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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region

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    Hoolock tianxing 
    Fan, He, Chen, Ortiz, Zhang, Zhao, Li, Zhang, Kimock, Wang, Groves, Turvey, Roos, Helgen & Jiang, 2017  

    Skywalker Hoolock Gibbon or Gaoligong Hoolock Gibbon    DOI:  10.1002/ajp.22631 

    Abstract

    We describe a species of Hoolock gibbon (Primates: Hylobatidae) that is new to science from eastern Myanmar and southwestern China. The genus of hoolock gibbons comprises two previously described living species, the western (Hoolock hoolock) and eastern hoolock (H. leuconedys) gibbons, geographically isolated by the Chindwin River. We assessed the morphological and genetic characteristics of wild animals and museum specimens, and conducted multi-disciplinary analyses using mitochondrial genomic sequences, external morphology, and craniodental characters to evaluate the taxonomic status of the hoolock population in China. The results suggest that hoolocks distributed to the east of the Irrawaddy-Nmai Hka Rivers, which were previously assigned to H. leuconedys, are morphologically and genetically distinct from those to the west of the river, and should be recognized as a new species, the Gaoligong hoolock gibbon or skywalker hoolock gibbon (Hoolock tianxing sp. nov.). We consider that the new species should be categorized as Endangered under IUCN criteria. The discovery of the new species focuses attention on the need for improved conservation of small apes, many of which are in danger of extinction in southern China and Southeast Asia.


    Figure 8: A juvenile male of Hoolock tianxing from Mt. Gaoligong jumping across trees.
    Photo taken by Lei Dong 

    Order Primates Linnaeus (1758)
    Family Hylobatidae Gray (1870)

    Genus Hoolock Mootnick and Groves (2005)

    Hoolock tianxing sp. nov.
    Hylobates hoolock leuconedys: Groves (1967): 276 (part).

    Skywalker Hoolock Gibbon or Gaoligong Hoolock Gibbon 

      Holotype: AMNH M-43068 (adult male, skin only; Figure 3), collected by Roy Chapman Andrews and Yvette Borup Andrews on April 5, 1917 during the American Museum of Natural History's Asiatic Zoological Expedition (Allen, 1938).

     Type locality: Ho-mu-shu (=Hongmushu) Pass, Baoshan, Yunnan, China (25.00 N, 98.83 E).

     Paratypes: AMNH M-43065 (adult female, skin only; Supplemental Figure S1) and MCZ 26474 (=AMNH M-43067, skin and skull, relocated to MCZ in September 1930), collected at the same locality as the holotype (Allen, 1938). IOZ 25965 (adult male, skin and skull; Supplemental Figure S3), collected on 4 June, 1965 at Tengchong, Yunnan, China. MCZ 30383 (adult male, skin and skull; Supplemental Figure S3) collected on 15 January, 1932, ca. 40 miles east of Bhamo, northern Myanmar, during the Brooke Dolan expedition.

     Etymology: Tianxing, meaning heaven's movement or skywalker (xing, movement, can act as either a noun or a verb), a name referring to the unique locomotory mode of gibbons (brachiation; Figure 8) and derived from the text of the I Ching, an ancient Chinese work of divination (“As heaven's movement is ever vigorous, so must the scholarly gentleman (ajp22631-gra-0005, “junzi”) ceaselessly strive for self-improvement”). Gibbons were widely regarded as a symbol of scholar-officials or junzi in ancient China, as the perceived “noble” characteristics of gibbons were considered to accord with the aesthetic taste of both Daoism and traditional Chinese scholars (van Gulik, 1967; Ye & Heule, 2013).



    Diagnosis:  Hoolock tianxing is a hoolock gibbon distinguished from other described hoolock species by a combination of external and dental characters. In males, the ventral pelage is brownish, resembling that of H. leuconedys but differing from H. hoolock. The eyebrows are relatively thinner than in H. hoolock and H. leuconedys, and well-separated, differing from the condition in H. hoolock, where there is only a narrow gap between the eyebrows. White hairs are absent in the suborbital area, differing from H. leuconedys, which has white hairs in the suborbital area. The beards of males are black or brown, differing in color from H. leuconedys, which has a whitish or buffy beard, and not as prominent as in H. hoolock. The black, brown or grayish genital tuft in males differs in color from H. leuconedys, which has a white or silvery tuft. The face rings in females are incomplete, differing from the condition in both H. hoolock and H. leuconedys. The crown outline of the lower p4 is oval, making it distinct from H. leuconedys and H. hoolock individuals from Myanmar and more similar to H. hoolock from Assam.

    DistributionBetween the Irrawaddy-Nmai Hka River and the Salween River in China and Myanmar. The Dulongjiang valley, the upper tributary of the Nmai Hka River, may serve as a dispersal barrier for hoolocks. Wild individuals are confirmed to occur on Mt. Gaoligong, and historical museum specimens are also known from further south at Gokteik, Shan State, northern Myanmar. Geissmann et al. (2013) estimated that a healthy population with ca. 50,000 individuals of eastern hoolock live in Shan State subtropical forests, and ca. 16,000 individuals live in montane rainforest in Kayah-Kayin.


    Peng-Fei Fan, Kai He, Xing Chen, Alejandra Ortiz, Bin Zhang, Chao Zhao, Yun-Qiao Li, Hai-Bo Zhang, Clare Kimock, Wen-Zhi Wang, Colin Groves, Samuel T. Turvey, Christian Roos, Kristofer M. Helgen and Xue-Long Jiang. 2017. Description of A New Species of Hoolock Gibbon (Primates: Hylobatidae) Based on Integrative Taxonomy. 
    American Journal of Primatology.   
    DOI:  10.1002/ajp.22631



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    Lluciapomaresius nisae  
    Olmo-Vidal, 2017  

    Abstract

    A new species of the genus Lluciapomaresius Barat, 2012 is described from Serra de Llaberia in Catalonia (in the northeast of Iberian Peninsula). Lluciapomaresius nisae n. sp. was collected in a Mediterranean pine forest dominated by European black pine (Pinus nigra) and secondarily by Calcicolous rosemary scrub. L. nisae is compared to L. panteli (Navàs, 1899) from which it can be separated mainly by the shape of the male cerci, the titillators and the male calling song. Also in the females by the protuberances at the base of the ventral valves of the ovipositor.

