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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region

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    Gymnopilus swaticus J. Khan, Sher & Khalid
     Basidiomes in natural habitat. A‒B. Holotype collection, C. SWAT000134, D. LAH35300.


    Two Gymnopilus species are described and illustrated from northern parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. Gymnopilus swaticus is described as new to science based on morphological characters and data from nITS and nLSU. Gymnopilus penetrans is a new record for Pakistani mycobiota.

    Keywords: agaricoid fungi, DNA sequences, molecular phylogeny, Swat district, taxonomy, Fungi

    FIGURE 3. Basidiomes in natural habitat.
    A‒D. Gymnopilus swaticus, A‒B. Holotype collection, C. SWAT000134, D. LAH35300.
     E‒F. Gymopilus penetrans, E. LAH35271, F. LAH35131. Photos by Junaid Khan. 

    Gymnopilus swaticus J. Khan, Sher & Khalid sp. nov. 
    Diagnosis:— growth on Piceae smithiana, fruiting body 40‒70 mm across, pileus velutinous to slightly tomentose, subdistant to close and sinuate to emarginate lamellae, ellipsoid to amygdaliform basidiospores measuring 8.6–10.0 × 4.5–5.6 µm.

     Type:—PAKISTAN. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Swat district, Gabin Jabba valley Lalkoo, in decomposing cavities of Picea smithiana, 2483 m a.s.l., 31 August 2015, Junaid Khan GJ-1518 (Holotype SWAT000133!).

    Etymology:—the specific epithet “swaticus” refers to the district of collection, Swat.

    Habitat:— in small scattered groups, in decomposing cavities of standing trees of Picea smithiana.

    Junaid Khan, Munazza Kiran, Sana Jabeen, Hassan Sher and Abdul Nasir Khalid. 2017. Gymnopilus penetrans and G. swaticus sp. nov. (Agaricomycota: Hymenogastraceae); A New Record and A New Species from northwest Pakistan.
     Phytotaxa. 312(1); 60–70.   DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.312.1.4

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    Thismia sahyadrica  Sujanapal, Robi & Dantas

    Thismia, a genus of mycoheterotrophic plants, is reported for the first time from mainland India, from Neryamangalam forests in Idukki district of Kerala, along with a new species, T. sahyadricaThismia sahyadrica, described and illustrated here, is unique within Thismia in having a mitre with a single opening; five perianth lobes are fused into a mitre-like structure, while the sixth one is free, forming a lateral single opening of the flower. Due to its unique morphological characteristics, the taxonomic placement of the new species remains obscure, although some root and flower characters suggest an affinity with species from the sections GlaziocharisSarcosiphonGeomitra, and Scaphiophora. Ecological specificity and phytogeographical peculiarities of the new species are also discussed.

    Keywords: Kerala; Thismia; Western Ghats; mycoheterotrophy

    Fig. 2 Thismia sahyadrica Sujanapal, Robi & Dantas.
     a. Habitat; b– c. habit; d. young flowers; e. plants with flowers; f. flowers enlarged with pedicel and bract.
     — Photos by A.J. Robi. 


    Thismia sahyadrica Sujanapal, Robi & Dantas, sp. nov. 

     Thismia sahyadrica differs from all other species of Thismia in having a mitre with a single opening; it is further characterized by a brownish hypanthium, greenish yellow perianth lobes, a yellow ovary, and two fused outer perianth lobes and spreading third one. 
    — Type:
    A.J. Robi & K.J. Dantas 28097 (holotype KFRI; isotypes CALI, K, L, MH), India, Kerala, Idukki dist., Neryamangalam, ± 500 m, 14 July 2014.

     Etymology. The specific epithet ‘sahyadrica’ refers to the Sahyadri HillsWestern Ghats, where the type locality of the species is located.

