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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region

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    Simothraulopsis diamantinensis Mariano, 2010


    In the present paper, based on specimens from different regions of Brazil, we review the current knowledge of the Neotropical genus Simothraulopsis. A phylogenetic study was performed in order to address the relationships between all species and to test the monophyly of Simothraulopsis. For this purpose, 48 characters related to the external morphology of adults and nymphs were investigated. As a result, four new species are described; Simothraulopsis caliginosus sp. nov., S. dominguezi sp. nov., S. eurybasis sp. nov., S. inaequalis sp. nov. New taxonomic and biological information are added to this genus. Nymphs of S. diamantinensis Mariano, 2010 and S. janaeMariano, 2010 are described for the first time and several new distributional records for Brazil are provided. Additionally, keys for male imagos and nymphs of the genus are proposed. The phylogenetic analysis corroborated the monophyly of Simothraulopsis, however, the division in two subgenera as previously proposed was not recovered in our reconstruction.

    Keywords: Ephemeroptera, aquatic insects, mayflies, cladistic, Neotropical region, identification keys

    Jeane M. C. Do Nascimento,Frederico F. Salles and Neusa Hamada. 2017. Systematics of Simothraulopsis Demoulin, 1966 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae).
      Zootaxa. 4285(1); 1–81. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4285.1.1 

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    Monoon vietnamensis N.S. Lý

    Monoon vietnamensis N.S. Lý, a new species of Annonaceae, is described and illustrated from Mount Dầu, Quảng Ngãi Province, central Vietnam. It is morphologically similar to M. bornensis and M. anomalum, but differs by much larger and oblongelliptic to obovate-elliptic leaves, with 12–14(16) pairs of nerves and a cuneate leaf base; much longer and narrowly ovate to linear ovate petals, with sparsely scattered short hairs outside; inner petals slightly longer than the outer petals; and much longer fruiting pedicels. A key to the species of Monoon in Vietnam is provided.

    Fig-1. Monoon vietnamensis (from the holotype).
    A: Plant In natural habit. — B: Inflorescences on main trunk. — C: Infructescences on main trunk. — D: Twig. — E: Detail of cymes on woody tubercles. — F: Inflorescence close to base of trunk. — G: Top view of flower. — H: Side view of flower. — I: Old branch with mature leaves. — J: Lower view of sepals. — K, and K2: Top and side views of stamens and carpels. — L: Side view of torus showing sepals, stamens and carpels. — M: Top view of carpels, torus after anthesis. — N: Petals: N1 -outer, N2-inner. — O: Close-up of carpels (alcohol materials). — P: Close-up of stamens (alcohol materials). — Q: Detail of infructes- cence. — R: Fruit (longitudinal-section). — S. Seed (longitudinal-section).
     Scale bars: 10 mm for J, Kv K2, Land M; 1 mm for O and P; 1 cm for R and S. 

    Ngọc-Sâm Lý. 2017. Monoon vietnamensis (Annonaceae), A New Species from Central Vietnam. Annales Botanici Fennici. 54(1-3); 153–158. DOI: 10.5735/085.054.0324

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    Seidenfadeniella salimii  J.Mathew, T.K.Hride, V.B.Sreek. & K.Madhus.

    An epiphytic orchid species, Seidenfadeniella salimii, is described as a new taxon from Kerala, part of South Western Ghats, India.

    Keywords:Seidenfadeniella, Orchidaceae, Kerala, new species, South Western Ghats

    Figure 2. Seidenfadeniella salimii. (A–C) Inflorescence. (D) Leaves. (E) Fruits. A–E. Type locality, 24 December 2011, photographed by PM Salim Pichan, 0404.

    Seidenfadeniella salimii J.Mathew, T.K.Hride, V.B.Sreek. & K.Madhus. sp. nov. 

    Etymology: The species is named in honour of environmentalist Mr P.M. Salim, MS. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Kalpatta, Wayanad, Kerala, India, who first collected specimens of this species, and also for his contribution to plant taxonomy.

    Jose Mathew, T.K. Hrideek, V.B. Sreekumar and K. Madhusudhanan. 2017. Seidenfadeniella salimii (Orchidaceae): A New Plant Species from South Western Ghats, India. Webbia: Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Geography. 71(1); 69-71. DOI:  10.1080/00837792.2016.1158410

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    Amphidraus zaque Galvis, 2017


    The Andean region of Northern South America is widely recognized as a hotspot with extreme levels of diversity, endemism, and threat. In a taxonomic study on jumping spiders from Colombia, nineteen new species of Amphidraus Simon, 1900 were found, all of which with small-scale endemic distributional patterns. Sixteen of these new species are described from the Andean region, eight of which being restricted to the Cundiboyacense high-Andean plateau (A. bochica sp. nov., A. guatavita sp. nov., A. mae sp. nov., A. pae sp. nov., A. sie sp. nov., A. sotairensis sp. nov., A. tisquesusa sp. nov. and A. tundama sp. nov.), in the Boyacá and Cundinamarca departments. The eight remaining Andean species are distributed out of this high-Andean plateau, in the Eastern Mountain Range of Boyacá (A. chie sp. nov., A. somondoco sp. nov. and A. sua sp. nov.), Cundinamarca (A. quinini sp. nov. and A. zaque sp. nov.), Huila (A. guaitipan sp. nov.) and Santander (A. zipa sp. nov.) departments, and in the Central Mountain Range of Risaralda department (A. quimbaya sp. nov.). Additionally, A. sikuani sp. nov. is described from the Eastern department of Meta, andA. colombianus sp. nov. andA. tanimuca sp. nov. from the Amazonian department of Vaupés. Finally, a map with these new records is included, along with a short comment about conservation of biota in the Andean region.

