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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region

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    Rhombophryne nilevina
    Lambert, Hutter & Scherz, 2017   

    We describe a new species from the cophyline microhylid genus Rhombophryne, a group of fossorial and terrestrial frogs endemic to Madagascar. Found during herpetofaunal surveys of moist montane forest in the remote north of Ranomafana National Park, Rhombophryne nilevina sp. n. exemplifies two difficulties that hinder taxonomic progress in Malagasy cophyline frogs: micro-endemicity and highly secretive habits. Known from only two adult male specimens, this new species is nonetheless easily distinguishable from all other known Rhombophryne using morphological data, and osteological data collected here via X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography, or " micro-CT ". This species is now the largest known Rhombophryne, and the only one known from Ranomafana National Park, which will make it the southern-most member of the genus pending a forthcoming taxonomic revision involving Plethodontohyla and Rhombophryne. Pairwise distances of the mitochondrial 16s rRNA marker show a minimum genetic distance of 4.9% from other nominal Rhombophryne. We also describe recordings of an advertisement call, emitted from a burrow by the holotype. Rhombophryne nilevina sp. n. is not known to be found syntopically with other Rhombophryne, nor to be present elsewhere in Ranomafana National Park, but it probably does co-occur with a few ecologically similar Plethodontohyla species. Although the type locality is within a protected area, we suggest an IUCN listing of Data Deficient for R. nilevina sp. n., as its area of occupancy is largely undetermined within the park.

    Key Words: Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae, Rhombophryne nilevina, taxonomy, osteology, micro-CT, endemicity, herpetology

    Rhombophryne nilevina sp. n.
     Suggested common English name: Buried Diamond Frog
    Suggested common Malagasy name: Sahona diamondra nilevina
    Suggested common French name: La grenouille de diamant enterré

    Diagnosis: A frog assigned to the cophyline genus Rhombophryne on the basis of its divided vomer, the possession of clavicles and knob-shaped terminal phalanges (see Scherz et al. 2016a). This species is characterized by the following suite of characters: large size (SVL at least up to 57.2 mm), wide, short head (HW 180.7% of HL), tympanum 58.6% of eye, forelimb 51.1% of SVL, tibia 42.2% of SVL, hindlimb 152.5% of SVL, large inner metacarpal and metatarsal tubercles, supratympanic fold distinct and raised, running from the posterior corner of the eye straight over the tympanum, then sharply down behind it, extending to join the front of the arm, distinct vomerine teeth forming curved rows posteromedial to the oblong choanae, separated medially by a small cleft, second finger shorter than fourth finger, fifth toe distinctly shorter than third, without finger or toe reduction, finger and toe tips not enlarged. Additionally, R. nilevina is separated from all nominal species of Rhombophryne by an uncorrected pairwise distance of at least 4.9% in the fragment of the 16S rRNA gene, and by at least 3.8% from all known candidate species in this genus.

    Figure 3. Photos in life of Rhombophryne nilevina sp. n. 
    (a) Dorsolateralview of the holotype (KU 340893). (b) Dorsal view of the holotype. (c) Ventral view of the holotype. (d) Dorsolateral view of the paratype (CRH 799, UADBA-A Uncatalouged). (e) Dorsal view of the paratype. (f) Ventral view of the paratype.

    Etymology: The specific epithet “nilevina” is a Malagasy word meaning “buried.” This name was chosen to recognize the fossorial habits of this species. It is to be treated as an invariable noun in apposition.

    Natural history. Both known specimens of R. nilevina were obtained from a relatively flat, poorly drained section of moist montane forest adjacent to a stream, with the holotype found along the bank of this stream. Nearby habitats include a swamp with many large Pandanus and steep forested slopes with relatively smaller trees. However, the calls of R. nilevina seemed to emanate mostly from the flatter, forested area. Males were heard calling during the day, particularly during overcast conditions and after rainfall. Advertisement calls were not heard at night, however, the night-time chorus of other frogs, including BoophisSpinomantisGephyromantis, and Anodonthyla, may have interfered with detection. When heard from a distance, the call is reminiscent of that of an owl. When heard from close proximity, the call sounds like a groan, and is far less melodic. Both specimens were both located by auditory tracking, and found calling from underground: one from a cavity under the roots of a large tree, and the other from a burrow in soft, moist soil alongside the stream. In order to collect the holotype from its burrow, excavation was required. Based on these observations and suggestive morphology, we presume that R. nilevina spend much of their lives underground, possibly coming to the surface for short periods during rainfall, similar to other fossorial Rhombophryne species (Glaw and Vences 2007, D’Cruze et al. 2010). We also note that R. nilevina was discovered in the middle of the wet season, and after a week-long period of particularly heavy, sustained rain.

    Distribution: Rhombophryne nilevina has thus far been detected at a single site, near the former village of Andemaka, in the north-west of Ranomafana National Park (Fig. 2). This locality is relatively high-elevation for Ranomafana National Park (ca. 1240 m). To our knowledge, R. nilevina has not been detected by any previous survey, including several conducted by CRH and SML at similarly high-elevation sites in the northern (Miaranony), central (Vohiparara), and southern (Maharira) regions of Ranomafana. Nevertheless, we do not rule out here the possibility that R. nilevina occurs elsewhere in the park. This is in large part due to the secretive habits and potentially ephemeral activity periods of this species (see Natural history). In addition, much of the high-elevation forest of Ranomafana is difficult to access and thus remains sparsely or completely unsurveyed for herpetofauna. Although it is possible that R. nilevina has been overlooked in other eastern rainforest patches, current information suggests that this species is endemic to Ranomafana National Park, and potentially to a much smaller area within the park.