     P. Sujanapal, A.J. Robi, K.J. Dantas, M. Sumod and V.S.F.T. Merckx. 2017. Thismia (Thismiaceae): The First Record of the Mycoheterotrophic Genus to the Flora of India with A New Species Revealing the Phytogeographical Significance of Western Ghats.  Blumea - Biodiversity, Evolution and Biogeography of Plants. 62;  97–102.  DOI:  10.3767/blumea.2017.62.2.04

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    Bryophryne phuyhampatu  
     Catenazzi, Ttito, Diaz & Shepack, 2017 

    A new species of Bryophryne from the humid montane forest of the Department of Cusco, Peru, is described. Specimens were collected at 2795–2850 m a.s.l. in the Área de Conservación Privada Ukumari Llaqta, Quispillomayo valley, in the province of Paucartambo. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Bryophryne by having green coloration on dorsum, and blue flecks on flanks and ventral parts. Specimens are characterized by lacking a distinct tympanic annulus, tympanic membrane, and dentigerous processes of vomers, and by having dorsal skin shagreen, discontinuous dorsolateral folds, skin tuberculate on flanks, skin areolate on ventral surfaces of the body, and fingers and toes without lateral fringes or webbing. The new species has a snout–vent length of 14.2–16.9 mm in three males and 22.2–22.6 mm in two females, and is smaller than all other congeneric species except for B. abramalagae. Generic allocation is supported by low genetic distances of the 16S mitochondrial gene and morphological similarity with other species of Bryophryne, and geographic distribution. Bryophryne phuyuhampatu sp. n. is only known from the type locality, a cloud forest along the Quispillomayo River in the upper Nusiniscato watershed.

    Keywords: leaf litter amphibian, montane forest, Paucartambo, taxonomy

    Figure 2. Live (left column) and preserved (right column) specimen of the holotype ofBryophryne phuyuhampatu sp. n., male CORBIDI 18226 (SVL 16.9 mm) in dorsolateral A, B dorsal C, D and ventral E, F views. Photographs by A. Catenazzi. 

    Diagnosis: A new species of Bryophryne characterized by: (1) skin on dorsum shagreen; skin on venter areolate, discoidal fold absent, thoracic fold present; dorsolateral folds irregular and discontinuous; (2) tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus absent; (3) snout rounded in dorsal view and in profile; (4) upper eyelid with two small tubercles, narrower than IOD; cranial crests absent; (5) dentigerous process of vomers absent; (6) vocal sac and slits absent; nuptial pads absent; (7) Finger I much shorter than Finger II; tips of digits slightly pointed; (8) fingers lacking lateral fringes; (9) outer edge of forearm bearing small tubercles; (10) heel bearing minute tubercles; inner tarsal fold absent; outer edge of tarsus bearing small tubercles; (11) inner metatarsal tubercle prominent, ovoid, of similar relief and slightly larger than ovoid, outer metatarsal tubercle; supernumerary plantar tubercles indistinct; (12) toes lacking lateral fringes; webbing absent; toes III and V about equal in length; tips of digits slightly pointed; (13) in life, dorsum tan to green and brown with dark brown markings, greenish blue on lower flanks; some specimens with a yellow middorsal line extending from tip of snout to cloaca and to the posterior surface of thighs; interorbital bar present; chest, belly and ventral parts of forearms and legs dark brown with grayish blue flecks; throat brown with flecks turning from gray-blue to copper near tip of mouth; palmar and plantar surfaces brown with lighter fingers and toes; (14) SVL 14.2–16.9 in males (n = 3), 22.2–22.6 in females (n = 2).

    Figure 4. Dorsolateral and ventral views of four paratypes of Bryophryne phuyuhampatu sp. n. showing variation in dorsal and ventral coloration. Male CORBIDI 18225, SVL = 14.2 mm A, B Male MUBI 14655, SVL = 15.9 mm C, D Female CORBIDI 18224, SVL = 22.6 mm E, F. Female MUBI 14654, SVL = 22.2 mm G, H Photographs by A. Catenazzi. 

    Figure 5. Collection localities ofBryophryne phuyuhampatu sp. n. in the upper Quispillomayo River valley A lookout from 3050 m a.s.l.: frogs were found under mosses, leaves and rocks in the cloud forest along the Quispillomayo River B such as the type locality at 2850 m a.s.l. C and disturbed forest at the confluence with a stream at 2795 m a.s.l. D Photographs by A. Catenazzi. 

    Etymology: The specific name phuyuhampatu is a combination of Quechua words used in apposition meaning “toad” (“hampa'tu”) that lives in the “fog” (“phuyu”).