    Keywords: Araneae, Cundiboyacense high-Andean plateau, endemism, hotspot, jumping spiders

    Amphidraus zaque sp. nov.,  male holotype (ICN–Ar 3378) 

    William Galvis. 2017. Nineteen New Species of Amphidraus Simon, 1900 (Salticidae: Euophryini) from Colombia, with Comments About their Conservation.
     Zootaxa. 4286(1); 1-40. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4286.1.1

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    Europatitan eastwoodi
    Fernández-Baldor​, Canudo​, Pedro Huerta​, Moreno-Azanza​ & Montero​, 2017

    .  DOI: 10.7717/peerj.3409 


    The sauropod of El Oterillo II is a specimen that was excavated from the Castrillo de la Reina Formation (Burgos, Spain), late Barremian–early Aptian, in the 2000s but initially remained undescribed. A tooth and elements of the axial skeleton, and the scapular and pelvic girdle, represent it. It is one of the most complete titanosauriform sauropods from the Early Cretaceous of Europe and presents an opportunity to deepen our understanding of the radiation of this clade in the Early Cretaceous and study the paleobiogeographical relationships of Iberia with Gondwana and with other parts of Laurasia. The late Barremian–early Aptian is the time interval in the Cretaceous with the greatest diversity of sauropod taxa described in Iberia: two titanosauriforms, Tastavinsaurus and Europatitan; and a rebbachisaurid, DemandasaurusThe new sauropod Europatitan eastwoodi n. gen. n. sp. presents a series of autapomorphic characters in the presacral vertebrae and scapula that distinguish it from the other sauropods of the Early Cretaceous of Iberia. Our phylogenetic study locates Europatitan as the basalmost member of the Somphospondyli, clearly differentiated from other clades such as Brachiosauridae and Titanosauria, and distantly related to the contemporaneous Tastavinsaurus. Europatitan could be a representative of a Eurogondwanan fauna like Demandasaurus, the other sauropod described from the Castrillo de la Reina Formation. The presence of a sauropod fauna with marked Gondwananan affinities in the Aptian of Iberia reinforces the idea of faunal exchanges between this continental masses during the Early Cretaceous. Further specimens and more detailed analysis are needed to elucidate if this Aptian fauna is caused by the presence of previously unnoticed Aptian land bridges, or it represents a relict fauna from an earlier dispersal event.

    Figure 10: First caudal vertebra (MDS-OTII,2) ofEuropatitan eastwoodi n. gen. n. sp.
    (A) Anterior view. (B) Right lateral view. (C) Posterior view. (D) Dorsal view. (E) Ventral view.

     ACDL, anterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; POSZG, postzygapophyses; PRDL, prezygodiapophyseal lamina; PRZG, prezygapophyses; SPOL, spinopostzygapophyseal lamina; SPRL, spinoprezygapophyseal lamina. Scale: 10 cm.

    Figure 2: Quarry map of the partial skeleton of Europatitan eastwoodi n. gen. n. sp. from the late Barremian–early Aptian, Early Cretaceous, of El Oterillo II site, Spain.
    The arrow indicates an iguanodontoid ilium (Contreras et al., 2007). Circular symbols correspond to splinters, and triangles to isolated teeth of theropods.

    Order SAURISCHIA Seeley, 1887
    Infraorder SAUROPODA Marsh, 1878
    NEOSAUROPODA Bonaparte, 1986

    Titanosauriformes Salgado, Coria & Calvo, 1997
    Somphospondyli Wilson & Sereno, 1998

    Genus Europatitan gen. nov. 

    Etymology: In reference to Europe, the continent where it was found, and the titans, ancient Greek deities known for their gigantic size, endowed with great power.

    Type Species: Europatitan eastwoodi sp. nov. 

    Etymology: Dedicated to US actor Clint Eastwood, the protagonist of the film “The Good, the Bad and the Ugly,” which was partially filmed near Salas de los Infantes.

    Type Locality and Horizon: The site of El Oterillo II is located in the province of Burgos in northern Spain, 2.5 km to the west of the village of Barbadillo del Mercado in Salas de los Infantes (Fig. 1), Burgos Province, Spain; Urbión Group, Castrillo de la Reina Fm., lower Cretaceous, regarded as late Barremian–early Aptian in age (Martín-Closas & Alonso Millán, 1998).

    Holotype: MDS-OTII,1 to MDS-OTII-32. The disarticulated carcass of a single specimen consisting of the following material: one tooth, five cervical vertebrae, one dorsal vertebra, nine caudal vertebrae, 11 cervical ribs, five dorsal ribs, seven hemal arches, the two scapulae, the left coracoid, the left metacarpals I and III, the two pubes, and the two ischia.

    Fidel Torcida Fernández-Baldor​, José Ignacio Canudo​, Pedro Huerta​, Miguel Moreno-Azanza​ and Diego Montero​. 2017. Europatitan eastwoodi, A New Sauropod from the lower Cretaceous of Iberia in the Initial Radiation of Somphospondylans in Laurasia.  
     PeerJ. 5:e3409.  DOI: 10.7717/peerj.3409

    El Europatitan eastwoodi, un nuevo saurópodo hallado en la Sierra de La Demanda... via @burgosconecta  @gabi_iglesia  


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      Eutrema giganteum G.Q. Hao, Al-Shehbaz & J. Quan Liu 

    Eutrema giganteum (Brassicaceae), a new species from Hengduan Mountains in Sichuan Province, southwest China, is described, and its relationships to the closely related E. yunnanense is discussed based on morphological, cytological, and molecular data. It is similar morphologically to E. yunnanense but is readily distinguished by having robust (vs. slender), erect (vs. decumbent), and branched (vs. mostly simple), and rather tall stems (60–110 cm vs. 20–60 cm); curved (vs. straight), smooth (vs. torulose), and shorter fruit (5–8 mm vs. 8–15 mm); and fewer ovules per ovary (1–4 vs. 6–10). All examined individuals from different populations of E. giganteum clustered into a single clade sister to E. yunnanense in phylogenetic analyses using the combined nuclear ITS and plastid DNA datasets. Our cytological studies revealed that the chromosome number of E. giganteum is 2n = 44, with a genome size of 1160 (±8) Mb, while that of E. yunnanense is 2n = 28, with a genome size of 718 (±15) Mb. Multiple lines of evidence support the recognition of E. giganteum as a distinct species well differentiated from E. yunnanense.

    Keywords: Brassicaceae, Cruciferae, Eutrema giganteum, new species, Eutrema yunnanense, molecular phylogeny

    Figure 1. Eutrema giganteum G.Q. Hao, Al-Shehbaz & J. Quan Liu. sp. nov.
    AB Habit C Leaves D Inflorescence E Flowers F Fruit.

    Eutrema giganteum G.Q. Hao, Al-Shehbaz & J. Quan Liu, sp. nov.

    Etymology: The specific epithet refers to the remarkably huge plant size. The erect stem can extend to around 60–110 (–140) cm, higher than all the other Eutrema species.