     Shea M Lambert, Carl R. Hutter and Mark David Scherz. 2017. Diamond in the Rough: A New Species of Fossorial Diamond Frog (Rhombophryne) from Ranomafana National Park, southeastern Madagascar. Zoosystematics and Evolution. 93(1); 143–155. DOI: 10.3897/zse.93.10188

    Diamond in the rough: meet Madagascar's fat new frog via @MarkScherz

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    Fig. 2. Species of the Hemilienardia ocellata complex. The SEM image with no letter denoted shows standard measurements.
     A–D. Hemilienardia ocellata (Jousseaume, 1884). A–B. Syntype, MNHN IM-2000-3128, Mauritius, 4.0 mm. C. Loyalty Islands, Lifou, Baie du Santal, Atelier Lifou 2000, stn 1429, 20°47.5' S, 167°07.1' E, 8–18 m, 4.4 mm. D. New Caledonia, Secteur de Koumac, Expedition Montrouzier, stn 1319, 20°44.7' S, 164°15.5' E, 15–20 m, 3.6 mm.
    E–F. Hemilienardia acinonyx sp. nov. E. Holotype, MNHN IM-2013-33593, Philippines, 8.1 mm. F. Loyalty Islands, Lifou, Baie du Santal, Atelier Lifou 2000, stn 1441, 20°46.4' S, 167°02.0' E, 20 m, 5.4 mm.
    G–H. Hemilienardia lynx sp. nov., holotype, MNHN IM-2013-5489, Papua New Guinea, 2.75 mm.
    I–M. Hemilienardia pardus sp. nov. I. BMOO 17147, Society Islands, Moorea. K. Holotype, MNHN IM-2000-31661, 5.8 mm. L–M. Loyalty Islands, Lifou, Baie du Santal, Atelier Lifou 2000, stn 1454, 20°56.65' S, 167°02.0' E, 15–18 m, 5.2 mm.


    The small conoidean Hemilienardia ocellata is one of the easily recognizable Indo-Pacific “turrids”, primarily because of its remarkable eyespot colour pattern. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed four species that share this “characteristic” colour pattern but demonstrate consistent differences in size and shell proportions. Three new species – Hemilienardia acinonyx sp. nov. from the Philippines, H. lynx sp. nov. from Papua New Guinea and H. pardus sp. nov. from the Society and Loyalty Islands – are described based on the results of phylogenetic analyses. Although the H. ocellata species complex clade falls in a monophyletic HemilienardiaH. ocellata and H. acinonyx sp. nov. possess a radula with semi-enrolled or notably flattened triangular marginal teeth, a condition that diverges substantially from the standard radular morphology of Hemilienardia and other raphitomids.

    Keywords: integrative taxonomy; species delimitation; Indo-Pacific; COI; 16S

    Alexander E. Fedosov, Peter Stahlschmidt, Nicolas Puillandre, Laetitia Aznar-Cormano and Philippe Bouchet. 2017. Not All Spotted Cats are Leopards: Evidence for A Hemilienardia ocellata species complex (Gastropoda: Conoidea: Raphitomidae).  European Journal of Taxonomy. 268(2017); 1-20. DOI:  10.5852/ejt.2017.268


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    Endecous naipi  
     Souza-DiasSzinwelskiFianco, de Oliveirade Mello & Zefa, 2017  


    In this study we describe two new species of cavicolous-straminicolous crickets for southern Brazil. Endecous chape n. sp. andE. naipi n. sp. are sympatric crickets that inhabit the Atlantic Semideciduous Forest of the Iguaçu National Park and adjacent areas. The descriptions were based on morphological characters, mainly from male genitalia and tegmina of adult males. Furthermore, we describe the chromosomes and the calling song of one of the new species, E. chape n. sp., presenting a discussion about the morphology of the phallic complex of Endecous and a distribution map for the species of the genus. The type-material is deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZSP), and in the Coleção de Insetos do Departamento de Zoologia (Zoology Department Insect Collection), Universidade Estadual Paulista—UNESP—Botucatu campus.

    Keywords: Insect, Orthoptera, calling song, chromosomes, taxonomy, cricket

    Pedro G. B. Souza-DiasNeucir SzinwelskiMarcos Fianco, Elliott Centeno de OliveiraFrancisco de A. G. de Mello and Edison Zefa. 2017. New Species of Endecous (Grylloidea, Phalangopsidae, Luzarinae) from the Iguaçu National Park (Brazil), including Bioacoustics, Cytogenetic and Distribution Data. Zootaxa. 4237(3); 454–470. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4237.3.2

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    Garcinia hopii  
    H.Toyama & V.S.Dang

    A new speciesGarcinia hopii H.Toyama & V.S.Dang is described from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, southern Vietnam. This species is similar to Garcinia hendersoniana Whitmore but differs from that species in having larger leaves, clustered pistillate flowers, a greater number of sterile anthers and a larger stigma of young fruits. A description, preliminary conservation assessment, illustration, photographs and DNA barcodes of the new species are provided, as well as an updated key to Garcinia sect. Hebradendron in Indochina.

    Keywords: Flora, Indochina, matK, rbcL, taxonomy

    Figure 2.: Garcinia hopii H.Toyama & V.S.Dang sp. nov. A branch with leaves B abaxial surface of leaf C trunk D latex E staminate flower buds F staminate flower G pistillate flower and buds H pistillate flower J immature fruits.
    A–C photographed on 22 January 2015 E photographed on 19 November 2014
    D, F–I photographed on 27 February 2016, J photographed on 24 April 2015.  

    Garcinia hopii H.Toyama & V.S.Dang, sp. nov.

    Diagnosis: This species is similar to Garcinia hendersoniana Whitmore (endemic to Peninsular Malaysia) in elliptic-orbicular coriaceous leaves but differs from that species in relatively larger leaves (10‒23.5 × 6.5‒15.5 cm vs. 8–14 × 5.5–8.5 cm), clustered pistillate flowers (2–4 vs. solitary), a greater number of sterile anthers of pistillate flowers (40–64 vs. ca. 25) and a larger stigma of young fruits (4–6 mm vs. 3–4 mm in diam.).

    Type: VIETNAM. Lam Dong Province, Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, montane evergreen forest, ...27 February 2016, H. Toyama, H. Nagamasu, S. Tagane, VS. Dang, VN. Nguyen & J. Wai V4475 [female fl. & young fr.] (holotype KYO!; isotypes DLU!, FU!, NTUF!, VNM!)

    Figure 2.: Garcinia hopii H.Toyama & V.S.Dang sp. nov. A branch with leaves B abaxial surface of leaf C trunk D latex E staminate flower buds F staminate flower G pistillate flower and buds H pistillate flower I pistillate flower, some tepals removed J immature fruits. A–C photographed on 22 January 2015 E photographed on 19 November 2014 D, F–I photographed on 27 February 2016, J photographed on 24 April 2015. 