    Keywords: Orthoptera, Prelitoral Catalan Mountains, Mediterranean pine forest, isolation, Serra de Llaberia, Catalonia


    male Lluciapomaresius nisae   


    Josep Maria Olmo Vidal. 2017. Lluciapomaresius nisae, A New Species of Ephippigerini (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Bradyporinae) from the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula.
     Zootaxa. 4221(1); 123–130.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4221.1.3



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    Figure 3. Live specimens of (A) Neolissochilus capudelphinus sp. nov. MSUMNH191, 216.21 mm SL, upstream of the diverted water from Periyar River, M. Arunachalam and team, 16 March 2003, 
    (B) Neolissochilus minimus sp. nov. MSUMNH192, 127.34 mm SL, from the diverted water of Periyar River in the forest reserves of Cumbam Valley, M. Arunachalam and team, 03 March 2003,
    (C) Neolissochilus micropthalmus sp. nov. MSUMNH193, 163.72 mm SL, Ambayathode in the forest reserves in the Kannur District, Kerala, M. Arunachalam and team, 09 February 2003,
    (D)Neolissochilus acutirostris, sp. nov. MSUMNH194, 160.17 mm SL, Abby falls a stream in the Cauvery River drainage in Kodagu District, Karnataka, M. Arunachalam and team, 22 March 2004 and
    (E) Neolissochilus tamiraparaniensis, sp. nov. MSUMNH195, 246.56 mm SL, Gadana River of Tamiraparani River basin (east flowing in southern Tamil Nadu), M. Arunachalam and team, 24 February 2004.

    Arunachalam, Sivakumar & Murugan, 2017
    FishTaxa.com 

    Abstract 
    The genus Neolissochilus was described by Rainboth, 1985 and currently includes 24 nominal taxa with distributions in southern and south-eastern Asia. Five new species of Neolissochilus are described herein from streams and rivers of the Western Ghats, peninsular India, one of the World’s hotspots of biodiversity. The new species include Neolissochilus capudelphinus, N. minimus, N. micropthalmus, N. acutirostrisand N. tamiraparaniensis. Neolissochilus wynaadensis (Day, 1873), also from the Western Ghats is considered a valid species. The five new species are described based on meristic, morphometric characters, and molecular data. Relationships among the newly described species and the relationships of Neolissochilus with Systomus (=Barbodes /Puntius), Hypselobarbus Bleeker and Tor Gray, all presumed closely related lineages are discussed.

    Keywords: Cyprinidae, Neolissochilus capudelphinusNeolissochilus minimusNeolissochilus micropthalmusNeolissochilus acutirostris, Neolissochilus tamiraparaniensis.




    Muthukumarasamy Arunachalam, Paramasivan Sivakumar and Manavalan Murugan. 2017. Descriptions of Five New Species of Neolissochilus Rainboth, 1985 (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from Streams/Rivers of the Western Ghats, peninsular India. FishTaxa. 2(1); 1-27.
    FishTaxa.com/index.php/ft/article/view/2-1-1/74


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    Ameerega shihuemoy 
    SeRrano-Rojas, Whitworth, Villacampa, Von May, Gutiérrez, Padial & Chaparro, 2017


    Abstract

    We describe and name a new species of poison-dart frog from the Amazonian slopes of the Andes in Manu Province, Madre de Dios Department, Peru; specifically within the Amarakaeri Communal Reserve and the buffer zone of Manu National Park. Ameerega shihuemoy sp. nov. is supported by a unique combination of characters: black dorsum with cream to light orange dorsolateral lines, blue belly reticulated with black, and the lack of axillary, thigh and calf flash marks. Within Ameerega, it shares the general appearance of A. altamazonica, A. boliviana, A. hahneli, A. ignipedis, A. petersi, A. picta, A. pongoensis, A. pulchripecta, A. simulans, A. smaragdina, and A. yungicola; each possessing a granular black to brown dorsum, a light labial bar, a conspicuous dorsolateral line running from the snout to the groin, and a metallic blue belly and underside of arms and hind limbs. From most of these species it can be distinguished by lacking flash marks on the axillae, thighs, and calves (absent in only A. boliviana and A. smaragdina, most A. petersi, and some A. pongoensis), by having bright cream to orange dorsolateral stripes (white, intense yellow, or green in all other species, with the exception of A. picta), and by its blue belly reticulated with black (bluish white and black in A. boliviana, green and blue with black marbling in A. petersi, and green and blue lacking black marbling in A. smaragdina). Its mating call also shows clear differences to morphologically similar species, with a lower note repetition rate, longer space between calls, and higher fundamental and dominant frequencies. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S mitochondrial rRNA fragment also support the distinctiveness of the new species and suggest that Ameerega shihuemoy is most closely related to Ameerega macero, A. altamazonica, A. rubriventris, and two undescribed species (Ameerega sp. from Porto Walter, Acre, Brazil, and Ameerega sp. from Ivochote, Cusco, Peru). Genetically, the new species is most similar to the sympatric A. macero, from which it clearly differs in characteristics of its advertisement call and coloration. The new species is found near rocky streams during the dry season and near temporary water bodies during the rainy season. Tadpoles are found in lentic water along streams, or in shallow, slow-moving streams. Given its small geographic range, we recommend that A. shihuemoy should be considered 'Near threatened' (NT) according to IUCN Red List criteria.