    Distribution and habitat: Eutrema giganteum is currently known from Hengduan Mountains in western Sichuan, China, including Xiling Snow Mountain, Jiajin Mountain, Erlang Mountain, and Gongga Mountain (Fig. 2). It grows in shady, humid forests at elevation of 2200–2900 m.

     Guoqian Hao, Changbing Zhang, Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, Xinyi Guo, Hao Bi, Junyin Wang and Jianquan Liu. 2017.  Eutrema giganteum (Brassicaceae), A New Species from Sichuan, southwest China. PhytoKeys. 82: 15-26.  DOI:  10.3897/phytokeys.82.12329

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    Ciglianacris submontana
     Cadena-Castañeda & Cardona-Granda, 2017 


    A new genus and species of neotropical melanoplines living in the submontane forests of the Colombian Andes is hereby described. This genus is closely related to the genera of the genus group Scotussae and the Andean genera Bogotacris and Chibchacris, distributed in the paramo ecosystems of Colombia and Venezuela.

    Keywords: Orthoptera, Dichroplini, Scotussae, Bogotacris, Chibchacris, phallic complex, submontane forest, Colombia

    Oscar J. Cadena-Castañeda and Juan Manuel Cardona-Granda. 2017. Studies in Colombian Caelifera and Adjacent Territories: Ciglianacris, A New Genus of Andean Melanoplinae (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Zootaxa. 4286(2); 267–276. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4286.2.9

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    Coronodon havensteini  
    Geisler, Boessenecker, Brown & Beatty, 2017

    Illustration: A. Gennari DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.06.003 

    • A new species of 30 million year old whale has been found near Charleston, South Carolina
    • This new species is a relative of modern baleen-bearing whales but retains teeth
    • Its molars are large, multi-cusped, and overlapping and were used for filter feeding
    • Filter feeding evolved before baleen; early whales had teeth and baleen

    As the largest known vertebrates of all time, mysticetes depend on keratinous sieves called baleen to capture enough small prey to sustain their enormous size. The origins of baleen are controversial: one hypothesis suggests that teeth were lost during a suction-feeding stage of mysticete evolution and that baleen evolved thereafter, whereas another suggests that baleen evolved before teeth were lost. Here we report a new species of toothed mysticete, Coronodon havensteini, from the Oligocene of South Carolina that is transitional between raptorial archaeocete whales and modern mysticetes. Although the morphology and wear on its anterior teeth indicate that it captured large prey, its broad, imbricated, multi-cusped lower molars frame narrow slots that were likely used for filter feeding. Coronodon havensteini is a basal, if not the most basal, mysticete, and our analysis suggests that it is representative of an initial stage of mysticete evolution in which teeth were functional analogs to baleen. In later lineages, the diastema between teeth increased—in some cases, markedly so—and may mark a stage at which the balance of the oral fissure shifted from mostly teeth to mostly baleen. When placed in a phylogenetic context, our new taxon indicates that filter feeding was preceded by raptorial feeding and that suction feeding evolved separately within a clade removed from modern baleen whales.

    Keywords: Mysticeti; filter feeding; baleen; oligocene; South Carolina; toothed mysticete

    Order Cetacea 
     Suborder Mysticeti 

    Coronodon havensteini gen. et sp. nov.

    Holotype: CCNHM 108. Nearly complete, 1.0-m-long skull, mandibles, 14 vertebrae, and partial ribs (Figures 1, 2, and 3; Figures S1–S3; Tables S1 and S2).

    Etymology: Coronodon havensteini. Genus is Greek for “crown tooth,” referring to the multi-cusped molars. The species name recognizes Mark Havenstein, who discovered the holotype.

    Locality and Age: Wando River near Highway 41 Bridge, South Carolina, Berkeley County. Ashley Formation, Oligocene, uppermost Rupelian. 

    Diagnosis: Coronodon has the following mysticete synapomorphies: supraoccipital level with temporal fossa (character 25: state 1), broad basioccipital crests (39: 2), all cusps of posterior teeth subequal (99: 1), upturned antorbital process of maxilla (100: 1), and splayed basal cusps on posterior teeth (206: 1). Like some archaeocetes, its rostrum is twisted counterclockwise in anterior view (Figure 3). Coronodon havensteini is unique in having anterior lower molars labially overlapping posterior lower molars.  ....

    In this reconstruction, the two main whales in the center are Coronodon havensteini, the lower two in the background are Echovenator sandersi), and the birds in the sky are Pelagornis sandersi (false toothed birds with a wingspan near 6.5 m).
    Illustration: Alberto Gennari  

    Jonathan H. Geisler, Robert W. Boessenecker, Mace Brown and Brian L. Beatty. 2017. The Origin of Filter Feeding in Whales. Current Biology. In Press. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.06.003

    Ancient South Carolina whale yields secrets to filter feeding's origins via @physorg_com

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    Zorotypus asymmetricus Kocarek, 2017

    A new species of Zoraptera from Borneo is described and figured. Zorotypus asymmetricus sp. nov. was discovered in lowland mixed dipterocarp forest in Ulu Temburong, Brunei Darussalam. The species represents the third known species occurring on Borneo and it can be easily distinguished from others by the asymmetrical cerci: the right cercus is strongly enlarged and curved.

    Keywords: Zoraptypus, Zoraptera, Zorotypidae, new species, Borneo, Indomalayan region

    Zorotypus asymmetricus sp. nov. 
    1, male habitus of living specimen; 17, living apterous male; 18, rotting logs in Sungai Esu stream valley where Z.asymmetricus sp. nov. was collected.

    Diagnosis. The new species is similar to Zorotypus sinensisHwang, 1974, Z. medoensis Hwang 1976, Z. impolitusMashimo, Engel, Dallai, Beutel & Machida 2013 and Z. weiwei (Hwang 1974, 1976; Mashimo 2013; Wang et al. 2016), but it can be easily distinguished from them by the asymmetrical cerci, with the right cercus noticeably enlarged and sickle-shaped (Figs. 9–11), the species-specific shape of the male genitalia (Fig. 13), and the presence of 7‒8 stout, long spines on the ventral surface of metafemur. The body is typically matte dark brown with the exception of pale yellowish gray tibiae and tarsi on all legs and antennomeres VI‒IX.

    Etymology. The name refers to the asymmetrical cerci and asymmetrical abdominal sternite S9 in males.

     Distribution and occupied habitat. Zorotypus asymmetricus sp. nov. was collected under the bark of rotting logs in shade in the valley of Sungai Esu stream (Fig. 18). The species is currently known only from Ulu Temburong National Park in Brunei Darussalam, but we expect its occurrence in similar habitats throughout Borneo.