    Distribution, natural history, and threats: Bryophryne phuyuhampatu was discovered during a rapid amphibian survey in the upper Quispillomayo Valley (Fig. 5A) from 22 to 31 May 2016. The Quispillomayo torrent (Fig. 5B) is a tributary of the Nusiniscato River, which reaches the Araza River downstream of Quincemil, in the upper Madre de Dios drainage. During the inventory high-Andean grasslands (puna; 3350–4515 m a.s.l.), a forest patch of tasta (Escallonia myrtillioides), kishuar (Buddleja incana) and qeñua (Polylepis incana) at 4280 m a.s.l., montane scrub, disturbed areas and other transitional formations along the treeline around 3350 m a.s.l., and the montane cloud forest from 2780–3350 m a.s.l. were sampled. Frogs were searched for under rocks, logs, mosses, and in the leaf litter and the understory in the montane forest. All but one specimens of B. phuyuhampatu were found under mosses in the cloud forest around 2850 m a.s.l. (Fig. 5C). Male MUBI 14655 was found ~250 m from this site, under rocks and mosses under the riparian vegetation at the confluence of a small stream at 2795 m a.s.l. Two sympatric frogs, Gastrotheca cf. excubitor and Psychrophrynella chirihampatu, were found under rocks in disturbed habitats (i.e., along streams, landslides) but not in the cloud forest. Two additional amphibian species, Bryophryne sp. and B. cf. zonalis, were found along with G. cf. excubitor in the grasslands from 3100–3650 m a.s.l.

     Alessandro Catenazzi, Alex Ttito, M. Isabel Diaz and Alexander Shepack. 2017.
    Bryophryne phuyuhampatu sp. n., A New Species of Cusco Andes Frog from the Cloud Forest of the eastern Slopes of the Peruvian Andes (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae).  
     ZooKeys. 685; 65-81. DOI:  10.3897/zookeys.685.12152

    Resumen: Se describe una nueva especie de Bryophryne de los bosques nublados del Departamento de Cusco en Perú. Los especímenes fueron colectados a una elevación de 2795–2850 m en el Área de Conservación Privada Ukumari Llaqta, valle del río Quispillomayo, provincia de Paucartambo. La nueva especie se diferencia fácilmente de todas las demás especies de Bryophryne por tener coloración verde en la espalda y manchitas azuladas en los flancos y las superficies ventrales. Los especímenes se caracterizan por carecer de procesos vomerianos y de anillo y membrana timpánicos, y por poseer piel dorsal finamente granulada, pliegues dorsolaterales discontinuos, piel en los flancos verrugosa, y cubierta de verrugas en areola en las partes ventrales, y por carecer de membrana basal y quillas laterales en los dedos. La nueva especie tiene una longitud hocico–cloaca (LHC) de 14.2–16.9 mm en tres machos y de 22.2–22.6 mm en dos hembras, siendo menor que todas las demás especies de Bryophryne excepto por B. abramalagae. Distancias genéticas bajas para el gen mitocondrial 16S, similitud morfológica con otras especies de Bryophryne y distribución geográfica indican que la nueva especie forma parte del género Bryophryne. Bryophryne phuyuhampatu sp. n. se conoce únicamente de su localidad tipo, un bosque nublado en el valle del torrente Quispillomayo, en la parte alta de la cuenca del río Nusiniscato.

    Palabras clave: anfibio de hojarasca, Paucartambo, bosque nublado, taxonomía

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    Rungia sinothailandica Z. L. Lin &Y. F. Deng

    DOI: 10.1111/njb.01497  


    Rungia sinothailandica(Acanthaceae), a new species from Yunnan, China and Chiang Rai, Thailand is described and illustrated. A colour plate, line drawing and distribution map of R. sinothailandica are provided. Rungia sinothailandica is similar to R. pinpienensis H. S. Lo, but differs in the broadly ovate sterile bracts and obovate-elliptic fertile bracts, the crispate and tawny bracts margin, the 2-lobed upper lip of the corolla and puberulent capsule. It is also similar to R. burmanica (C. B. Clarke) B. Hansen, but is easily distinguished by pubescent stems and leaves, the cymbiform-oblong bracteoles and the 2-lobed upper lip of corolla.

    Figure 1. Rungia sinothailandica sp. nov.
    (A) habit, (B) inflorescences with flowers, (C) inflorescence, abaxial view showing the sterile bracts, (D) inflorescence, adaxial view showing the fertile bracts, (E) flower, (F) sterile bract, (G) fertile bract, (H) bracteoles, (I) calyx, (J) corolla.
    Photographed by Z.-L. Lin. 

    Rungia sinothailandica Z. L. Lin &Y. F. Deng sp. nov. 