    Keywords: Amphibia, Advertisement call, Amarakaeri Communal Reserve, Ameerega, habitat, Manu Biosphere Reserve, premontane forest, rainforest, taxonomy



    Ameerega shihuemoy sp. nov.
    Cryptophyllobates sp: Chaparro & Ochoa 2005 p.7 (MHNC 4779 collected on 07 December 2004 by J. C. Chaparro & J. A.Ochoa at Erika Lodge, Departamento Madre de Dios).
    Ameerega gr. pictus: Chaparro et al. 2016 p. 2 (from Amarakaeri Communal Reserve, Departamento Madre de Dios).
    Ameerega sp1: Whitworth & Villacampa 2014 p. 3 (from Manu Learning Centre, Departamento Madre de Dios).


    Etymology. The specific name shihuemoy (English pronunciation: shee-way-moy) corresponds to the Harakmbut word for "poison dart frog". The Amarakaeri are aboriginals from Amazonian Peru and their language belongs to the Harakmbut linguistic group. They coexist with the new species.

    FIGURE 3. Color patterns of Ameerega shihuemoy from tadpole to adult MUSM 31692.
    Photos by Marcus Brent-Smith.  

     
    es.mongabay.com


    SeRrano-Rojas, Shirley J., Andrew Whitworth, Jaime Villacampa, Rudolf Von May, Roberto C. Gutiérrez, José M. Padial & Juan C. Chaparro. 2017. A New Species of Poison-dart Frog (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from Manu Province, Amazon Region of southeastern Peru, with Notes on Its Natural History, Bioacoustics, Phylogenetics, and Recommended Conservation Status. Zootaxa. 4221(1); 71–94.   DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4221.1.6

    Una especie nueva para la ciencia fue descubierta por el equipo de investigación dentro del Manu Learning Center y ha sido recientemente descrita por Jennifer Serrano Rojas. En la foto: la ranita venenosa de Amarakaeri (Ameerega shihuemoy). Foto: Crees Foundation / Marcus Brent-smith.
      

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    Anolis purpuronectes 
    Gray, Meza-Lázaro, Poe & Nieto-Montes de Oca, 2016  

    Abstract  

    We describe a new species of semiaquatic Anolis (Anolis purpuronectes) from the Chimalapas region of eastern Oaxaca and adjacent Veracruz, Mexico, and investigate its phylogenetic relationships with the closely related species A. barkeri to which the populations under investigation have previously been assigned to. Anolis barkeri and the new species appear to be allopatric, and differ primarily in male dewlap colour (red and orange in A. barkeri, pale purple in A. purpuronectes). A partitioned Bayesian analysis of the mitochondrial genes encoding ND1 (part), ND2, and the intervening tRNAs revealed that A. barkeri and A. purpuronectes are genetically distinct (uncorrected genetic distance between them=11.5%), nested within the A. schiedii group as sister species, and most closely related to a clade composed of A. cymbops, A. milleri, and A. parvicirculatus.

    Key words: Anole, Anolis barkeri, Anolis schiedii group, Chimalapas, Mexico, new species, semiaquatic lizard 



     

    Etymology.— The specific epithet purpuronectes, a noun in apposition, is a combination of the Latin adjective purpureus (purple) and the Greek noun nektes (a swimmer).


    Anolis purpuronectes Gray, Meza-Lázaro, Poe & Nieto-Montes de Oca, 2016  

    Levi Gray, Rubi Meza-Lázaro, Steven Poe and Adrián Nieto-Montes de Oca. 2016. 
    Anolis purpuronectes - A New Species of Semiaquatic Anolis (Squamata: Dactyloidae) from Oaxaca and Veracruz, Mexico. Herpetological Journal. 26; 253–262. 

        


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    Highlights

    • The phylogenetic relationships between Pampus species were determined based on 150 mitochondrial COI gene sequences.
    • Morphological and molecular evidence suggests the silver pomfret, reported as Pampus argenteus, distributed in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian sea is distinct from East Asian P. argenteus.
    • The silver pomfret in the Indian region represents species with genetic affinity to P. cinereus.
    • Hidden species diversity among Pampus species is revealed from Bay of Bengal and Arabian waters.

    Abstract
    Pomfrets (Genus Pampus) are commercially important fishes in the Indo Pacific region. The systematics of this genus is complicated due to morphological similarities between species. The silver pomfret from Indian waters has long been considered to be Pampus argenteus. The objective of the study was to utilize the mitochondrial COI gene to establish the molecular identity of the silver pomfret distributed in Indian waters and to resolve the phylogenetic relationships among Pampus species in the world based on sequence data in the NCBI database. Seven valid Pampus species are identified in this study. The mean genetic divergence value calculated between clades representing these species was 7.9%. The mean genetic distance between the so-called Pampus argenteus from Indian waters and sequences attributed to P. argenteus from the South China Sea, where the neotype of this species was collected, was found to be greater than 12%, strongly supporting the likelihood of the Indian species being distinct. The Indian Pampus species show very close affinity to P. cinereus, with inter species differences less than 2%. The taxonomic identity of the silver pomfret in India is also discussed here, in light of molecular and morphological evidence.

    Keywords: Pampusargenteus; COI; Molecular phylogeny; Distinct species





    P.R. Divya, C. Mohitha, G. Kumar Rahul, C.P. Rajool Shanis, V.S. Basheer and A. Gopalakrishnan. 2017. Molecular based Phylogenetic Species Recognition in the Genus Pampus (Perciformes: Stromateidae) reveals Hidden Diversity in the Indian Ocean. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.  DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2016.12.030 



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    Araucariocladus hiems 
    Da Silveira & Mermudes, 2017   
     

     DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4221.2.4 

    Abstract

    Here we describe Araucariocladus hiems gen. et sp. nov. (Lampyridae: Amydetinae), a firefly species endemic to high montane forests, and occurring during June, a relatively cool and dry month in the Southeastern Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil. We tentatively place it in Psilocladina McDermott, and discuss the limitations of its classification. We also provide illustrations of key structural features of the new taxa and discuss its affinities.