     Petr Kočárek, Rodzay A. Wahab and Siti R. A. Kahar. 2017. Zorotypus asymmetricus sp. nov. from Brunei Darussalam, Borneo (Insecta: Zoraptera).
     Zootaxa. 4286(2);  285–290. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4286.2.11

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    Vietnamocasia N.S. Lý, S.Y. Wong & P.C. Boyce
    Vietnamocasia dauae N.S. Lý, T. Haevermans, Y.S. Wong & D.V. Nguyen


    Vietnamocasia, a new monotypic aroid genus in the Alocasia-Colocasia clade, is described with the type species, Vietnamocasia dauaeVietnamocasia is distinguished by possessing free individual staminate flowers, lacking expanded synconnectives, and having nodding inflorescences. Vegetatively Vietnamocasia is reminiscent of species of the distantly closely related Alocasia Cuprea Group, although Vietnamocasia is so far only known from the type locality in Central Vietnam, over 1200 km NE from the nearest representative of the Alocasia Cuprea Group. The phylogenetic analyses of Vietnamocasia dauae together with representative taxa from all genera of the Alocasia-Colocasia clade recovered Vietnamocasia as a strongly supported clade sister to Alocasia, together nested in a clade to which Leucocasia is a sister taxon. Vietnamocasia dauae is illustrated from living plants and with a line drawing. A key to all genera of Alocasia-Colocasia clade is included.

    Keywords: Endemics, Indochina, Malesia, phylogeny, Vietnamocasia dauae, Monocots

    Figure 3. Vietnamocasia dauae. A. Habit; B. Leaf blades: adaxially and abaxially with their closed-up of the leaf bases (from left); C. Inflorescence (front view); D. Cataphyll, spathe (back view), and spadix (from left); E. Close-up of pistillate (E1), sterile interstice (E2) and staminate zones showing free individual staminate flowers (a red arrow, E3); F. Closed-up of appendix; G. pistillate zone after anthesis with lower spathe; H. Fruit spathe (back and front views); I. Longitudinal section of fruit spathe and infructescences (from left).

    Vietnamocasia N.S.Lý, S.Y.Wong & P.C.Boyce, gen. nov. 
    Type: Vietnamocasia dauae N.S.Lý, S. Y. Wong, T.Haevermans & D.V.Nguyen, sp. nov.

     Etymology:— Vietnamocasia is compounded from the Greek classical name kolokasia, itself from an old Middle Eastern name qolqas (Nicolson 1987) and the root of Alocasia and Leucocasia (and the more distantly related Colocasia) + Vietnam. 

    Distribution:— Vietnamocasia is so far known only from the type locality and its vicinity. 

    Ecology:— At Mount Dầu Vietnamocasia dauae grows in moist shady understory of hillsides in secondary broadleaved forest dominated by dipterocarps at 150–490 m elevation. At the other known locality, Cà Đam, it occurs in primary evergreen broad-leaf forest at about 790 m elevation.

    Vietnamocasia dauae N. S. Lý, T. Haevermans, Y. S. Wong & D. V. Nguyen, sp. nov. 

    Etymology:— The specific epithet is for Mount Dầu, the type locality, treated as feminine.  

    Lý Ngọc-Sâm, Wong Sin Yeng, Thomas Haevermans, Nguyễn Văn Dư and PETER C. Boyce. 2017. Vietnamocasia, A New Genus from Central Vietnam belonging to the Alocasia-Colocasia clade (Araceae). Phytotaxa. 303(3);  253–263.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.303.3.5

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    Dry-forest Sabrewing | Campylopterus calcirupicola 
    Lopes, de Vasconcelos & Gonzaga, 2017

    FIGURE 7. The newly described Campylopterus calcirupicola from eastern Brazilian tropical dry forests.  
    watercolor painting by Walter Gam ||  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4268.1.1 


    A new species of Campylopterus sabrewing is described from eastern Brazilian tropical dry forests occurring below 900 m asl. Its holotype (MZUSP 99024) is an adult female from Sítio Duboca (16°43’19’’S, 43°58’20’’W, elevation 840 m), municipality of Montes Claros, state of Minas Gerais. A taxonomic revision based on more than 1,000 museum specimens revealed that the new taxon, together with C. largipennis, C. diamantinensis and C. obscurus(with C. aequatorialis considered as a subjective junior synonym) should be ranked as species. We provide a key to permit easy identification of the four species. The new species is very similar to the parapatric C. diamantinensis of high altitude “campos rupestres” above 1,000 m asl, differing from it by its smaller size and longer light tail tips, as well as by sternum measurements. Given the several threats faced by the habitat to which the new species is endemic, we propose to consider it as Vulnerable under the IUCN criteria.

    Keywords: cryptic biodiversity, Neotropical, Trochilidae, tropical dry forests, Aves

      A young male of Campylopterus calcirupicola captured on 18 July 2006 in the Fazenda Corredor (880 m asl), municipality of Bocaiúva, Minas Gerais, Brazil (DZUFMG 5005). Photographs by LEL. 

    Campylopterus calcirupicola sp. nov. Dry-forest Sabrewing (English)
    Asa-de-sabre-da-mata-seca (Portuguese)

    Etymology. The name calcirupicola is Latin, composed by “calx”, calcis, limestone; “rupes”, steep rocks; and “cola”, dwelling (Eggli & Newton 2004). It refers to the habitat of this new hummingbird, which inhabits dry forests growing on limestone outcrops. This specific name matches that for the cactus Cereus calcirupicola F. Ritter, found in the type locality and in the same habitat (Ritter 1979) of the new hummingbird. The vernacular names we propose also refer to the habitat used by the new species.

    Geographic distribution. Campylopterus calcirupicola has been recorded from Divinópolis de Goiás (northeastern state of Goiás) and Coribe (southwestern state of Bahia) to Bocaiúva (northern state of Minas Gerais) on both banks of the São Francisco River, as well as in the Paranã River valley, an important tributary of the Tocantins River, west of the Serra Geral (Figures 9 and 10). The altitudinal range of this new species is between 460–880 m asl. The range of C. calcirupicola probably extends to southeastern Tocantins (Dornas et al. 2014) and the southern part of the state of Piauí (Santos 2004), from where there are sight records of C. largipennis. We believe that the specimen of C. largipennis from “Posse, Goiás” cited by Silva (1990) as housed in the MNRJ refers to the specimen from “Galheiros” housed in the same institution and mentioned by Ruschi (1951), probably representing a toponymic mistake committed by Silva (1990).