    Distribution and habitat: Garcinia hopii is only known from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, southern Vietnam. It is common in moist evergreen forests dominated by Quercus poilanei Hickel & A.Camus, Neolitsea umbrosa (Nees) Gamble, Podocarpus neriifolius D.Don, Polyosma nhatrangensis Gagnep. and Symplocos sulcata Kurz at alt. 1640–1810 m.

    Phenology: Flower buds were observed in November. Flowers were observed in February and April. Immature fruits were observed in April.

    Etymology: Garcinia hopii is named after Prof. Hop Tran, University of Science Ho Chi Minh City, who collected the flowering and fruiting specimens [Tran & Dang dv127 (FU, VNM)].

     Hironori Toyama, Van-Son Dang, Shuichiro Tagane, Ngoc Van Nguyen, Akiyo Naiki, Hidetoshi Nagamasu and Tetsukazu Yahara. 2017. Garcinia hopii (Clusiaceae), A New Species from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, southern Vietnam.
     PhytoKeys. 77; 63-70. DOI:  10.3897/phytokeys.77.11575

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     Mauriciosaurus fernandezi
    Frey, Mulder, Stinnesbeck, Rivera-Sylva, Padilla-Gutiérrez & González-González, 2017  

    A nearly complete skeleton of a polycotylid plesiosaur is described from the early Late Cretaceous laminated limestones at Vallecillo, northeast Mexico. It shows extensive soft tissue preservation. In some exceedingly well preserved areas there are transversely elongate rectangular to trapezoid millimetric scale-like structures arranged in longitudinal rows. The trailing edge skin flap preserves fibers and scale rows perpendicular to the trailing edge. A thick layer of subdermal tissue is present, especially along the tail base. It was responsible for the hydrodynamic drop-shaped body contour, with the body and tail forming a single unit. The body shape determined from the preserved soft tissues suggests a swimming speed similar to extant leatherback turtles. Based on the unique osteology of the palate, which is intermediate between Dolichorhynchops and Trinacromerum, and according to the unique morphology of the girdles and propodials as well as the medially converging gastralia, the new specimen is placed in a new genus and species of Polycotylidae, Mauriciosaurus fernandezi gen. et sp. nov. 

    Keywords: Vertebrate palaeontology, Plesiosauria, Polycotylidae, Late Cretaceous, northeast Mexico, soft tissue preservation, palaeoecology.

    Figure 3 : Mauriciosaurus fernandezi  INAH CPC RFG 2544 P.F.1.
     A) Photograph of the specimen after preparation, B) interpretative line drawing. Note the massive tail base and the dorsal skin preserved between the ribs. 

    Systematic paleontology

    Plesiosauria de Blainville, 1835
    Plesiosauroidea Welles, 1943
    Leptocleidia Ketchum and Benson, 2010

    Polycotylidae Williston, 1908

    Mauriciosaurus gen. nov
    Mauriciosaurus fernandezi sp. nov.

    Derivation of name: Genus and species name in honor of Mauricio Fernández Garza, who not only made the specimen accessible for scientific research, but also secures all future work in the quarry area at Vallecillo and supports public education in Earth- and biological sciences predominantly in the state of Nuevo León.

    Eberhard Frey, Eric W.A. Mulder, Wolfgang Stinnesbeck, Héctor E. Rivera-Sylva, José Manuel Padilla-Gutiérrez and Arturo Homero González-González. 2017. A New Polycotylid Plesiosaur with Extensive Soft Tissue Preservation from the early Late Cretaceous of northeast Mexico. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana. 69(1); 87–134.

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     Pristurus r. rupetris of the high altitude robust morphotype.
      Panoramic view of Wadi Sareen, a Protected Area that includes the only known locality of one of the new species discovered in this study.


    To understand the patterns of genetic, geographical and morphological diversification in the Arabian gecko subspecies Pristurus rupestris rupestris, and to discuss the various processes that generate and shape diversity in arid mountain ranges.

    Hajar Mountains, south-eastern Arabian Peninsula.

    We sampled 466 individuals across the entire range of P. r. rupestris in the Hajar Mountains and sequenced one mitochondrial gene for all the samples, and one extra mitochondrial and four nuclear genes for a subset of 75 specimens. A total of 155 individuals were characterized morphologically. Multilocus coalescent-based methods were used for species delimitation, for phylogenetic inference of species trees and to investigate the diversification dynamics. Multivariate statistics were used to analyse morphological data.

    Our molecular methods revealed 14 candidate species hidden within the subspecies P. r. rupestris. Diversification started c. 15 Ma, but most of the lineages have evolved in the last 7 Ma of the mountains’ orogeny, producing a mosaic of allopatric taxa. Secondary interchange has occurred between high and low elevation lineages, and along the mountain chain between unrelated lineages formerly separated by mountain blocks. Morphological variation between the 14 candidate species is slight, but a high elevation robust morphotype is identified.

    Main conclusions
    Our results support the notion that mountain ranges constitute important centres of diversification in arid regions, and also act as ‘species pumps’ into surrounding areas. We also demonstrate that arid mountains may constitute important reservoirs of cryptic diversity, even in common and widespread species. This, and previous evidence, suggest that the Hajar Mountains are a biological hotspot and an important reservoir of diversity. We therefore suggest that these mountains should be a priority focal point for conservation in Arabia.

    Keywords: allopatry; Arabia; arid mountains; biodiversity; biogeography; cryptic species; diversification; evolution; systematics

    Photo 1: Pristurus r. rupetris of the high altitude robust morphotype.
    photo: S. Carranza.  

    Photo 2: Panoramic view of Wadi Sareen, a Protected Area that includes the only known locality of one of the new species discovered in this study.
    photo: S. Carranza. 

    Joan Garcia-Porta, Marc Simó-Riudalbas, Michael Robinson and Salvador Carranza. 2017. Diversification in Arid Mountains: Biogeography and Cryptic Diversity of Pristurus rupestris rupestris in Arabia.  Journal of Biogeography. DOI: 10.1111/jbi.12929 

    Scientists uncover 14 new gecko species within a single subspecies - Oman

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    Phyllodytes megatympanum  
    Marciano, Lantyer-Silva & Solé, 2017   


    We describe a new species of Phyllodytes from Ilhéus (15º04’S, 39º03’W; 95 m above sea level), south of state of Bahia, in the northeastern Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Phyllodytes megatympanum sp. nov. is diagnosable by the following combination of characters: (1) dorsum of body, arms, and legs uniformly light brown; (2) groin yellow; (3) snout pointed in dorsal view, protruding in profile; (4) tympanum large with a round distinct tympanic annulus; (5) adult males with two anterior large odontoids followed by a series of smaller odontoids on each side of the mandible; (6) well-developed tubercle near tibio-tarsal joint; (7) advertisement call composed of a series of 12 to 19 unpulsed notes, with harmonic structure and (8) mean dominant frequency of 3.98 kHz.