    Keywords: Coleoptera, Endemism, Psilocladina, Serra dos Órgãos, tropical winter


      


    Luiz Felipe Lima Da Silveira and Jose Ricardo Miras Mermudes. 2017. A New Tropical Montane Firefly Genus and Species, Active During Winter and Endemic to the southeastern Atlantic Rainforest (Coleoptera: Lampyridae).
     Zootaxa.  4221(2); 205–214.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4221.2.4

         


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    Ovia procurva Yu & Song, 1988

    Abstract

    A new monotypic wolf spider genus, Ovia gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate a misplaced species: Pardosaprocurva Yu & Song, 1988. Oviaprocurva comb. nov. is redescribed, illustrated and designated as the type species for the genus. The subfamily placement of the new genus is discussed and it is considered as a member of Lycosinae Sundevall, 1833 and possibly closely related to Alopecosa Simon, 1885. The presence of an apical process (spur) on the median apophysis is proposed as the putative synapomorphy of Ovia gen. nov. The possible sister-taxon relationship of Ovia gen. nov. with Alopecosa is discussed and evidence on the occurrence of sexual dimorphism and mating plug within the genus are presented. Ovia gen. nov. is assumed to be of Holarctic origin, from which it has migrated to the Indomalayan region. Additionally, a current distribution map for the genus is provided.

    Keywords: Araneae, Indomalayan region, mating plug, sexual dimorphism, taxonomy, transfer




    Pradeep M. Sankaran, Jobi J. Malamel and Pothalil A. Sebastian. 2017. On the New Monotypic Wolf Spider Genus Ovia gen. nov. (Araneae: Lycosidae, Lycosinae).
    Zootaxa. 4221(3); 366-376.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4221.3.5


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    Hyphessobrycon petricolus 
    Ohara, Lima & Barros, 2017

    Abstract
    A new species of Hyphessobrycon is described from the rio Roosevelt, rio Madeira basin, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Hyphessobrycon petricolus sp. n. can be distinguished from its congeners by the unique combination of the following features: a well-defined, relatively narrow dark midlateral stripe on body extending from immediately behind posterior margin of opercle to the middle caudal-fin rays, relatively conspicuous humeral blotch, and 16–20 branched anal-fin rays. Comments on the remaining Hyphessobrycon species presenting a conspicuous dark midlateral stripe are presented. 

    Keywords: Pisces, Amazon basin, Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus species-group, Hyphessobrycon cachimbensis, Hyphessobrycon nigricinctus, rio Roosevelt


    FIGURE 3. Hyphessobrycon petricolus, paratypes, immediately after capture. 

    Sexual dimorphism. Bony hooks on fins, a common dimorphic feature in characids (Malabarba & Weitzman, 2003), were not found in any specimens of Hyphessobrycon petricolus.

    Distribution. The new species is so far only known from its type locality, a small tributary of the middle rio Roosevelt, rio Aripuanã drainage, rio Madeira basin, northwestern Mato Grosso State, Brazil (Fig. 4).

    Ecological notes. The type locality of Hyphessobrycon petricolus is a small, black water stream 1.5–4 m wide and 0.3–1.5 m deep, with swift water current, and rocky bottom (Fig. 5a), upstream a large waterfall (Fig. 5b). The stream run across a small cerrado-vegetation enclave situated within Amazon forest. Individuals of Hyphessobrycon petricolus were captured near of surface during the night in small groups of 2 to 4 individuals. Other species sampled syntopically were: Aequidens sp., Erythrinus erythrinus, Pyrrhulina sp., Synbranchus sp. and Tatia cf. brunnea

    Etymology. The specific name petricolus derives from the Latin petra meaning rock and colus, to abide, to dwell, referring to the occurrence of the species in a rocky-bottomed stream. An adjective.


     Willian M. Ohara, Flávio C T Lima and Bruno S Barros. 2017. Hyphessobrycon petricolus, A New Species of Tetra (Characiformes: Characidae) from the rio Madeira basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Zootaxa. 4221(2); 242-250. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4221.2.8


    Resumo: Uma espécie nova de Hyphessobrycon é descrita do rio Roosevelt, bacia do rio Madeira, estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Hyphessobrycon petricolus sp. n. pode ser distinguida das suas congêneres pela combinação única das seguintes características: uma bem definida, relativamente estreita faixa médio-lateral escura no corpo estendendo-se de imediatamente após a margem posterior do opérculo aos raios medianos da nadadeira caudal, uma conspícua mancha umeral e 16–20 raios ramificados na nadadeira anal. Comentários sobre as demais espécies de Hyphessobrycon que apresentam uma faixa escura médio-lateral são apresentados.
    Palavras chaves: Bacia amazônica, grupo de espécies Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus, Hyphessobrycon cachimbensis, Hyphessobrycon nigricinctus, rio Roosevelt 


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    Pogonosternum laetificum Jeekel, 1982
    Pogonosternum jeekeli Decker, 2017
    Pogonosternum montanum Decker, 2017


    Abstract
     The southeastern Australian millipede genus Pogonosternum Jeekel, 1965 is revised. Pogonosternum nigrovirgatum (Carl, 1902), P. adrianae Jeekel, 1982 and P. laetificum Jeekel, 1982 are redescribed; Pogonosternum jeekeli Decker, sp. nov. and Pogonosternum montanum Decker, sp. nov. are described from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania. P. nigrovirgatum infuscum Jeekel, 1982 and P. coniferum Jeekel, 1965 are junior synonyms of Pnigrovirgatum (Carl, 1902). An updated key to all five species of the genus is presented.

    Keywords: Arthropoda, Australia, new species, Bass Strait.

    Fig. 26. Habitus and live colouration.
    APogonosternum nigrovirgatum (Carl, 1902), ♂ from Adams Creek Nature Conservation Reserve (SMNG VNR016989).
    BP. adrianae Jeeker, 1982, ♂ from Grand Ridge Road (NMV K-13349).
    CP. laetificum Jeeker, 1982, ♂ from Toolangi State Forest, Two Hills Road.
    DPogonosternum jeekeli Decker, sp. nov., ♂ from Warby-Ovens National Park, Taminick Gap Road.
    E. Pogonosternum montanum Decker, sp. nov., ♂ (left, NMV K-12183) and ♀ (right, NMV K-13351) from Linden Roth Drive.
       Scale bars = 5 mm.   DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2017.259  


    Peter Decker, Robert Mesibov, Karin Voigtländer and Willi E.R. Xylander. 2017. Revision of the Australian Millipede Genus Pogonosternum Jeekel, 1965, with Descriptions of Two New Species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae).
    European Journal of Taxonomy. 259: 1–34. DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2017.259 



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    Pitcairnia singularis  Flores-Argüelles, Espejo & López-Ferr.  