     Leonardo E. Lopes, Marcelo F. De Vasconcelos and Luiz P. Gonzaga. 2017. A Cryptic New Species of Hummingbird of the Campylopterus largipennis complex (Aves: Trochilidae). Zootaxa. 4268(1); 1–33.   DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4268.1.1

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    Eusaurosphargis dalsassoi Nosotti & Rieppel, 2003

    Illustration: Beat Scheffold

    Recently it was suggested that the phylogenetic clustering of Mesozoic marine reptile lineages, such as thalattosaurs, the very successful fish-shaped ichthyosaurs and sauropterygians (including plesiosaurs), among others, in a so-called ‘superclade’ is an artefact linked to convergent evolution of morphological characters associated with a shared marine lifestyle. Accordingly, partial ‘un-scoring’ of the problematic phylogenetic characters was proposed. Here we report a new, exceptionally preserved and mostly articulated juvenile skeleton of the diapsid reptile, Eusaurosphargis dalsassoi, a species previously recovered within the marine reptile ‘superclade’, for which we now provide a revised diagnosis. Using micro-computed tomography, we show that besides having a deep skull with a short and broad rostrum, the most outstanding feature of the new specimen is extensive, complex body armour, mostly preserved in situ, along its vertebrae, ribs, and forelimbs, as well as a row of flat, keeled ventrolateral osteoderms associated with the gastralia. As a whole, the anatomical features support an essentially terrestrial lifestyle of the animal. A review of the proposed partial character ‘un-scoring’ using three published data matrices indicate that this approach is flawed and should be avoided, and that within the marine reptile ‘superclade’ E. dalsassoi potentially is the sister taxon of Sauropterygia.

    A life reconstruction of Eusaurosphargis dalsassoi based on new specimen PIMUZ A/III 4380.
    Illustration: Beat Scheffold. 

    Figure 2:Eusaurosphargis dalsassoi (PIMUZ A/III 4380) in ventral view. (a) Photograph. (b) Interpretative drawing of skeleton. Abbreviations used in the figure are chevron (ch), gastralia (g), and lateral osteoderm (lo). 

    Systematic Palaeontology

    Diapsida Osborn, 190321.
    Eusaurosphargis dalsassoi Nosotti and Rieppel, 2003.

    Holotype: BES SC 390 (Palaeontological Collection of the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, Italy), an associated but disarticulated specimen from the Besano Formation (242 Ma, Anisian-Ladinian, Middle Triassic) of Besano, Lombardy, Italy.

    Referred specimen: PIMUZ A/III 4380, an almost completely articulated skeleton preserved in ventral view (Fig. 2a).

    Stratigraphy and locality: Upper Prosanto Formation (bed no. 1; fossil found on bottom side of a limestone slab); 241 Ma, early Ladinian, Middle Triassic of Ducanfurgga locality no. 4, south of Davos, Canton Grisons (Graubünden), south-eastern Switzerland.


    Torsten M. Scheyer, James M. Neenan, Timea Bodogan, Heinz Furrer, Christian Obrist and Mathieu Plamondon. 2017. A New, Exceptionally Preserved Juvenile Specimen of Eusaurosphargis dalsassoi (Diapsida) and Implications for Mesozoic Marine Diapsid Phylogeny.
     Scientific Reports. 7, 4406.  DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-04514-x

    Rare, exceptionally preserved fossil reveals lifestyle of ancient armor-plated reptile   @physorg_com
    Davoser Saurier zeigt erstmals seine bizarre Schuppenpanzerung

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    Coelogyne putaoensis
    X.H. Jin, L.A. Ye & Schuit. 

    Coelogyne putaoensis, a new species of section Ocellatae from Putao, Kachin State, Myanmar, is described and illustrated. It is morphologically similar to C. taronensis and C. weixiensis, presumably its nearest relatives. An identification key and colour photographs are provided. A preliminary risk-of-extinction assessment according to the IUCN Red List categories and criteria is given for the new species.

    Keywords: Arethuseae, Kachin, key, montane forest, section Ocellatae, taxonomy

    Figure 1. Coelogyne putaoensis X.H. Jin, L.A. Ye & Schuit.
    A Inflorescence B Dorsal sepal C Lateral sepals D Petal E Lip F Lateral view of column.
    Illustration by Yunxi Zhu. 

    Figure 3. Close-up of flower of Coelogyne putaoensis, showing the white papillae on the two lateral lamellae.
    Photo by X.H. Jin. 

    Coelogyne putaoensis X.H. Jin, L.A. Ye & Schuit., sp. nov.
    Diagnosis: Coelogyne putaoensis is similar to C. taronensis and C. weixiensis, but can be distinguished by its solid yellowish brown sepals and petals, a brown lip with bright yellow markings, three keels extending from the base of the lip onto the mid-lobe, and lateral keels adorned with papillae.
    Type: MYANMAR. Kachin State: Putao Township, Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, subtropical, evergreen, broad-leaved, montane forest, 2500–3100 m, epiphytic on tree trunks or lithophytic on rocks, 14 June 2016, Xiaohua Jin et al, PT-2116 (Holotype, PE!).

    Figure 2. Habit of Coelogyne putaoensis. Photo by X.H. Jin. 

    Etymology: The new species is named after Putao, the northernmost town of Myanmar near which it was discovered in a vast area of unspoiled mountain forest.

    Distribution and habitat: Coelogyne putaoensis is a predominantly epiphytic species that grows on moss-covered branches and tree trunks, sometimes also on rocks, in humid, broad-leaved, evergreen, montane forest, from 2500 to 3100 m elevation. At present, C. putaoensis is only known from the type locality.