    Keywords: Amphibia, Diversity, Morphometrics, Bioacoustics, Phytothelm

    Holotype of Phyllodytes megatympanum sp. nov. in life. 

    Etymology. The specific epithet refers to the prominent tympanum, one of the largest in relation to SVL among the other species of the genus. Megatympanum is a Latin vernacular name meaning “big tympanum”.

    Euvaldo Marciano-Jr., Amanda Santiago F. Lantyer-Silva and Mirco Solé. 2017. A New Species of PhyllodytesWagler, 1830 (Anura, Hylidae) from the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil. Zootaxa.    4238(1); 135–142. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4238.1.11

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    Liriomyza blechi  Spencer 


    The Liriomyza (Diptera: Agromyzidae) of Canada and Alaska is revised, with species keyed and illustrated, and new host and geographic records provided. Eighty one species are recognized, including 24 new to scienceL. agriosL. albispina, L. anatolis, L. aphila, L. apilaca, L. aquapolis, L. arenarium, L. atrassimilis, L. bicolumbis, L. charada, L. cracentis, L. elevaster, L. emaciata, L. fumeola, L. gibsoni, L. griffithsi, L. hilairensis, L. limopsis, L. mesocanadensis, L. pilicornis, L. pistilla, L. rigaudensis, L. taraxanox, L. taraxanuda, L. tryssos. Ten species known from the United States are recorded as new to Canada: L. artemisiae Spencer, L. assimilis (Malloch), L. baccharidis Spencer, Lhelianthi Spencer, L. merga Lonsdale, L. minor Spencer, L. sabaziae Spencer, L. temperata Spencer, L. violivora (Spencer) and L. virgo (Zetterstedt). Palaearctic species new to North America include L. wachtli Hendel and L. flaveola (Fallén); while the latter species has been recorded in North America before, all previous records represent misidentifications. Hosts are recorded for the first time for L. balcanicoides Sehgal, L. minor Spencer, L. orilliensis Spencerand L. socialis SpencerGaliomyza Spencer syn. nov. is included as a junior synonym of Liriomyza Mik, resulting in six new combinations.

    Keywords: Diptera, revision, Nearctic, new species, synonymy, Galiomyza

     Owen Lonsdale. 2017. The Liriomyza (Diptera: Schizophora: Agromyzidae) of Canada & Alaska. Zootaxa. 4234(1); 1–156. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4234.1.1

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    Aspidoras mephisto  
    Tencatt & Bichuette, 2017 


    Aspidoras mephisto n. sp. is described from the Anésio-Russão cave system, upper Tocantins River basin, Goiás, Brazil. The species can be readily distinguished from its congeners by troglomorphic features and also by presenting the following combination of features: infraorbital 1 generally with well-developed ventral laminar; or moderately developed; poorly-developed serrations on posterior margin of pectoral spine; nuchal plate not externally visible; dorsal fin, even in conspicuously colored specimens, with only dark brown or black chromatophores concentrated on rays, forming spots in some specimens; membranes hyaline; or sparse dark brown or black chromatophores on membranes, not forming any conspicuous pattern; and inner laminar expansion of infraorbital 1 moderately developed. Information about its habitat, ecology, behaviour and conservation status are provided and also a brief description of the juvenile stage.

    Aspidoras mephisto, new species

    Fig 3. Aspidoras mephisto, holotype, MNRJ 48268, 45.6 mm SL, in dorsal (a), lateral (b) and ventral (c) views. 

    Fig 9. Live uncatalogued specimen of Aspidoras mephistofrom the Anésio III cave, Posse, Goiás, Brazil.

     Photograph: Danté Fenolio. 
    DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171309 

    Fig 12. Foraging habitat observed for Aspidoras mephisto.
     (a), touching the bottom parallel to; (b), touching the silty-bottom + roots showing a 60° angle to; (c), starting to foraging under the small roots; and (d), foraging behavior under the roots (arrow).
    Photographs: Maria E. Bichuette. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171309 

    Fig 11. Map of the type-locality of Aspidoras mephisto, showing the Anésio-Russão cave-system, Posse, Goiás Brazil.
    Author: Diego M. von Schimonsky. 

    Fig 2. Habitat of Aspidoras mephisto at Anésio III cave, Posse Goiás, Brazil,
    showing (a), a small stretch of the drainage showing the roots reaching the water, lentic and formed by small roots and silt; (b), a pool with rocky in the border and silty-bottom, the black arrow indicates an adult specimen .
    (Photographs: Maria E. Bichuette).   DOI:  10.1371/journal.pone.0171309

    Geographical distribution: The new species is known only from the Anésio-Russão cave system (Anésio III and Russão II caves), part of the upper rio Tocantins basin (Fig 11).

    Etymology: The epithet “mephisto” refers to the shortened name of Mephistopheles, demon from the German folklore. Mephistopheles comes from the Greek by the combination of three words: με (me), a negation, φῶς (phōs), meaning light, and φιλις (philis), meaning loving, literally “not-light-loving”, or the one who does not love the light, making allusion to the subterranean behavior of the new species. A noun in apposition.

    Habitat, ecological and behavioral notes: Aspidoras mephisto shows preference to slow waters (small values of dissolved oxygen), small depths (ca. 0.05 m) and bottom formed by silt, clay and boulders, showing higher values of Total Dissolved Solutes compared to the epigean drainage. Its abundance is relatively high compared to other troglobitic fishes (ca. 50 individuals in pools), and population densities of 5–6 inds.m-2. Juvenile individuals were observed along small stretches of the drainage, always in lentic and shallow places, isolated from the adults and frequently under roots (Fig 2C).

    Aspidoras mephisto forages calmly close to small submersed roots and silty-bottom (Fig 12A and 12B). They use the anterior extremity of the snout exploring the substrate in a parallel position or forming an angle of ca. 60° in relation to the bottom (Fig 12B), sometimes under the small roots (Fig 12C and 12D). The fish showed this behavior throughout the entire observation time (ca. 20 min) and did not show escape and/or avoidance behavior due to lamp-light or other external disturbances (such as the presence of the observer).