    Etymology: The specific epithet sinothailandica , that is derived from ‘sino’ meaning ‘Chinese’ and ‘thailandica’ meaning ‘Thai’ , refers to that the new species was found in China and Thailand. 

    Zhe-Li Lin and Yun-Fei Deng. 2017. Rungia sinothailandica sp. nov. (Acanthaceae) from China and Thailand.  Nordic Journal of Botany.   DOI: 10.1111/njb.01497 

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    Argyresthia brockeella (Hübner, 1813)


    The Chinese fauna of Argyresthia Hübner, [1825] included by 14 described species prior to this study. In the present paper we describe 43 new species and record seven species new to China. We also recognized six known Chinese species based on the available specimens; eight species previously reported for the fauna, but without available specimens for examination, are systematically placed in their relevant positions. The total species number of Argyresthia in China is brought to 64. The new species include: A. (Blastotere) aureola, sp. nov., A. (B.) sporadolepis, sp. nov., A. (B.) cineretra, sp. nov., A. (B.) affinicineretra, sp. nov., A. (B.) albaureola, sp. nov., A. (B.) densa, sp. nov., A. (B.) punctireticulata, sp. nov., A. (B.) dolichocoremata, sp. nov., A. (B.) longipenella, sp. nov., A. (Argyresthia) biloba, sp. nov., A. (A.) minutilepidota, sp. nov., A. (A.) flavifusca, sp. nov., A. (A.) trigonophylla, sp. nov., A. (A.) chiotorna, sp. nov., A. (A.) hirsuta, sp. nov., A. (A.) papillata, sp. nov., A. (A.) acuminata, sp. nov., A. (A.) curvativa, sp. nov., A. (A.) atomata, sp. nov., A. (A.) orthocera, sp. nov., A. (A.) cardiopetala, sp. nov., A. (A.) mala, sp. nov., A. (A.) longa, sp. nov., A. (A.) decurtata, sp. nov., A. (A.) minutisocia, sp. nov., A. (A.) scalprata, sp. nov., A. (A.) grammosacca, sp. nov., A. (A.) campylotropa, sp. nov., A. (A.) punctuata, sp. nov., A. (A.) chlorella, sp. nov., A. (A.) triangulata, sp. nov., A. (A.) subzonata, sp. nov., A. (A.) basistriata, sp. nov., A. (A.) longalbella, sp. nov., A. (A.) umbrina, sp. nov., A. (A.) umbrinistrigata, sp. nov., A. (A.) surrecta, sp. nov., A. (A.) lanosa, sp. nov., A. (A.) lata, sp. nov., A. (A.) cuprea, sp. nov., A. (A.) aurilata, sp. nov., A. (A.) convexa, sp. nov., and A. (A.) ellipsoidea, sp. nov.

            The newly record species include: A. (A.) pygmaeella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775), A. (A.) retinella Zeller, 1839, A. (A.) angusta Moriuti, 1969, A. (A.) alpha Friese & Moriuti, 1968, A. (A.) beta Friese & Moriuti, 1968, A. (A.) kaoyaiensis Moriuti, 1982, and A. (A.) dislocata Meyrick, 1914. The male of A. (A.) trochaulaMeyrick, 1938, and the male and female genitalia of A. (A.) aphoristis Meyrick, 1938 and A. (A.) dislocata are described for the first time. The misidentified species A. (A.) assimilis Moriuti, 1977 in China is described as A. (A.) mala, sp. nov. Argyresthia cryptomeriae Yang, nomen non rite publicatum, is validated as Argyresthia anthocephalaMeyrick, 1936. Keys to the subgenera and to the Chinese species with available specimens are provided.

            Photos of adults and male and female genitalia are provided for all the examined species except two from Taiwan. Field photographs and biological information are provided where available. Five DNA barcode sequences of the two new species, A. (A.) surrecta, sp. nov. and A. (A.) lanosa, sp. nov., are provided for association of the sexes.

    Keywords: Coelenterata, Argyresthia, Blastotere, DNA barcoding, new record, new species

    Tengteng Liu, Shuxia Wang and Houhun Li. 2017. Review of the Genus Argyresthia Hübner, [1825] (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea: Argyresthiidae) from China, with Descriptions of Forty-three New Species.
      Zootaxa. 4292(1); 1-135. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4292.1.1

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    Altmuehlopterus Vidovic & Martill, 2017
    Altmuehlopterus rhamphastinus  (Wagner, 1851)

    Fig. 2. ‘Germanodactylus rhamphastinus’ – photographs and interpretative drawings of the slabs (a) BSP AS I 745 b and (b) BSP AS I 745 a. Abbreviations: pc, premaxillary crest; st, sternum.