    Abstract

    Pitcairnia singularis, known only from the municipality of Puerto Vallarta in the state of Jalisco, Mexico, is here described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by very narrow, epetiolate, deciduous normal leaves, a simple inflorescence with 14–20 pedicellate, secund, white flowers, and petals 1.5–1.7 cm long, without appendages. An identification key has been included for all the species of the genus present in the state of Jalisco, Mexico.

    Keywords: Jalisco, Pitcairnia subgenus Pitcairnia, Sierra del Cuale, Monocots

    FIGURE 1. Pitcairnia singularis  Flores-Argüelles, Espejo & López-Ferr.  
    A. Plants in flower at type locality. B. Detail of the basal portion of Pitcairnia singularis, showing the reduced sheath like and the normal leaves. C. Oak forest habitat of P. singularis Flores-Argüelles, Espejo & López-Ferr. 

    Pitcairnia singularis Flores-Argüelles, Espejo & López-Ferr., spec. nov. (Figs. 1–3)
    The new species is characterized by the following: deciduous normal leaves without distinct petioles; inflorescence simple, with 14–20 pedicellate, secund, white flowers; petals 1.5–1.7 cm long, without basal appendages.

    Type:— MEXICO. Jalisco: municipio de Puerto Vallarta, Ojo de Agua, 20° 31’ 20.22” N, 105° 11’ 37.27” W, 1195 m, bosque de Quercus, 22 August 2013 (fl), A. Flores-Argüelles & A.R. Romero-Guzmán 776 (holotype: UAMIZ, isotype: IBUG).

    Etymology:— The specific epithet refers to the singular characteristics of the new species that distinguish it from any other member of the genus.


      
    Alejandra Flores Argüelles, Adolfo Espejo-Serna and Ana Rosa López-Ferrari. 2017.
    Pitcairnia singularis (Pitcairnioideae, Bromeliaceae), A New Species from Jalisco, Mexico.  Phytotaxa. 291(4); 275–280.  DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.291.4.4

      


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    (bRousettus celebensis and (c) Rousettus tangkokoensis n. sp.

     Lengkong, Arisoesilaningsih, Hakim & Sudarto, 2016  

    Abstract

    Bats belongs to Pteropodidae Family that spreaded evenly in Indonesia. Genus Rousettus have their morphological variances among its own species based on characteristics on each species. Among them there is fruit-feeding bats of from genus Rousettus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) that have many variances of morphology among its own species. This study was aimed to identify the morphological variations and its sex type influence of genus Rousettus bats from Gunung Duasudara Sanctuary, North Sulawesi. The locations were consisted 7 types of major vegetations at altitude range from 0 to 1351 m above sea level (asl). All habitat types were observed using Mist-net method at 1 and 3 m above the ground. There were found 452 individuals, including R. amplexicaudatus (224), R. celebensis (219) and R. tangkokoensis n. sp. (9). Nine individuals of Rousettus tangkokoensis n. sp. were newly found in lowland forest and coastal forest. These newly-found species were different from other Rousettus. There was discovered that sex type had influenced the skull and external body characters on R. amplexicaudatusRtangkokoensis n. sp. R. celebensis. However, most of other characters were statistically not-significant that indicated there was not any sexual dimorphism. According to the Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), these morphological groups possess different specification. Therefore, the three species of genus Rousettus have statistically variation of skull and external body characters one to another.

    Keywords: North Sulawesi, Gunung Duasudara Sanctuary, Rousettus 


    Fig. 4. Bat species: (aRousettus amplexicaudatus, (bRousettus celebensis and (cRousettus tangkokoensis n. sp.




    Etymology: The new species which is proposed using the name of Tangkoko Mt. occuring in the sanctuary area was collected by Hanry Lengkong from Manado, Indonesia. The new species is (HL) 111321 had been found in Gunung Duasudara, which the only area known where this species was collected.


    Hanry Jefry Lengkong, Endang Arisoesilaningsih, Luchman Hakim and Sudarto. 2016. Morphological Variations and New Species Description of Genus Rousettus Bat from Gunung Duasudara Sanctuary, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences. 16(2); 90-101. DOI :  10.3844/ojbsci.2016.90.101

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    Ankarana or Sheth’s Dwarf Lemur  |  Cheirogaleus shethi 

    Frasier, Lei, McLain, Taylor, Bailey, Ginter, Nash,
    Randriamampionona, Groves, Mittermeier & Louis, 2016

    Abstract

    A new species of dwarf lemur, Cheirogaleus shethi sp. nov., of the C. medius group is described from the dry and transitional forests of northern Madagascar. This species can be found along the forest corridor from Ankarana Special Reserve east to the Analamerana Special Reserve down to the Bekaraoka forest in the Loky-Manambato Protected Area. This species is genetically distinct from other members of the C. medius species group and is sister to a poorly known lineage in Sambava. The identification of this new species highlights the importance of northern Madagascar as a reservoir of biodiversity.

    Key Words: Dwarf lemurs, primate, Strepsirrhini, taxonomy


    Figure 5. Illustration of Cheirogaleus shethi (Stephen D. Nash © Conservation International) and
    photographs of KAR15.1 taken at Ankarana Special Reserve (photos by Richard Randriamampionona). 

    Cheirogaleus shethi

    Formerly Cheirogaleus sp. nov. 4, also CCS6 (Lei et al. 2014);
     in part C. sp. Bekaraoka Sambava (Thiele et al. 2013).


