (Areceae: Arecoideae). Jailoloa Heatubun & W. J. Baker is restricted to ultramafic vegetation in a single site in Halmahera and is Critically Endangered due to nickel mining. Manjekia W. J. Baker & Heatubun is scattered throughout the limestone vegetation of Biak Island, east of the Bird's Head Peninsula of New Guinea, and is Endangered, although parts of its distribution fall within a protected area. Wallaceodoxa Heatubun & W. J. Baker, named to mark the centenary of Alfred Russel Wallace's death, is found on Gag and Waigeo, two of the Raja Ampat Islands west of the Bird's Head Peninsula, where it is Critically Endangered due to its small and rapidly reducing population. Full morphological descriptions are provided with detailed comparisons with related genera, alongside a revised key to the genera of Ptychos-permatinae. These new genera are unexpected additions to the palm flora of Malesia, and demand urgent conservation attention.

    Keywords: Biodiversity, Eastern Indonesia, Maluku, Moluccas, New Guinea, Palmae

    Jailoloa halmaherensis (Heatubun) Heatubun & W. J. Baker

    Manjekia maturbongsii (W. J. Baker & HeatubunW. J. Baker & Heatubun

    Wallaceodoxa Heatubun & W. J. Baker
    Wallaceodoxa raja-ampatHeatubun & W. J. Baker sp. nov. 

    named to mark the centenary of Alfred Russel Wallace's death, is found on Gag and Waigeo, two of the Raja Ampat Islands west of the Bird's Head Peninsula, where it is Critically Endangered due to its small and rapidly reducing population. 

    Type: Indonesia, Raja Ampat Islands Regency, Waigeo Island, Waisai, Kelurahan Warmasen, behind Kantor Bupati, forest on right side of road to Pari Convention Centre Building (tanjakan gedung Pari), 15 April 2011, Heatubun et al. 1126 (holotype MAN!; isotypes BO!, K!).

    ETYMOLOGY. The generic name commemorates Alfred Russel Wallace, the great English naturalist and codiscoverer of the theory of evolution by natural selection, who visited Waigeo in the Raja Ampat Islands in 1860 during his celebrated Malay Archipelago travels (Wallace 1869; van Wyhe 2013). This eponymy marks the centenary of his death on 7 November 1913. The generic name is derived by suffixing Wallace’s surname with the Greek word (-doxa) to mean “to the glory of Wallace”

    Charlie D. Heatubun, Scott Zona and William J. Baker. 2014.  Three New Genera of Arecoid Palm (Arecaceae) from eastern Malesia.
     Kew Bulletin. 69(3):9525. DOI: 10.1007/S12225-014-9525-X

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    Hohenbergia mesoamericana
      I. Ramírez, Carnevali et Cetzal

    Hohenbergia mesoamericana I. Ramírez, Carnevali et Cetzal is proposed as new, described, and illustrated. Because the genus was previously known only from the Antilles, Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil, this new species represents the first record of Hohenbergia for Mexico and Mesoamerica. The new species is morphologically similar to the Jamaican H. spinulosa Mez in having the bracts subtending the spikes far exceeding them (especially the lowermost) and green petals, but differs in several characters, including a more elongate peduncle and rachis resulting in a less dense infl orescence, shorter floral bracts, and pedicellate spikes. The conservation status of the new species is evaluated as critically endangered (CR) according to IUCN criteria. 

    Key words: Bromelioideae, biogeographical disjunction, conservation, IUCN criteria, Mexico, Yucatán Peninsula.

    Ivón M. Ramírez-Morillo, Germán Carnevali and William Cetzal-Ix. 2010. Hohenbergia mesoamericana (Bromeliaceae), First Record of the Genus for Mesoamerica. (Hohenbergia mesoamericana (Bromeliaceae), primer registro del género para Mesoamérica). Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad. 81: 21- 26.