    Luiz Fernando Caserta Tencatt and Maria Elina Bichuette. 2017. Aspidoras mephisto, New Species: The First Troglobitic Callichthyidae (Teleostei: Siluriformes) from South America. PLoS ONE. 12(3): e0171309. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171309


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    Nanophyllium larssoni  
    Cumming, 2017  


    A new species of leaf insect, Nanophyllium larssoni n. sp. is described and illustrated bringing the known species in the genus to a total of six. Like all species of Nanophyllium Redtenbacher, 1906, the new species is named from a single male specimen, which is deposited in the San Diego Natural History Museum. With this newly identified species, two clear species-groups emerge and are described, in detail, in the species key. Measurements of anatomical figures were made to the nearest 0.1 mm.

    Keywords: Phasmatodea, Phasmida, Phylliidae

    Royce T. Cumming. 2017. A Second New Species of Nanophyllium Redtenbacher, 1906 from the northern coast of New Guinea (Phasmida, Phylliidae).
    Zootaxa. 4238(2); 246–248. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4238.2.3

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    Pseudomacrochenus wusuae  
    He, Liu & Wang,  2017

      DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.656.11676 

    Pseudomacrochenus wusuae sp. n. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Lamiini) is described from Sichuan, China. Relevant morphological characters are illustrated by colour plates and a differential diagnosis of the new species from its relatives is provided.

    Keywords: Cerambycidae, China, Lamiinae, Lamiini, new species, Pseudomacrochenus, taxonomy

    Figure 6. Field observations of Pseudomacrochenus wusuae sp. n.
    A biotope B host plant Craspedolobium schochii Harms C adult (resting) D adult (preparing to fly). 

     Li He, Bin Liu and Cheng-Bin Wang. 2017. Pseudomacrochenus wusuae sp. n., A New Species from Sichuan, China (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae).  
     ZooKeys 656: 111-121.  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.656.11676

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    Lebbeus quadratus 
    Chan & Komai, 2017


    A new species of the thorid shrimp genus Lebbeus White, 1847 is reported upon from a deep-sea cold seep site off southwestern Taiwan. The new species belongs to the group characterized by the possession of epipod only on maxilliped III and pereiopod I, and appears closest to L. curvirostris Zarenkov, 1976, known only from off Peru, Eastern Pacific and L. manus Komai & Collins, 2009 from the Manus Basin, Bismarck Sea, Southwest Pacific. It differs from the latter two species in having a larger supraorbital tooth and more numerous spines on the meri of the pereiopods III to V. The present new species is the fifth of the genus known from waters around Taiwan.

    Keywords: Crustacea, Lebbeus quadratus, new species, Taiwan

     Tin-Yam Chan and Tomoyuki Komai. 2017. A New Shrimp Species of the Genus Lebbeus White, 1847 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Thoridae) from A Deep-sea Cold Seep Site off southwestern Taiwan. Zootaxa.  4238(3); DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4238.3.9

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    Rhinogobius biwaensis 
    Takahashi & Okazaki, 2017

    Biwa-yoshinobori |   DOI:  10.1007/s10228-017-0577-4 

    The endemic lentic goby of Lake Biwa in Japan, which has hitherto been designated informally as Rhinogobius sp. BW, is formally described as Rhinogobius biwaensis sp. nov. It is distinguished from other members of the genus by the following combination of characters: vertebral count 26 (rarely 27); pectoral fin rays 18–22 (mostly 20–21); longitudinal scales 31–36 (mostly 31–34, mode 32); predorsal scales absent or few; D1 low with non-filamentous spines, all of almost same length except for shorter 1st and 6th (last) spines in both sexes; pelvic fin disk composed of thin membranes, its frenum undeveloped with a low, thin lamella; cheek unmarked; back and sides of body with 5–6 unclear dark saddles and 6–9 dark blotches; D1 lacking blotches but melanized to greater or lesser degree along rays; dorsal edge of pectoral base with one small, dark spot tinged with blue metallic luster; in breeding males, yellow on suboperculum and branchiostegal region and on basal part of anal fin, blue on medial part of under jaw.

    Keywords: Rhinogobius biwaensis, Gobiidae, Lake Biwa, Japan

    Fig. 1 Lateral views of  Rhinogobius biwaensis sp. nov. 
    a holotype, LBM 1210013432, male, 33.0 mm SL; b paratype, OMNH-P 23927, male, 36.0 mm SL; c paratype, OMNH-P 23932, female, 25.6 mm SL (b and c are photographed by T. Suzuki) 

    Distribution. Rhinogobius biwaensis sp. nov. is endemic to Lake Biwa, Shiga Prefecture, Japan, being found in the lake proper mainly at depths of 10 to 30 m, rarely in the mouths or lowest reaches of inflowing rivers, and in lagoons connected to Lake Biwa; from May to August, they migrate to shallow water for spawning; all the habitats are effectively lentic. Rhinogobius biwaensis specimens have been found in some other regions of western Japan (Suzuki et al. 2010; Mukai et al. 2015). It is thought that they originated from individuals introduced artificially and accidentally from Lake Biwa, because their mtDNA haplotypes do not show geographical variation and are same or very close to the haplotypes of R. biwaensis from Lake Biwa (Mukai et al. 2015).

    Sachiko Takahashi and Toshio Okazaki. 2017. Rhinogobius biwaensis, A New Gobiid Fish of the “yoshinobori” Species Complex, Rhinogobius spp., endemic to Lake Biwa, Japan. Ichthyological Research.  DOI:  10.1007/s10228-017-0577-4

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    Billolivia middletonii  N.S. 


    Billolivia middletonii, a new species from Cà Ðam Mountains, Quảng Ngãi Province, Central Vietnam, is described and illustrated. A morphological description, a colour plate, the distribution, ecological information, the conservation status, and notes to species of Billlolivia in Vietnam are given.

    Keywords: Annamite range, Billolivia middletonii, Quảng Ngãi Province, Taxonomy, Vietnam, Eudicots

    Billolivia middletonii.   Lower part of the stem showing axillary inflorescence. 

    Billolivia middletonii N.S. Lý, sp. nov. 