    Distribution: Known from northern Madagascar, from Ankarana east to Bekaraoka in dry and transitional forests. Found in the Ankarana Special Reserve, Andrafiamena-Andavakoera Protected Area, Analamerana Special Reserve, and Loky-Manambato Protected Area. 

    Etymology: This new species is named after Brian Sheth, the Chair of the Board of the NGO Global Wildlife Conservation. Brian is deeply committed to biodiversity conservation worldwide, and is a leading philanthropist for species and ecosystem conservation. He has supported many projects in Madagascar, including research and the establishment and management of nature reserves. His passion and drive to help save the diversity of life on our planet has been an inspiration to all around him. 

    Vernacular names: Ankarana or Sheth’s Dwarf Lemur.


    Figure 4. Map of Madagascar with the ranges of Cheirogaleus sp. nov. 4 and closely related Cheirogaleus species highlighted to show the geographic distance between lineages. Identification numbers on the map correspond to ID numbers of animals listed in Table 1. Photographs of C. andysabini and C. sp. nov. 4 are provided to show a clear difference in pelage and the distance between the ranges of the two lineages from different species groups. 


    Cynthia L. Frasier, Runhua Lei, Adam T. McLain, Justin M. Taylor, Carolyn A. Bailey, Azure L. Ginter, Stephen D. Nash, Richard Randriamampionona, Colin P. Groves, Russell A. Mittermeier and Edward E. Louis Jr. 2016. A New Species of Dwarf Lemur (Cheirogaleidae: Cheirogaleus medius Group) from the Ankarana and Andrafiamena-Andavakoera Massifs, Madagascar.   Primate Conservation. (30); 59–72.   



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    Eleutherodactylus cattus 
     Rodríguez, Dugo-Cota, Montero-Mendieta, Gonzalez-Voyer, Bosch, Vences & Vilà, 2017

     
      DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4221.5.1 
      
    Abstract

    We studied the variation in genetics, bioacustics, and morphology in Eleutherodactylus glamyrus, a regionally endemic frog species restricted to high elevations in the Sierra Maestra Massif, Western Cuba that was originally described as a cryptic species hidden under the name E. auriculatus. Genetic analysis of mtDNA sequences of the 16S and cob genes identify two allopatric and strongly supported mitochondrial clades (phylogroups) which also showed no haplotype sharing in the nuclear Rag-1 gene. Bioacustic, and morphological comparisons concordantly identify these two phylogroups as independent evolutionary lineages. Therefore, we herein restrict the name Eleutherodactylus glamyrus Estrada and Hedges to populations represented in our analyses as the western phylogroup (Cordillera del Turquino to Pico La Bayamesa) and consider specimens from the eastern phylogroup (Sierra del Cobre) to represent a new species described and named as Eleutherodactylus cattus. Our results add to the growing list of Eleutherodactylus species endemic to Cuba and highlight the importance of combining different sources of evidence for obtaining robust assessments of species limits in amphibians.

    Keywords: Amphibia, Terrarana, species delimitation, integrative taxonomy, Caribbean


    Eleutherodactylus cattusMale (CZACC14.14153, paratype) calling
    in the trail to Pico El Gato, Sierra del Cobre, 844m a.s.l.. 


    Etymology. The species name is an invariable noun in apposition to the genus name, derived from Latin cattus cat. It refers to the type locality Loma del Gato (Cat Mountain Ridge) in the Sierra Maestra Mountains, a locality 

    Distribution. This species is only known from the type locality but assuming it has specialized to high elevations like its sister taxon, Eleutherodactylus glamyrus, it could well be found in neighboring areas above 800 m a.s.l..


    Ariel Rodríguez, Álvaro Dugo-Cota, Santiago Montero-Mendieta, Alejandro Gonzalez-Voyer, Roberto Alonso Bosch, Miguel Vences and Carles Vilà. 2017. Cryptic within Cryptic: Genetics, Morphometrics, and Bioacoustics Delimitate A New Species of Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) from Eastern Cuba.
    Zootaxa. 4221(5); 501–552.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4221.5.1


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    Habenaria yookuaaensis 
    Mejía-Marín, Espejo, López-Ferr. & R. Jiménez


    Abstract

    Habenaria yookuaaensis, a new species from the state of Oaxaca, is described and illustrated. The new taxon is part of the H. brevilabiataH. virensH. odontopetalaH. strictissima, and H. acalcarata complex, species with which the new entity is compared.

    Keywords: Jamiltepec, Monocots, San Juan Colorado, terrestrial orchid, Mexico


     

    Habenaria yookuaaensis Mejía-Marín, Espejo, López-Ferr. & R. Jiménez, sp. nov. (Figs. 1, 2)

    Similar to Habenaria brevilabiata Richard & Galeotti (1845: 29), but habit terrestrial, with flowers white-greenish, petals oblong-falcate, and lip acuminate, with two triangular divaricate basal auricles.


    Etymology:— The specific epithet refers to the name of San Juan Colorado, place where was found the new taxon, and derives from the Mixtec word “yo’o kua’a” formed by the terms “yo’o” (bejucos, lianas) and “kuaa’a” (rojo, colorado), and means “lugar de tierra colorada” (place of red soil). 

    Distribution and Habitat:— Habenaria yookuaaensis is known until now from two localities in the state of Oaxaca. The plants are very scarce and grow between rocks, on moist soils rich in organic matter, under the shade of the trees on the riverbanks. It flowers in September. 