    Resumen. Hohenbergia mesoamericana I. Ramírez, Carnevali et Cetzal se propone como especie nueva, se describe y se ilustra. El género era conocido solamente de las Antillas, Brasil, Venezuela y Colombia; por ello, este nuevo taxón representa el primer registro de Hohenbergia para Mesoamérica y México. Hohenbergia mesoamericana es morfológicamente similar a H. spinulosa Mez de Jamaica, por presentar las brácteas de las espigas muy largas (especialmente las basales) y los pétalos verdes. Sin embargo, difi ere de ella en varios caracteres, incluyendo el pedúnculo y raquis de la infl orescencia más largos, brácteas fl orales más cortas y espigas pediceladas. El estado de conservación de la especie nueva es evaluado como críticamente amenazado (CR) según los criterios del IUCN.
    Palabras clave: Bromelioideae, conservación, criterios IUCN, disyunción geográfi ca, México, península de Yucatán. 

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    Stenocercus omari  
    Venegas, Echevarría, García-Burneo & Koch,  2016


    We describe a new species of Stenocercus from the montane forest of the right margin of the Marañón river in the northern portion of the Central Andes in northern Peru (Amazonas and La Libertad departments), at elevations ranging from 2300 to 3035 m. Stenocercus omari sp. nov. differs from other Stenocercus species, with the exception of S. amydrorhytus, S. chrysopygus, S. cupreus, S. johaberfellneri, S. latebrosus, S. melanopygus, S. modestus, S. ornatissimus, S. orientalis, and S. stigmosus, by having granular scales on the posterior surfaces of thighs, a conspicuous antehumeral fold and by lacking a vertebral crest. However, Stenocercus omari sp. nov. is easily distinguished from the aforementioned species, except S. orientalis, by the presence of prominently keeled dorsal head scales. The new species differs from S. orientalis by lacking a prominent oblique neck fold and by having a distinct deep postfemoral mite pocket.

    Keywords: Reptilia, Amazonas department, Central Andes, clutch size, Marañón river, La Libertad department

    Pablo J. Venegas, Lourdes Y. Echevarría, Karla García-Burneo and Claudia Koch.  2016. A New Species of Iguanid Lizard, Genus Stenocercus (Squamata, Iguania), from the Central Andes in Peru.
    Zootaxa. 4205(1); 52–64.   DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4205.1.4

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    Bhumibol Adulyadej (Thai: ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช; pronounced [pʰuːmípʰon ʔàdunjádèːt], 5 December 1927 – 13 October 2016), conferred with the title King Bhumibol the Great in 1987, was the ninth monarch of Thailand from the Chakri Dynasty as Rama IX. Having reigned since 9 June 1946, he was, at the time of his death, the world's longest-serving head of state and the longest-reigning monarch in Thai history, serving for 70 years, 126 days.  

    • หมึกสายราชา Amphioctopus rex (Nateewathana & Norman, 1999)

    • 'ปูเจ้าพ่อหลวง'Indochinamon bhumibol (Naiyanetr, 2001)

    • 'เต่าทรงพระเจริญ' Basilochelys macrobios Tong, Claude, Naksri, et al, 2009

    • เทียนพระบารมี Impatiens charisma Suksathan & Keerat. (2009)

    • มะลิเฉลิมนรินทร์ Jasminum bhumibolianum Chalermglin (2013)

    • ภูมิพลินทร์ Paraboea bhumiboliana Triboun & Chuchan (2012)

    • Nateewathana, A. and Norman, M.D. 1999. Phuket Mar. Biol. Center Special Publ. 19(2); 445-462.
    • Naiyanetr, P. 2001. Potamon bhumibhol n. sp., a new giant freshwater crab from Thailand (Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamidae). Crustaceana 74(3); 309-316.
    • Haiyan Tong, Julien Claude, Wilailuck Naksri, Varavudh Suteethorn, Eric Buffetaut, Sasidhorn Khansubha, Kamonrak Wongko and Phisit Yuangdetkla. 2009.  Basilochelys macrobios n. gen. and n. sp., A Large Cryptodiran Turtle from the Phu Kradung Formation (latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous) of the Khorat Plateau, NE Thailand. In: Buffetaut, E.; Cuny, G.; Le Loeuff, J. & Suteethorn, V. (eds.). Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Ecosystems in SE Asia. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 315: 229-243. DOI:  10.1144/SP315.12

    • Suksathan, P. and P. Triboun. 2009. Ten new species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) from Thailand. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore. 61 (1): 159-184.
    • Pramote Triboun and David J. Middleton. 2012. Twenty new species of Paraboea (Gesneriaceae) from Thailand. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore. 64(2): 333–370.