     Ye Lwin Aung, Xiaohua Jin and André Schuiteman. 2017. Coelogyne putaoensis (Orchidaceae), A New Species from Myanmar. PhytoKeys. 82: 27-34. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.82.13172


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    Fig. 2. Remains of the Ban Saphan Hin crocodyliform from the Khok Kruat Formation,
    Ban Saphan Hin, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand.
    A, B, C, Photographs and interpretive drawings of the caudal end of left lower jaw, NRRU4001-33, in lateral (A), dorsal (B), and medial (C) views; D, E, F, Photographs of the fragmentary rostral symphyseal of the right mandible, NRRU4001-29, in medial (D), dorsal (E), and lateral (F) views with the interpretive drawing of dorsal view; G, H, I, J, Photographs of the fragmentary right mandible, NRRU4001-35, in medial (G), dorsal (H), and lateral (I) views with the interpretive drawing of dorsal view and the close up of tooth crown attached to NRRU4001-35 (J); K, L, Photographs of the left postorbital and the anterior end of left squamosal, NRRU4001-36, in the lateral view with the interpretive drawing (K) and the dorsal view (L); M, Photograph of the dorsal view of the osteoderm NRRU4001-19, the white dotted line shows its middle ridge. In interpretive drawings, outlines and sutures were drawn by lines thicker than lines for ridges, shelves and pits and repaired areas were shown by horizontal stripes.

     Scale bars of J, K and L equal 1 cm, all other scale bars equal 5 cm. Abbreviations: ae, anterior edge; an, angular; ar, articular; c, concavity that receives a maxillary tooth; de, dentary; dpa, descending process of articular; fio, foramina for the passage of the nervus intermandibularis oralis; gf, glenoid fossa; lf?, possible lingual foramen; po, postorbital; pof, postorbital foramen; rap, retroarticular process; sa, surangular; sp, splenial; sq, squamosal; tc, isolated tooth crown. 

    We describe remains of a new crocodyliform found from the Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) Khok Kruat Formation, northeastern Thailand. Remains consist of two caudal ends of mandibles, two rostral symphyseal parts of right rami of mandibles, a dorsal part of postorbital, a cranial end of squamosal and one osteoderm. Phylogenetic analyses supported inclusion of this crocodyliform into the Eusuchia as it shares several morphological characters with other eusuchians, such as a dorsocaudally oriented retroarticular process, smooth lateral surface of the caudoventral region of mandible, and a craniocaudally oriented ridge on the dorsal surface of retroarticular process. The shape of symphyseal region showed this crocodyliform had a longirostrine snout shape, which is uncommon in early eusuchians. Finding of this crocodyliform draws back the oldest record of Asian eusuchians, which was Tadzhikosuchus, approximately 30 million years and it is the only Mesozoic eusuchian found in East and Southeast Asia.

    Keywords: Khok Kruat Formation; Aptian; Eusuchia; Thailand; Asia

    Systematic paleontology
    MESOEUCROCODYLIA Whetstone and Whybrow, 1983
    NEOSUCHIA Clark, 1986
    EUSUCHIA Huxley, 1875
    gen et sp. indet.

     Morphological comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed the Ban Saphan Hin crocodyliform is a member of Eusuchia. But due to its fragmentary nature its phylogenetic position within Eusuchia is currently uncertain. The Ban Saphan Hin crocodyliform indicates longirostrine snout shape evolved during the early stage of eusuchian, which is probably independent from that of gavialoids. Moreover it draws back the oldest record of Asian eusuchians from the Santonian, Tadzhikosuchus found from Tadzhikistan, to the Aptian, approximately 30 million years ( Storrs and Efimov, 2000), and it is the only Mesozoic eusuchian found in East and Southeast Asia. This situation reflects the patchy fossil record of Mesozoic crocodyliform in these areas. The Late Cretaceous crocodyliforms of East Asia were reported only from Mongolia (Storrs and Efimov, 2000; Turner, 2015). Further sampling effort is required to reveal the complex evolutionary history of Asian Mesozoic neosuchians.

    Tai Kubo, Masateru Shibata, Wilailuck Naksri, Pratueng Jintasakul and Yoichi Azuma. 2017. The Earliest Record of Asian Eusuchia from the Lower Cretaceous Khok Kruat Formation of northeastern Thailand. Cretaceous Research. In Press. DOI: 10.1016/j.cretres.2017.05.021

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    Arquatopotamon jizushanense
     Chu, Zhou & Sun, 2017


    A new genus Arquatopotamon gen. n. of the family Potamidae Ortmann, 1896, is established and a new species, Arquatopotamon jizushanense sp. n. from Yunnan Province, China is described. The new genus is established based on the distinctive distal part of the male first gonopod, with arched-shaped subterminal and terminal segments (in mesioventral view) and female gonopores (vulvae) on thoracic sternites 5/6 and a combination of characters including the carapace and male telson, while it is similar to the five known genera in Yunnan Province and adjacent area, Tenuipotamon Dai, 1990Pararanguna Dai & Chen, 1985Trichopotamon Dai & Chen, 1985Potamiscus Alcock, 1909 and Aparapotamon Dai & Chen, 1985, in having a third maxilliped exopod without a flagellum. Present molecular data based on a barcoding marker of 16S rDNA provide strong support for the genus as being new.

    Keywords: Crustacea, new genus, new species, taxonomy

    Coloration in life of male Arquatopotamon jizushanense gen. n., sp. n. 

    Family Potamidae Ortmann, 1896 

    Arquatopotamon gen. n.
    Type species.Arquatopotamon jizushanensesp. n., by monotypy. 

    Etymology. The genus name is derived from the Latin arquatus for “arched”, which describes the arched male first gonopod of the type species for the genus. Potamon is the type genus of the family Potamidae. Gender neuter.

    Arquatopotamon jizushanense sp. n. 

    Distribution and habitat. Arquatopotamon jizushanense gen. n., sp. n. was found under stones in small hill streams in ...village, Jizushan Town, Binchuan County, Dali City in Yunnan Province, China; at an altitude of 1778 m. No other potamids were observed at the type locality. 

    Live coloration. Carapace is usually dark brown, whereas chelipeds and ambulatory legs are reddish brown to purple in life. 

    Etymology. Arquatopotamon jizushanense gen. n., sp. n. is named after the type locality, Jizushan Town in Yunnan Province, China.

    Kelin Chu, Lijun Zhou and Hongying Sun. 2017.  A New Genus and New Species of Freshwater Crab (Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae Ortmann, 1896) from Yunnan Province, China. Zootaxa. 4286(2);241–253. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4286.2.7

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     Rhynchocypris deogyuensis
    Lee& Sim, 2017 

    A new species of deogyu fat-minnow, Rhynchocypris deogyuensis, is described from the Geum River in Korea. This species is distinguished from Rhynchocypris kumgangensis by the following characteristics: shorter interorbital width; shorter eye diameter; longer caudal peduncle depth; number of scales above lateral line; and black transverse bar on the first unbranched ray in dorsal fin. The lower band of yellowish longitudinal two bands on lateral body is interrupted and unsharpened. Numerous silverly white spots are on blackish dorso-lateral body. Analyses of 1,141 bp length of mitochondrial Cyt b gene proved that, R. deogyuensis is clearly distinguished from R. kumgangensis in that the former showed a high level (94 bootstrap) of reliability.