    María Isabel Mejía-Marín, Adolfo Espejo-Serna, Ana Rosa López-Ferrari and Rolando Jiménez Machorro. 2017. Habenaria yookuaaensis (Orchidaceae: Orchidioideae), A New Species from Oaxaca, Mexico.
    Phytotaxa. 292(1); 74–78. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.292.1.7

     


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    Scleropages sinensis 
    Zhang & Wilson, 2017
    Abstract
    A new species of osteoglossid fish, Scleropages sinensis sp. nov., is described from the Early Eocene Xiwanpu Formation in Hunan and the Yangxi Formation in Hubei, China. The new species was attributed to Scleropages, an extant genus of Osteoglossidae, because it very closely resembles the genus in skull bones, caudal skeleton, the shape and position of fins, and reticulate scales. The new fish is very similar to extant Scleropages except: the nasals do not appear to be ornamented; the sensory pore in the antorbital is large; the posterior infraorbitals are not quite covering the dorsal limb of the preopercle; the posteroventral angle of the preopercle is produced to point; the posteroventral margin of the opercle is concave and the ventral end of the bone is produced to a point; the pectoral fin is very long and extends well behind the beginning of the pelvic fin; the vertebral count is about 46–48; the parapophyses are shorter and the upper and lower caudal rays are nearly as long as the inner rays. The new fish is closer to its Asian neighbor, S. formosus, than to its southern relative, S. leichardti. Scleropages formosus inhabits natural lakes, swamps, flooded forests, and slowly moving, deep parts of rivers with overhanging vegetative cover. It is a carnivorous fish and its food consists mainly of insects, fishes, worms, small amphibians, small mammals, and even birds. S. sinensis may live in the same natural environment and have a similar diet except for the largest items. Sexual dimorphism may exist in S. sinensis. The presumed male has a slimmer and shallower body, a relatively larger head, and a deeper mouth cleft. The discovery of Scleropages sinensis sp. nov. dates the divergence of Scleropages and Osteoglossum to no later than the Early Eocene.

     Key words: Hunan, Hubei, China; Early Eocene; Xiawanpu Formation; Yangxi Formation; Osteoglossidae


    Systematic paleontology
    Teleostei Müller, 1846
    Osteoglossomorpha Greenwood et al., 1966
    Osteoglossidae Bonaparte, 1832
     Scleropages Günther, 1864

    Scleropages sinensis sp. nov.







    Holotype: IVPP V 13672.2, a complete skeleton.
    Referred specimens: IVPP V 12749.1–8, V 12750, V 13672.1, 3.

    Locality and horizon: Specimens V 13672.1–3 and V 12750 are from Songzi County, Hubei Province, China; Yangxi Formation, Lower Eocene. Specimens V 12749.1–8 are from Xiangxiang, Hunan Province, China; Xiawanpu Formation, Eocene.

    Etymology: The specific name refers to China where the specimens were found.




     Jiang-Yong Zhang and Mark V H Wilson. 2017. First Complete Fossil Scleropages (Osteoglossomorpha).  Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 55(1); 1–23



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    Distribution of Cnemaspis in Sumatra.  
    DOI:  10.1670/15-047

    Cnemaspis aceh,C. andalas,C. minang,C. pagai & C. tapanuli
     Iskandar, McGuire & Amarasinghe, 2017  

    Cnemaspis dezwaani
    C. modiglianii & C. whittenorum Das 2005

    Abstract
    We investigated diminutive day geckos (SVL < 40 mm) of the genus Cnemaspis (Cnemaspis kandiana Group) from mainland Sumatra and islands along its western margin (Nias, Siberut, Pagai, and Enggano). The assemblage includes several species based on morphological evidence, five of which we describe as new. The new species occur in the Sumatran provinces of Aceh, North Sumatra, and West Sumatra. Finally, we provide a new key and redescriptions for three previously recognized species: Cnemaspis dezwaani, Cnemaspis modiglianii, and Cnemaspis whittenorum, based on recently collected material, and clarify contradictory information concerning their original descriptions and their key under each species account.

    FIG. 3. Distribution of Cnemaspis in Sumatra. 

    Cnemaspis pagai  Iskandar, McGuire & Amarasinghe, 2017   


    Djoko T. Iskandar, Jimmy A. McGuire, and A. A. Thasun Amarasinghe. 2017. Description of Five New Day Geckos of Cnemaspis kandiana Group (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from Sumatra and Mentawai Archipelago, Indonesia.   Journal of Herpetology. 51(1); 142-153.  DOI:  10.1670/15-047


      


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    Phrynomedusa dryade 
    Baêta, Giasson, Pombal & Haddad, 2016   

    DOI:  10.1655/HERPMONOGRAPHS-D-15-00009.1 

    Abstract 
    We present the first taxonomic review of the genus Phrynomedusa since its description with diagnoses of the genus and species. We present a broad literature review of the genus and provide updates and remarks about the type series, tadpoles, calls, geographic distribution, and natural history of the species of Phrynomedusa. Additionally we describe a new species from município de São Luiz do Paraitinga, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Phrynomedusa dryade was initially identified as Phrynomedusa marginata; however, an integrated analysis of morphological and molecular characters enabled its recognition as a separate new species. For the first time, the advertisement call for one species of Phrynomedusa is described in detail. We describe the tadpole and present some field notes about the activity and biology of this new species.
    Keywords: Atlantic Forest, Phrynomedusadryade sp. nov., Tadpole, Taxonomy, Vocalization


    Phrynomedusa Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923 
    Type species.— Phrynomedusa fimbriata Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923 (3–5), by monotypy.

    • Phrynomedusa fimbriata Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923
    • Phrynomedusa appendiculata (A. Lutz, 1925)

    FIG. 4.— Live specimen of Phrynomedusa appendiculata from Paranapiacaba, município de Santo André , São Paulo, Brazil (Photos by Gualter Lutz, Gualter Lutz Slide Collection, MNRJ). 

    • Phrynomedusa marginata Izecksohn and Cruz, 1976
    • Phrynomedusa vanzolinii Cruz, 1991
    • Phrynomedusa bokermanni Cruz, 1991

    Phrynomedusa dryade sp. nov. 



     Etymology.— The specific epithet ‘‘dryade’’ is in the genitive case and is derived from the Ancient Greek ‘‘dryas’’ (tree) and the suffix ‘‘ades’’ (from trees). The new name is a noun in apposition. In Greek mythology, dryads were the rare guardian deities of forests and woods. The German naturalist K.F.P. Martius (Martius et al. 1840) used the term ‘Dryads’ in the first phytogeographic division of Brazilian territory into five floristic regions, in which Dryads was the term used to refer to Atlantic Coastal Forest. The name of this new species refers to the occurrence of this beautiful Monkey Frog in the Atlantic Forest Domain. 