    • Chalermglin, P. and Kiew, R. 2013. A new species of Jasminum (Oleaceae) from Thailand. Blumea - Biodiversity, Evolution and Biogeography of Plants. 58 (3); 80-81. DOI: 10.3767/000651913X673216



     ชื่อวิทยาศาสตร์สิ่งมีชีวิต ตั้งขึ้นเพื่อถวายเป็นเกียรติพระบรมวงศานุวงศ์

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    (A, B, D, E) Fordiophyton zhuangiae S. Jin Zeng & G. D. Tang  (F, I) Fordiophyton brevicaule  C. Chen 

    Historically, the taxonomic study of the Asian genus Fordiophyton has had some gaps. Several specimens from Guangdong (China) have been misidentified as Fordiophyton brevicaule C. Chen. The new species proposed here shares with F. brevicaule the densely hirsute stem, rosetted leaves and glabrous hypanthia, but it is distinguished by its glabrous leaves, winged petioles, oblong petals lacking a single trichome at the apex, and purplish anthers in the longer set of stamens. The phylogenetic analyses indicate that it is a member of Fordiophyton and sister to F. brevicaule. Based on morphological and molecular data, we here recognize it as a new speciesFordiophyton zhuangiae S. Jin Zeng & G. D. Tang, which is described and illustrated.

     Zeng Sijin, Ge-Han Huang, Qiang Liu, Xiao-Kai Yan, Guo-Qiang Zhang and Guang-da Tang. 2016.  Fordiophyton zhuangiae (Melastomataceae), A New Species from China based on Morphological and Molecular Evidence.  
    Phytotaxa. 282(4); 259–266. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.282.4.2

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     Zingiber nitens  M.F.Newman

     Zingiber nitens M.F.Newman from Lao P.D.R. is described and illustrated. 

    Keywords. IUCN conservation assessment, Lao P.D.R., new species, Zingiber

    Zingiber nitens M.F.Newman, sp. nov. Belongs to Zingiber section Dymczewiczia (Horan.) Benth. because the inflorescences are produced terminally on the leafy shoots; similar to Zingiber capitatum Roxb. in its slender habit with narrow leaves and terminal inflorescences but differs from it by its glabrous, glossy, dark green bracts which remain green even at fruiting (not green bracts which turn red at fruiting, and are sparsely to densely villose at the margins).
    TYPE: Originally a living collection from Lao P.D.R., Bolikhamxai prov., Khamkeut district, Ban Thongpe, Nakai-Nam Theun NPA, Lao-Vietnam Border Protected Area, primary evergreen forest along river, 1 August 2011, Lamxay, V., Lanorsavanh, S., Souvannakoummai, K. & Somphone VL2188, grown on as cultivated material at RBGE acc. no. 20111043A, vouchered and selected as type as Newman, M.F. 2647 (holotype E, incl. spirit). 

    Distribution & ecology. Zingiber nitens is only known from the type locality, where it grows in primary evergreen forest along a river at c. 570 m altitude.

    Etymology. The epithet “nitens”, Latin for shining, refers to the shiny bracts of the inflorescence.

     M.F. Newman. 2015. A New Species of Zingiber (Zingiberaceae) from Lao P.D.R. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore. 67(1); 123–127. DOI: 10.3850/S2382581215000137

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    Amanita castanea  
    Thongbai, Tulloss, Raspé & K.D. Hyde  

    Mushrooms belonging to the genus Amanita were collected during a fungal biodiversity study in northern Thailand in 2012–2014. Morphological characteristics and molecular phylogenetic analyses were used to identify the mushrooms to species. Amanita castanea is described as new to science and compared with phenetically and phylogenetically similar species. It is assignable to Amanita stirps Citrina within Amanita series Mappae. Four other species, A. concentrica, A. rimosa, A. cf. rubromarginata and A. zangii are first reports for Thailand; detailed morphological and molecular data are provided for the Thai material.