    Key words: New species, Rhynchocypris deogyuensis, Fat-minnow, Cyprinidae, Geum River

    Figure 1. Rhynchocypris deogyuensis sp. nov. Holotype from the Geum River, Muju, Korea. NPRI 148, male, 68.9 mm SL. Scale bar=10 mm.

    Figure 2. Nuptial coloration, A; Rhynchocypris deogyuensis, 68.9 mm, SL, male, collected April 25, 2013, from the Muju. B; R.kumgangensis, 68.2 mm, SL, male, collected April 16, 2013, from the Pyeongchang. Scale bar=10 mm. 

    Etymology. The name deogyuensis, distributed in Deogyusan National Park, refers to the geographical occurrence of the species in Korea.

    Seung-Rok Lee and Jae-Hwan Sim. 2017. A New Species of Deogyu Fat-minnow, Rhynchocypris deogyuensis (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from Korea.  Journal of National Park Research. 8(1); 1-7.

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    plumage patterns of some taxa of the Pyrrhura picta-leucotis complex.

    Introduction: The relationships within the Pyrrhura species complex are partly unresolved. In this study, a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Pyrrhura picta-leucotis complex was carried out, covering all species except P. subandina.

    Material and Methods: We made a morphological analysis of 745 preserved specimens of all the taxa in different museums. Nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome gene were generated and used to reconstruct a molecular phylogeny of Pyrrhura.

     Results and Discussion: Our results show that the complex is divided into 6 main groups comprising 15 species. P. dilutissima, regarded up to now as a subspecies of Pperuviana, acquires species status and three new subspecies are described. We also provide evidence that P. roseifrons is a paraphyletic group, indicating the existence of probably 3 lineages of which 2 deserve species status.

    Fig. 4. Overview of the plumage patterns of all taxa of the Pyrrhura picta-leucotis complex.

     Thomas Arndt and Michael Wink. 2017. Molecular Systematics, Taxonomy and Distribution of the Pyrrhura picta–leucotis Complex. The Open Ornithology Journal. 10; 53-91.
    DOI: 10.2174/1874453201710010053  

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    Eekaulostomus cuevasae 
    Cantalice & Alvarado-Ortega,  2016

    Eekaulostomus cuevasae gen. and sp. nov. is described and identified here as a new member of the superfamily Aulostomoidea. The single specimen known of this species is part of a newly fossil assemblage collected in the marine sediments belonging to the early Paleocene Tenejapa-Lacandón geological unit, exploited in the Belisario Domínguez quarry, near Palenque town, State of Chiapas, southeastern Mexico. E. cuevasae represents the oldest aulostomoid as far known and the first fossil species of this superfamily collected in America. E. cuevasae differs from other aulostomoids in the presence of two spines preceding the soft rays of both dorsal and anal fins; the star-like scales covering the entire body and part of the snout; as well as the relative large number of principal rays in the caudal fin. The recognition of E. cuevasae as the stem group of Aulostomoidea increases the temporal and geographic distribution of this superfamily up to Danian and within the Caribbean region, when a large part of Chiapas was under the sea after the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction event. This finding also provides evidences suggesting the membership of Aulostomoidea within the order Gasterosteiformes, in which the scutes covering the trunk and the robust spines in unpaired fins are recurrent features.

      Keywords: new species; Aulostomoidea; fossil; Paleocene; Chiapas; Mexico

    Figure 2: Holotype. IGM 4716, almost complete specimen exposing the right lateral side of the body.  

    Systematic Paleontology
    Superfamily AULOSTOMOIDEAsensu Greenwood et al., 1966
    Family EEKAULOSTOMIDAE fam. nov.
    Genus EEKAULOSTOMUSgen. nov.
    Type species. Eekaulostomus cuevasae sp. nov.,  

    Derivation of name. The genus name includes the Mayan word “Eek” (= star), the Greek word "aulos" (= αὐλός, that is the name of an ancient flute), and the Latin word "stoma" (= mouth). The name refers to a "fish with a star-like scutes and flute-shaped mouth."
    Eekaulostomus cuevasae sp. nov.
    Derivation of name. The specific epithet of this fish honors our colleague, Martha Cuevas García, whose dedication and newly passion for the fossils led us to find the only specimen of Eekaulostomus cuevasae.

    Occurrence. Paleocene (Danian, ≈ 63Ma) marine strata of the Tenejapa-Lacandón geological unit. Belisario Domínguez quarry, Salto de Agua Municipality, State of Chiapas, southeastern Mexico (Alvarado-Ortega et al., 2015).

    Diagnosis. Aulostomoidea fish with rigid star-like scutes covering the whole trunk and part of the snout; pelvic fin placed anteriorly, just behind the postcleithrum; two spines in front of the soft rays of dorsal and anal fins; eight soft rays in both anal and dorsal fins; caudal fin formula iv+I+7—5+I+iii.
    Fossils referring to the superfamily Aulostomoidea had been collected more than 200 years ago in Eocene and younger marine deposits along Europe. Although the extant aulostomoids form part of large modern cladistics essays, some are based on morphological evidences and others on molecular data; unfortunately, the fossil aulostomoids have never been phylogenetically studied. This situation has prevented the generation of a robust classification of the aulostomoids, and at the same time, has fueled the differences and contradictions between the phylogenetic hypotheses already published. It is so, that it is desirable to make these European fossils part of future cladistic studies; however, first we have to fulfill the task of re-describing them accurately using modern and homogeneous criteria. Only up to the present day, the distribution of fossil aulostomoids was restricted to Europe. Although this fact has not interested paleontologists outside of Europe to further collaborate in studies concerning the diversity evolution of aulostomoids; the goal of this paper is to provide the first tangible evidence that in the past, this fish group was also an inhabitant of the American seas.

    From now on, we must take more seriously the paleontological surveys on late Cretaceous and early Paleocene sites with marine sediments present throughout the tropical region of America. As present study shows, fossils may exist that allow us to delve into the details of the evolution of the fishes on both sides of Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction event. Sadly, during the joint INAH-UNAM project, from which this article was drawn, no other fossil aulostomoid was recovered; however, the collection effort applied in Belisario Domínguez (where Eekaulostomus cuevasae gen. and sp. nov. came) as well as in its coeval and neighbor quarry, División del Norte, both with Danian marine sediments, really is far from reaching saturation.