    Similar to B. kyi in the long pubescent petioles, the shape of the lamina, and the 5-lobed ovate calyx almost divided to base, but differing in the glabrous stems (vs. densely pubescent), the lamina being glabrous adaxially (vs. sparsely pubescent adaxially), much longer bracts, 25–52 mm long (vs. shorter, up to 15 mm long), the oblong-obovate corolla lobes with violet lines (vs. orbicular, dark to redpurple), the white corolla throats having two yellow patches at base of lower lip, with violet lines (vs. dark red with a yellow patch), the longer and pale greenish filaments, 8–10 mm long (vs. white with long red patch, 5–6 mm long), fruit 20–25 mm long, ovoid to oblong-ovoid (vs. 14–16 mm long, ellipsoid).

     TYPE:—VIETNAM. Quảng Ngãi Province, Tây Trà District, ... Cà Ðam Mountains, Bà Noong stream, 1009 elev., 25 September 2016, Lý Ngọc Sâm, Lý-817 (holotype VNM!, isotypes P!, VNM!). 

    Etymology:— The specific epithet of the new species is named in honour of Dr David J. Middleton of the Singapore Botanic Gardens for his continuing contribution to our understanding of the Gesneriaceae in Asia, including as the first author on the paper in which the genus Billolivia was first described.

    Ngọc-Sâm Lý. 2017. A New Species of Billolivia (Gesneriaceae) from Central Vietnam.
     Phytotaxa. 291(1); ; 89-93.  DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.291.1.9

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    Hyperolius ruvuensis 
    Barratt, Lawson & Loader, 2017 


     Amphibians are in decline globally due to increasing anthropogenic changes, and many species are at risk of extinction even before they are formally recognised. The Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa is a hotspot of amphibian diversity but is threatened by recent land use changes. Based on specimens collected in 2001 we identify a new species from the coastal forests of Tanzania. The new species belongs to the spiny-throated reed frog complex that comprises a number of morphologically similar species with highly fragmented populations across the Eastern Afromontane Region, an adjacent biodiversity hotspot comprising of numerous isolated montane forests. The new species is the first coastal forest member of this otherwise montane clade. We formally describe this species, assess its distribution and conservation threat, and provide a revised key to species of the spiny throated reed frog complex. We highlight the most important characters distinguishing the new species from the other similar reed frog species. Recent surveys at the type locality and also more broadly across the region failed to find this new species. The conservation threat of this species is critical as the only known locality (Ruvu South Forest Reserve) is currently subjected to devastating land use changes.

    Key words: Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa, conservation, habitat destruction, Hyperolius ruvuensis sp. n., Hyperolius spinigularis, Tanzania Ruvu South Forest Reserve

    Fig. 3. Dorsal (A) and ventral (B) views of the holotype of Hyperolius ruvuensis sp. n. BMNH 2002.410.
    Scale bar = 1 cm. 

    Hyperolius ruvuensis sp. n. Barratt, Lawson and Loader 
    Ruvu Spiny Reed Frog

    Etymology.— The species is named after Ruvu South Forest Reserve where the specimens were collected and is the current extent of the species occurrence.

      Christopher D. Barratt, Lucinda P. Lawson, Gabriela B. Bittencourt-Silva, Nike Doggart, Theron Morgan-Brown, Peter Nagel and Simon P. Loader. 2017. A New, Narrowly Distributed, and Critically Endangered Species of Spiny-throated Reed Frog (Anura: Hyperoliidae) from A Highly Threatened Coastal Forest Reserve in Tanzania. Herpetological Journal.  27; 13-24.

    Newly discovered Tanzanian frog already facing extinction via @mongabay

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    Animals play an important role in the seed dispersal of many plants. It is increasingly recognized, however, that the actions of a single disperser rarely determine a seed's fate and final location; rather, multiple abiotic or animal dispersal vectors are involved. Some carnivores act as secondary dispersers by preying on primary seed dispersers or seed predators, inadvertently consuming seeds contained in their prey's digestive tracts and later depositing viable seeds, a process known as diploendozoochory. Carnivores occupy an array of ecological niches and thus range broadly on the landscape. Consequently, secondary seed dispersal by carnivores could have important consequences for plant dispersal outcomes, with implications for ecosystem functioning under a changing climate and across disturbed landscapes where dispersal may be otherwise limited. For example, trophic downgrading through the loss of carnivores may reduce or eliminate diploendozoochory and thus compromise population connectivity for lower trophic levels. We review the literature on diploendozoochory and conclude that the ecological impact of a secondary vs. primary seed disperser depends on the relative dispersal distances, germination success, and the proportion of seeds exposed to secondary dispersal by carnivores. None of the studies up to present day have been able to rigorously assess the ecological significance of this process. We provide a framework of the components that determine the significance of diploendozoochory across systems and identify the components that must be addressed in future studies attempting to assess the ecological importance of diploendozoochory.


    Several authors have suggested that polychory is likely a much more common phenomenon than has been previously assumed (Ozinga et al. 2004, Vander Wall and Longland 2004) and can be more beneficial for the dispersing plant than single-phase dispersal (Vander Wall and Longland 2004). While these studies have largely concentrated on abiotic vectors and short-distance, second-phase dispersal by invertebrates and scatter-hoarding rodents, the impact of carnivores may be similarly important, particularly in discontinuous habitats. Secondary dispersal by carnivores is by no means exclusive of the types of diplochory defined by Vander Wall and Longland (2004); rather, it is very likely that further seed transport by ants, dung beetles, or scatter-hoarding rodents often occurs after seeds are deposited by the secondary disperser.

    Our framework provides guidelines for future research, with predictions that should aid in targeting systems that are likely to be most affected by carnivore involvement in seed dispersal. In addition to disrupting heavy seed predation pressure, carnivores that intercept large proportions of a plant population's seeds and significantly alter the germination or recruitment success of seeds relative to the primary disperser will most likely be an important ecological force for the plant species and, possibly, the community structure. Another important role for far-ranging secondary dispersers may involve long-distance dispersal or gene flow between remote populations or habitat fragments. While carnivore effects will likely be small in most systems, such circumstances may indeed result in secondary seed dispersers significantly influencing plant range shifts, dispersal success, fitness, and potentially species viability.