    Key words: Amanitaceae, ectomycorrhizal fungi, morphology, phylogeny

    FIGURE 1. Basidiomata of Amanita castanea.
      a young and mature basidiomata. b–d basidiospores in 5% KOH. fh basidiospores in congo red. ik basidiospores in Melzer’s reagent. lo basidia and subhymenium at different stages of development. (a–o: BZ201405, holotype) (scale bar: a = 2 cm, b–k = 6 µm, l–o = 10 µm). 

    Amanita castanea Thongbai, Tulloss, Raspé & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.
    Index Fungorum number: IF552009; MycoBank: MB 818356; Facesoffungi number: FoF 02074

    Etymology:— castanea’ refers to the chestnut color of the pileus.
    Holotype:— THAILAND, Chiang Mai Province, Doi-saket District, Thep-sadet Subdistrict, elev. 1300 m, 30 June 2014, B. Thongbai (MFLU15-1424!).

    Habitat: scattered on the ground in forest of Fagaceae. 

     Four New Records
    Amanita concentrica T. Oda, C. Tanaka & Tsuda, Mycoscience. 43 (1): 81, 2002a (Figure 3) 
    Amanita rimosa P. Zhang & Zhu L. Yang, Fungal Diversity. 42: 124, 2010 (Figure 4)

    Amanita cf. rubromarginata Har. Takah., Mycoscience. 45 (6): 372, 2004 (Figure 5)
    Amanita zangii Zhu L. Yang, T.H. Li & X.L. Wu, Fungal Diversity. 6: 160, 2001 (Figure 6)  

    In the present study, we document a novel species and four first records of Amanita species in northern Thailand. Species circumscriptions and identification are supported by both phylogenic and morphological evidence. One interesting exception might be Amanita cf. rubromarginata. The characteristics of the Thai collections, especially the colors of the pileus, agree well with the type description. However, additional collections made in southwestern Japan indicate that the colors of aging A. rubromarginata might be more different from the Thai collections than originally thought. According to illustrations in the recent book of SE Japanese fungi (Terashima et al. 2016), the center of the cap can be nearly black and the margin, olive. These colors were never observed in the Thai material. Therefore, more collections should be made from Thailand to assess the color variation.

     Further molecular studies with multiple genes that avoid loci of the nuclear ribosomal DNA cistron and expanded taxon sampling are needed to resolve the tree topology for some Amanita sections, e.g. Amanita sect. Caesareae(Sánchez-Ramírez et al. 2014, 2015), A. sect. Validae series Mappae (Drehmel et al. 1999, Hughes et al. 2013, Tulloss & Yang 2016d), A. sect. Lepidellasensu Bas (Tulloss et al. 2016) and A. sect. Phalloideae (Cai et al. 2014, Tulloss et al. 2016). A possible set of four protein-coding loci was proposed by Sánchez-Ramírez et al. (2014) and utilized in (Sánchez-Ramírez et al. 2015).

     Benjarong Thongbai, Rodham E. Tulloss, Steven L. Miller, Kevin D. Hyde, Jie Chen, Rui-Lin Zhao and Olivier Raspé. 2016. A New Species and Four New Records of Amanita (Amanitaceae; Basidiomycota) from Northern Thailand.
     Phytotaxa286(4); 211–231. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.286.4.1

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    Perissoderma triangulum 
    Xing, Shih, Zhao & Ren, 2016


    Two new genera, each with a new speciesPerissoderma triangulum gen. et sp. nov. and Abrderma gracilentum gen. et sp. nov., of the family Protodiplatyidae are described from the latest Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. They are the first records of Protodiplatyidae from the latest Middle Jurassic Daohugou locality. Both new genera are assigned to Protodiplatyidae based mainly on diagnostic characters of antennae, pronotum, tegmina, tarsi and the distinct long, slender, multi-segmented cerci. We summarize the distributions and ages of all described fossil Archidermaptera and infer that the Dermaptera might have originated in Eurasia and started their diversification and migration to a worldwide distribution. The new taxon of Abrderma gracilentum gen. et sp. nov. provides one more example of an early earwig with well-preserved pentamerous tarsi on the hind leg.