    The re-examination of the relationships of the Aulostomoidea executed here, using datasets previously generated by other authors and including Eekaulostomus cuevasae gen. and sp. nov., might not be the best way to achieve the desired understanding on the evolutionary processes of these fishes; however, this exercise significantly contributes to this goal. On the one side, the undeniable position of this new species as a primitive aulostomoid member, together with its deep morphological differences with other extinct and living taxa formally, or putatively, included in such superfamily, trace possible trends in morphological changes experienced by these fishes since the Paleocene to the present. This essay also widens the geographical scenario where the evolution of these fishes took place, extending from Europe to the tropical region of America.

      Cantalice, Kleyton Magno and Alvarado-Ortega, Jesús. 2016. Eekaulostomus cuevasae gen. and sp. nov., An Ancient Armored Trumpetfish (Aulostomoidea) from Danian (Paleocene) Marine Deposits of Belisario Domínguez, Chiapas, southeastern Mexico. Palaeontologia Electronica. 19.3.53A: 1-24

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    Thorichthys panchovillai 
    Moral-Flores, López-Segovia & Hernández-Arellano, 2017

    Thorichthys panchovillai, new species, is described, from distinctive of the tributaries of the River Coatzacoalcos basin, Mexico. The new species is diagnosed by a set of characters: dorsal fin rays XVI, 8 – 9; anal fin rays VII, 6 – 7; pectoral fin rays, I, 11 – 12; total gill-rakers on the first branchial cleft 11 – 12; subopercular stain present although weakly intensified, it exposes a notable sexual dimorphism that distinguishes it from others: the female possess a black blotch between the fifth and sixth dorsal spine.

    Keywords: Cichliformes; Ichthyology; Neotropics; Systematic; Taxonomy; freshwater; new species.

    Figura 1. Thorichthys panchovillai, A) Holotipo, CIFI-501, 79.79 mm SL, macho adulto y en estado reproductivo (ejemplar fijado); B) Paratipo, CIFI-502, 47.83 mm SL, hembra adulta y en estado reproductivo (fotografía in situ).  
    Figure 1. 
    Thorichthys panchovillai, A) Holotype, CIFI-501, 79.79 mm SL, adult male in reproductive state (fixed specimen); B) Paratype, CIFI-502, 47.83 mm SL, female adult i reproductive state (in situ photograph).
    Figure 2. Thorichthys panchovillai, A) non-type specimen, CIFI-510, 36.22 mm SL, juvenile male captured in Poblado 14, Río Uxpanapa, Veracruz; B) Paratype, CPUM 9588, 41.12 mm SL, juvenile male captured in the Almoloya River, El Ajal; C) Paratype, CPUM 9588, 38.99 mm SL, female captured in Río Almoloya, El Ajal (photographs in situ). 

    Luis Fernando Del Moral-Flores, Eduardo López-Segovia and Tao Hernández-Arellano. 2017. Description of Thorichthys panchovillai sp. n., A New Species of Cichlid (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae) from the River Coatzacoalcos Basin, Mexico [Descripción de Thorichthys panchovillai sp. n., una nueva especie de cíclido (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae) de la cuenca del Río Coatzacoalcos, México]. Revista Peruana de Biología. 24(1); 3 - 10.  DOI: 10.15381/rpb.v24i1.13104

    Resumen: Thorichthys panchovillai, nueva especie, es descrita de los tributarios de la cuenca del Río Coatzacoalcos, México. La especie es diagnosticada por un conjunto de caracteres: radios de la aleta dorsal XVI, 8 – 9; radios de la aleta anal VII, 6 – 7; radios de la aleta pectoral, I, 11 – 12; branquiespinas totales en el primer arco branquial 11 – 12; mancha del subopérculo presente pero débilmente intensificada, en especial presenta un marcado dimorfismo sexual único y que le distingue del resto de sus congéneres: en la hembra se presenta una mancha negra entre la quinta y sexta espina dorsal.

    Palabras clave: Cichliformes; ictiología; Neotrópico; sistemática; taxonomía; agua dulce; nueva especie.


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    Impatiens chikuensis Kiew
    Impatiens foxworthyi M.R.Hend

    Peninsular Malaysian Impatiens foxworthyi M.R.Hend. is distinct from the Thai I. opinata Craib. Three new Impatiens species are described: Impatiens glaricola Kiew with purple flowers, Impatiens chikuensis Kiew with pale yellow flowers, and Impatiens vinosa Kiew with deep red flowers. While Impatiens foxworthyi is widespread on karst limestone in Kelantan and Pahang, the three new species are narrowly endemic to Kelantan limestone and are critically endangered.

    Keywords. Balsams, conservation assessments, Peninsular Malaysia


    1. Impatiens chikuensis Kiew, sp. nov.
    Etymology. Named for the only locality from where it is known, viz. FELDA Chiku limestone

    2. Impatiens foxworthyi M.R.Hend., Gard. Bull. Straits Settlem. 4: 50 (1927); Henderson, J. Malayan Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 17: 38 (1939); Henderson, Malayan Nat. J. 3: 35 (1948). – TYPE: Peninsular Malaysia, Pahang, Gua [Goa] Kechapi, February 1924 Md. Nur (with Foxworthy) SFN11912 (holotype SING). (Fig. 4)

     Impatiens opinata auct. non Craib: Shimizu, S.E. Asian Stud. 8(2): 216 (1970); Chin, Gard. Bull. Singapore 32: 96 (1979); Kiew, Malayan Naturalist 38(3): 33 (1985); Kiew in Henderson’s Malaysian Wild Fl. Dicot. 173 (2014).

    Etymology. F.W. Foxworthy (1877–1950), American forester and the first forest research officer (1918–1932) in Malaya.

    3. Impatiens glaricola Kiew, sp. nov.
    Etymology. Latin, glara = scree -icola = dwelling, from its habitat.

    4. Impatiens vinosa Kiew, sp. nov.
    Etymology. Latin, vinosa = wine-red, referring to the flower colour.

    R. Kiew. 2016. Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) Species from Karst Limestone in Kelantan, Malaysia, including Three New Species. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore. 68(2); 225–238. DOI:  10.3850/S2382581216000181

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