    It is currently unknown how important the phenomenon is ecologically, but given its potentially vast prevalence and the possible implications, it is possible that ignoring it could impair the interpretation of broad ecological patterns or hinder conservation efforts. Considering diploendozoochory as a part of the dispersal mechanism of plants can potentially improve modeling outcomes for range shifts due to climate change, or help explain current plant distributions, as historical effects of carnivores (or other large-bodied animals; Pakeman 2001) may have influenced plant movement rates. Where the secondary disperser facilitates different dispersal processes than are accomplished by other means of dispersal, carnivore involvement may have important consequences for the spread of invasive plant species, as well as the ability of plants to adapt to habitat loss and changing climatic conditions. Where such relationships exist, the extinction or decline of involved species can affect multiple trophic levels and disrupt ecosystem functions.

    Anni Hämäläinen, Kate Broadley, Amanda Droghini, Jessica A. Haines, Clayton T. Lamb, Stan Boutin and Sophie Gilbert. 2017. The Ecological Significance of Secondary Seed Dispersal by Carnivores.  Ecosphere. 8(2)   DOI:   10.1002/ecs2.1685 

    Research shows secondary seed dispersal by predator animals is important for recolonization of plants via @physorg_com

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    Ceriporia albomellea  Yuan Yuan, Jia J. Chen & X.H. Ji

    FIGURE 1. A fresh basidiome of Ceriporia albomellea (Dai 15223). Scale bar = 3 cm.


    A new polypore, Ceriporia albomellea, collected from tropical China, is described and illustrated based on morphological characteristics and molecular evidence. It is characterized by thin, resupinate basidiome with a white subiculum, cottony margin, white to cinnamon-buff pores, clavate cystidia and oblong-ellipsoid basidiospores measured as 3.1–3.8 × 1.7–2 µm. Phylogenetic analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and nuclear large subunit (nLSU) ribosomal RNA gene regions supported C. albomellea as a distinctive species belonging to Ceriporia.

    Keywords: Polypore, phylogeny, taxonomy, wood-inhabiting fungi, China

    Ceriporia albomellea Yuan Yuan, Jia J. Chen & X.H. Ji, sp. nov.
     MycoBank: MB 817518 

    Diagnosis.— Differs from other Ceriporia species by thin, resupinate basidiome with a white subiculum, cottony margin, white to cinnamon-buff pores, clavate cystidia and oblong-ellipsoid basidiospores measured as 3.1–3.8 × 1.7–2 μm. 

    Type.— CHINA. Hainan Prov.: Qiongzhong County, Limushan Nat. Res., on rotten angiosperm wood, 30 May 2015, Dai 15205 (holotype in BJFC!).

    Etymology.— Albomellea (Lat.) refers to the white to cinnamon-buff pore surface. 

    Yuan Yuan, Xiao-Hong Ji, Fang Wu and Jia-Jia Chen. 2017. Ceriporia albomellea (Phanerochaetaceae, Basidiomycota), A New Species from Tropical China based on Morphological and Molecular Evidences.
     Phytotaxa.  298(1); 20–28. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.298.1.2

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    Gyiophis salweenensis
    Quah, Grismer, Wood, Thura, Zin, Kyaw, Lwin, Grismer & Murdoch, 2017
    Salween River Basin Mud Snake  |   DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4238.4.5  


    A newly discovered species of homalopsid snake from the genus Gyiophis Murphy & Voris is described from the lowlands of Mawlamyine District in Mon state, southeastern Myanmar. Gyiophis salweenensis sp. nov. is presumed to be closely related to G. maculosaBlanford and G. vorisi Murphy based on the similarities in pholidosis and patterning but can be separated from G. maculosa by the shape of its first three dorsal scale rows that are square, ventral scale pattern that lacks a central spot, and a faint stripe on dorsal scale rows 1–4. It can be further distinguished from G. vorisi by its lower number of ventral scales (129 vs. 142–152), lower number of subcaudals (30/29 vs. 41–58), narrow rostral scale, and having more rows of spots on the dorsum (four vs. three). A preliminary molecular analysis using 1050 base pairs of cytochrome b (cytb) recovered G. salweenensis sp. nov. as the sister species to the Chinese Mud Snake (Myrrophis chinensis). G. maculosa and G. vorisi were unavailable for the analysis. The discovery of G.salweenensis sp. nov. highlights the need for more surveys into the herpetological diversity of eastern Myanmar which remains very much underestimated.

    Keywords: Reptilia, phylogeny, Enhydris, homalopsid, conservation, endemic biodiversity, Burma

     Holotype of Gyiophis salweenensis sp. nov. in life.
    Photograph by Evan Quah. 

    Etymology. The specific epithet salweenensis is in reference to area where the holotype was found which is close to the vicinity of the Salween River near the city of Mawlamyine. The suffix ensis is a Latin derivation meaning “from” or “inhabiting.” It renders the specific epithet an adjective that must be in grammatical accord with the gender of Gyiophis.

    Distribution:  Gyiophis salweenensis sp. nov. is only known from the type locality near Sanpel Cave, Mon State, Myanmar. It is expected to be wider ranging throughout the Salween River Basin and found wherever appropriate habitat occurs. 

    Natural history: The holotype was found at approximately 1930 hours crossing a narrow dirt road between flooded fields that we presume to be its natural habitat. The weather was overcast and it rained later that night. Many other species of homalopsids are semiaquatic and commonly found in streams, rivers, ponds, and flooded rice fields (Murphy 2007a; Stuebing et al. 2014). Gyiophis salweenensis sp. nov. is expected to share a similar life history and the valvular nostrils located dorsally on the snout indicate this species probably spends a large part of its life in the water. Homalopsid snakes such as Enhydris enhydris, Homalopsis buccata (Linnaeus, 1758) and Hypsiscopus plumbea have been observed crawling on land and crossing roads during wet weather (Voris & Karns 1996; Lim & D’Rozario 2009; EQSH personal obs.) and the holotype of G. salweenensis sp. nov. could have been dispersing to a new area as well. The holotype also had a puncture wound on its back which might have come from an encounter with a predator such as a heron.