    Distribution.— Phrynomedusa dryade is known only from five localities in southeastern Brazil: four localities in state of São Paulo (municípios de Cananéia, Salesópolis, Itanhaém, and São Luiz do Paraitinga) and one locality in state of Rio de Janeiro (município de Paraty; Fig. 1).

     Holotype (A) CFBH 16026, male, SVL ¼ 30.9 mm (photo by C.F.B. Haddad) and paratype (B) CFBH 7684, SVL ¼ 29.5 mm (photo by L.O.M. Giasson) of Phrynomedusa dryade, adult males from Núcleo Santa Virgínia, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, município de São Luiz do Paraitinga, São Paulo, Brazil.  

    FIG. 8.— Holotype (A) CFBH 16026, male, SVL ¼ 30.9 mm (photo by C.F.B. Haddad) and
    paratype (B) CFBH 7684, SVL ¼ 29.5 mm (photo by L.O.M. Giasson) of Phrynomedusa dryade, adult males from Núcleo Santa Virgínia, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, município de São Luiz do Paraitinga, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Topotypes (C) MNRJ 57954; male SVL ¼ 27.6 mm (photo by J.P. Pombal, Jr.),
    (D) specimen not specified (photo by I. Sazima) of Phrynomedusa marginata, males from município de Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brazil.  


     Délio Baêta, Luís Olímpio Menta Giasson, José P. Pombal and Célio Fernando Baptista Haddad. 2016. Review of the Rare Genus PhrynomedusaMiranda-Ribeiro, 1923 (Anura: Phyllomedusidae) With Description of a New Species.   Herpetological Monographs. 30(1); 49-78. DOI:  10.1655/HERPMONOGRAPHS-D-15-00009.1

      


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    Athyrium haleakalae K.R. Wood & W.L. Wagner   


    Abstract
    Athyrium haleakalae K.R. Wood & W.L. Wagner (Athyriaceae), a small lithophytic fern from East Maui, Hawaiian Islands, is described and illustrated. Notes on its distribution, ecology, and conservation status are also presented. The new species appears to be an obligate rheophyte, preferring sites of fast moving water along concave walls of streams and waterfalls. Athyrium haleakalae differs from the only other known Hawaiian Athyrium, A. microphyllum (Sm.) Alston, in having rhizomes 1–3 cm long and lanceolate blades 1- to 2-pinnate-pinnatifid, 3–8(–11) × 1–3(–4) cm, as compared to A. microphyllum having rhizomes (10–)15–30 cm long and ovate to ovate-triangular blades 3-pinnate-pinnatifid to 4-pinnate, 30–82 × 20–50 cm.

    Keywords: Athyriaceae, Athyrium, new species, rheophyte, Hawaiian Islands, East Maui endemic, Critically Endangered


    Figure 4. A Mature plants of Athyriumhaleakalae, showing habitat preference along concave hollow of stream, Hana Forest Reserve, East Maui, HI (22 Aug 2013, Wood & Oppenheimer 15639) B Mature plant of Athyrium microphyllum, showing terrestrial habitat preference, erect rhizome, and large size, Mohihi, Kaua‘i, HI (18 Dec 2014, Wood & Flynn et al. 16175). Photos by K.R. Wood. 

    Figure 3. Typical habitat of Athyrium haleakalae around stream plunge pools, Hana Forest Reserve, East Maui, HI. Photo by K.R. Wood, 21 Aug 2013. 

    Athyrium haleakalae K.R. Wood & W.L. Wagner, sp. nov.

      Diagnosis: Athyrium haleakalae differs from the only previously known Hawaiian Athyrium, A. microphyllum, in having rhizomes 1–3 cm long and lanceolate blades 1- to 2-pinnate-pinnatifid, 3–8(–11) × 1–3(–4) cm, as compared to A. microphyllum with rhizomes (10–)15–30 cm long and ovate to ovate-triangular blades 3-pinnate-pinnatifid to 4-pinnate, 30–82 × 20–50 cm.

    Etymology: The new species is named after Haleakalā, East Maui, a massive, dormant shield volcano (3,057 m tall) and the only known location of Athyrium haleakalae.


    Kenneth R. Wood and Warren L. Wagner. 2017. Athyrium haleakalae (Athyriaceae), A New Rheophytic Fern Species from East Maui, Hawaiian Islands: with Notes on Its Distribution, Ecology, and Conservation Status.
    PhytoKeys. 76; 115-124. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.76.1163




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    Gobiesox lanceolatus 
     Hastings & Conway, 2017 

      
    Abstract

    Gobiesox lanceolatus is described from a single specimen collected from 300 meters depth in the Los Frailes submarine canyon in the southwestern Gulf of California. The "Canyon Clingfish" is unique within Gobiesox in having a lanceolate caudal fin, with the central rays longer than those above and below them. It is also distinguished by 14 dorsal-fin rays (first tiny and unsegmented), 11 anal-fin rays, 28 pectoral-fin rays, anus slightly closer to anal-fin origin than to posterior margin of pelvic disc, and dorsal-fin origin in front of vertical from anus. It is most similar to Gobiesox eugrammus, known from Isla Guadelupe, the coast of outer Baja California and southern California. This is the deepest record for a species of Gobiesox and only four other species of clingfishes are known from greater depths.

    Keywords: Pisces, deep water, depth records, Soucoupe diving saucer


    Etymology. lanceolatus, spearlike, from lancea, a short spear, in reference to the lanceolate caudal fin - the single most distinctive (and unique) feature of the species. We suggest the common name of "Canyon Clingfish" in reference to the type locality of this species.


     Philip A. Hastings and Kevin W. Conway. 2017. Gobiesoxlanceolatus, A New Species of Clingfish (Teleostei: Gobiesocidae) from Los Frailes Submarine Canyon, Gulf of California, Mexico.  Zootaxa.  4221(3); 393–400. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4221.3.8



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