    Keywords: Dermaptera, Archidermaptera, new genus, new species, insect fossil, Perissoderma, Abrderma

    Changyue Xing, Chungkun Shih, Yunyun Zhao and Dong Ren. 2016. New Earwigs in Protodiplatyidae (Insecta: Dermaptera) from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Northeastern China.
     Zootaxa.   4205(2);  180–188. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4205.2.7

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     Liniparhomaloptera macrostoma Wu, Xiu & Yang, 2016

    Photograph by Jiahu Lan 

    Liniparhomaloptera macrostoma, new species, is described from Hunan Province, south China. It is distinguished from its congers by having 8 branched dorsal-fin rays, more lateral line scales (82-100), relatively wider mouth and lower lip separated into two parts.

     Liniparhomaloptera macrostoma
    Photograph by Jiahu Lan

    Wu, Tiejun, Lihui Xiu and Jian Yang. 2016. Liniparhomaloptera macrostoma, A New Hillstream Loach from Hunan Province, China (Teleostei: Gastromyzontidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, An international journal for field-orientated ichthyology. 27(3); 275-282. 


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    Chalybea brevipedunculata 
    Penneys, C. Ulloa & D. FernándezDOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.212.4.2

    A new species, Chalybea brevipedunculata, from the Ecuador-Peru border is herein described and illustrated. It differs from all other species in the genus by having inflorescence peduncles that are shorter than their subtending leaf petioles.

    Keywords: Chalybea, Melastomataceae, Andes, Cordillera del Cóndor, endemic, Ecuador, Eudicots

    FIGURE 2. Inflorescences of Chalybea brevipedunculata (Neill 16913).
    Photograph by D.A. Neill. 

    Chalybea brevipedunculata Penneys, C. Ulloa & D. Fernández, sp. nov.  

    Type:— ECUADOR: Zamora-Chinchipe: Paquisha Cantón. Cordillera del Cóndor. The Machinaza Plateau, 2315 m, 23 Jun 2009 (fl), David Neill & Camilo Kajekai 16913 (Holotype: QCNE!; Isotypes: CAS!, MO!).

    Diagnosis:— Differs from all other species of Chalybea by having inflorescence peduncles that are shorter than their subtending petioles.

    Etymology:— The specific epithet refers to the short peduncles of the inflorescences, unique among all species of Chalybea. All other members of this genus have peduncles much longer than their subtending petioles. 

      David Alan Neill, Carmen Ulloa Ulloa, Darrin S. Penneys and Diana Fernández Fernández. 2015. A New Species of Chalybea (Blakeeae, Melastomataceae) from the Ecuador-Peru Border. Phytotaxa. 212(4); 264-270. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.212.4.2

    Resumen: Se describe y se ilustra una nueva especie, Chalybea brevipedunculata, procedente de la frontera entre Ecuador y Perú. Se diferencia de todas las demás especies en el género por tener el pedúnculo de la inflorescencia más corto que los pecíolos de las hojas subyacentes

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    Valencia robertae 
    Freyhof,  Kärst & Geiger, 2014 

    Valencia robertae, new species, from the lower Pinios in northern Peloponnese and Mornos Rivers in southern mainland of Greece is distinguished from V. letourneuxi and V. hispanica by having short lateral bars or vertically elongated small blotches along the midlateral body and an almost triangular anal fin in females, prominent lateral bars between the axial blotch and the caudal-fin base and a long anal fin reaching almost or to the first caudal-fin rays in males larger than 27 mm SL. It is also distinguished by 32 fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region.

     Freyhof, J., Kärst, H. and Geiger, M. 2014. Valencia robertae, A New Killifish from southern Greece (Cyprinodontiformes: Valenciidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters.24(4); 289-298.

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