    Quah, Evan S. H., L. L. Grismer, P. L. Wood, Jr., Myint K. Thura, Thaw Zin, Htet Kyaw, Ngwe Lwin, Marta S. Grismer & M. L. Murdoch. 2017. A New Species of Mud Snake (Serpentes, Homalopsidae, GyiophisMurphy & Voris, 2014) from Myanmar with A First Molecular Phylogenetic Assessment of the Genus. Zootaxa. 4238(4): 571–582.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4238.4.5

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    Treadwellphysa veracruzensis 
    (de León-González & Díaz-Castañeda, 2006)  

    Treadwellphysa n. gen. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4241.1.1 


    Nine species of Marphysa from the Grand Caribbean Region are recognized and described based on the type and non-type specimens. One species is formally described as new: M. emiliae n. sp., and one is re-established as a valid species: M. fragilis Treadwell, 1911. The diagnosis of Nicidion Kinberg, 1865 is restricted based on novel features of the maxillary apparatus. Nicidion angeli (Carrera-Parra & Salazar-Vallejo, 1998) is redescribed, and two species that previously belonged to Marphysa, are transferred to NicidionN. longula (Ehlers, 1887) n. comb. and N. obtusa (Verrill, 1900) n. comb.A new genus Treadwellphysa n. gen. is proposed to include those species having a newly described type of chaetae named spinifalcigers (exhibiting a mixture of falciger and spiniger blades), the base of maxillae II with a small elevation, and the ventral cirri with swollen base as transverse welt with short digitiform tip. Treadwellphysa n. gen. includes a new species, Treadwellphysa yucatanensis n. sp. and three other species previously included in Marphysa: T. amadae (Fauchald, 1977) n. comb., T. languida (Treadwell, 1921) n. comb., and T. veracruzensis (de León-González & Díaz-Castañeda, 2006) n. comb. Some morphological features are evaluated to clarify their variability with respect to specimen size. A key to Eunicidae genera, and keys to species of Marphysa and Treadwellphysa n. gen. from the Grand Caribbean region are given.

    Keywords: Myriapoda, re-established species, new species, pectinate chaeta, Treadwellphysa, spinifalciger

    Isabel C. Molina-Acevedo and Luis F. Carrera-Parra. 2017. Revision of Marphysa de Quatrefages, 1865 and some species of Nicidion Kinberg, 1865 with the Erection of A New Genus (Polychaeta: Eunicidae) from the Grand Caribbean. Zootaxa.   4241(1); 1-62. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4241.1.1

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    Pristimantis attenboroughi  
    Lehr & von May, 2017 

    We describe a new species of Pristimantis from upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands of the Pui Pui Protected Forest and its close surroundings, Región Junín, central Peru. The description of the new species is based on 34 specimens found at elevations between 3400 and 3936 m a.s.l. Pristimantis attenboroughi sp. n. is characterized by a snout–vent length of 14.6–19.2 mm in adult males (n = 21), 19.2–23.0 mm in adult females (n = 10), and is compared morphologically and genetically with other taxonomically and biogeographically relevant species of Pristimantis. The new species is characterized by having narrow digits that lack circumferential grooves, irregularly shaped, discontinuous dorsolateral folds, and absence of both tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus. The high similarity in morphology between P. attenboroughi sp. n. and members of the Andean genera Phrynopus and Bryophryne provides an example for convergent evolution, and highlights the importance of using molecular data to justify generic assignment. Pristimantis attenboroughi sp. n. is most similar to Phrynopus chaparroi from the Región Junín, suggesting that the generic placement of this species needs to be revised. Phylogenetically the new species belongs to the Pristimantis danae species Group, a clade that includes several Pristimantis species distributed in the montane forests of central Peru, including P. albertus, P. aniptopalmatus, P. ornatus, and P. stictogaster.

    Keywords: Andes, DNA barcoding, frogs, molecular phylogeny, montane forest, Pristimantis attenboroughi new species, Puna

    Pristimantis attenboroughi sp. n.

    English: Attenborough’s Rubber Frog. 
    Spanish: Rana cutín Attenborough.

    Figure 3. Life male holotype (MUSM 31196, SVL 18.9 mm) of Pristimantis attenboroughi sp. n.
    in dorsolateral view (A), dorsal view (B), flanks, groin, anterior surfaces of thighs (C), posterior surfaces of thighs (D), and ventral view (E).
    Photos by E. Lehr. 

    Etymology: We dedicate this species to Sir David Frederick Attenborough in honor for his educational documentaries on wildlife, especially on amphibians (e.g., Life in Cold Blood, Fabulous Frogs), and for raising awareness about the importance of wildlife conservation. The specific epithet is used as noun in apposition.

    Distribution, natural history, and conservation status: Pristimantis attenboroughi is known from six localities inside the PPPF (Puna of Quebrada Tarhuish at Laguna Udrecocha, Fig. 8A; upper montane forest of Quebrada Tarhuish on the left bank “Shiusha” of Antuyo River; Antuyo; Antuyo Bajo; Hatunpata, and Trancapampa, Figs 8B, 9) and from two outside the PPPF (upper part of Quebrada Tasta close to Laguna Luichococha; in Polylepis forest of first mountain peak next to trail from Tasta to Tarhuish), and is distributed at elevations between 3400 and 3936 m a.s.l., Fig. 9. The type locality (Figs 8A, 9), upper part of Quebrada Tarhuish, on the east side of Laguna Udrecocha at 3936 m a.s.l., belongs to the Puna ecoregion (Brack 1986). The vegetation consists of Peruvian feather grass (Stipaichu), mosses, and small bushes. The holotype was found inside moss in the afternoon on 17 May 2012. No sympatric anurans were found at the type locality. At the upper montane forest of Quebrada Tarhuish on the left bank “Shiusha” of Antuyo River, P. attenboroughi was found deep inside large moss layers. Sympatric anurans are Gastrotheca griswoldi (MUSM 31193), Pristimantis sp. n. C (MUSM 31190–92), Pristimantis sp. n. D (MUSM 31197–98), and Phrynopus sp. n. A (MUSM 31203).


     Edgar Lehr and Rudolf von May. 2017. A New Species of Terrestrial-breeding Frog (Amphibia, Craugastoridae, Pristimantis) from High Elevations of the Pui Pui Protected Forest in central Peru. ZooKeys. 660: 17-42. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.660.11394

    New frog from the Peruvian Andes is the first amphibian named after Sir David Attenborough
    New frog from the Peruvian Andes is the first amphibian named after Sir David Attenborough via @physorg_com
    New Species! Tiny Frog and Fungus Gnat Get Celebrity Names via  @LiveScience

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