    The Solnhofen pterosaurs Pterodactylus antiquus, Aerodactylus scolopaciceps, Diopecephalus kochi, Germanodactylus cristatus and Germanodactylus rhamphastinus all have complicated taxonomic histories. Species originally placed in the genus Pterodactylus, such as Aerodactylus scolopaciceps, Ardeadactylus longicollum, Cycnorhamphus suevicus and Germanodactylus cristatus possess apomorphies not observed in the type species of Pterodactylus, and consequently have been placed in new genera. The affinities of another Solnhofen pterosaur previously placed in Pterodactylus, Diopecephalus kochi, are less clear. It has been proposed that D. kochi is a juvenile specimen of Pterodactylus antiquus, or perhaps ‘Germanodactylus rhamphastinus’ specimens are mature examples of D. kochi. Furthermore, studies have suggested that ‘Germanodactylus rhamphastinus’ is not congeneric with the type species of Germanodactylus. Geometric morphometric analysis of prepubes and a cladistic analysis of the Pterosauria elucidate plesiomorphic and apomorphic conditions for basal Jurassic pterodactyloids. Germanodactylus is found to be a monotypic genus and Pterodactylus, Diopecephalus, and ‘G. rhamphastinus’ are found as distinct taxa belonging in individual genera, diagnosable using a combination of characters. Thus, Diopecephalus kochi is not demonstrated to be congeneric with Germanodactylus or Pterodactylus and is maintained as a valid taxon. ‘G. rhamphastinus’ is readily distinguishable from other Solnhofen pterosaur taxa, and a new genus is erected for its reception.


    Altmuehlopterus gen. nov.

    Derivation of name.Altmuehl’ refers to the Altmühl river that flows through Solnhofen (close to Mörnsheim), Eichstätt and joins the river Danube at Kelheim. ‘Pterus’ is a common suffix in pterosaur names referring to the wing. This name is presented as an alternative to the geographically significant name Daitingopterus (Maisch et al., 2004) which is a nomen nudum. 

    Type species: Altmuehlopterus rhamphastinus(Wagner, 1851) 

    Fig. 3. Germanodactylus cristatus – (a) a photograph of most of the skeleton on the slab and (b) a line drawing of the skull of the holotype BSP 1892 IV 1.

    Fig. 10. Cranial characters and prepubes of Franconia laminated limestone pterosaurs plotted onto a pruned tree. The tree is plotted against the ‘fine scale’ dating criteria of the Franconia laminated limestones (Schweigert 2007).

    Steven U. Vidovic and David M. Martill. 2017. The Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Diopecephalus kochi(Wagner, 1837) and ‘Germanodactylus rhamphastinus (Wagner, 1851). Geological Society, London. Special Publications. (2017); SP455.12. DOI: 10.1144/SP455.12

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    CD-02. Chelonoidis denticulata.
    MR-07. Mesoclemmys raniceps.             CF-01. Chelus fimbriatus.
    PE-04. Podocnemis expansa.              PP-04. Platemys platycephala.

    Chelonians from the upper Madeira River and the lower Madeira-Purus interfluvium (Brazilian Amazon
    Keller, Villamarín, Bernhard & da Silva, 2017. 
     (photos: R. Bernard, F. Villamarín & C. Keller) DOI: 10.15560/12.4.1937 

    We present data on occurrence of chelonians for the Madeira River (southwestern Amazon, Brazil). Sampling was undertaken along the BR-319 Highway in the Madeira-Purus interfluvium and along a 125‑km stretch of the upper Madeira River. Findings were contrasted with a checklist of species expected to occur in the region according to current distribution maps, and with literature data for the Madeira subbasin. Out of 12 expected species, we recorded five in the Madeira-Purus interfluvium (three other species were registered by other recent voucher-based studies in the region), and eight species in the upper Madeira region. Podocnemis expansa (Schweigger, 1812) and P. unifilis Troschel, 1848 occurred below and inbetween the upper Madeira rapids. Podocnemis sextuberculata Cornalia, 1849 had its range extended by over 700 km, but may be limited upriver by the rapids. Mesoclemmys gibba (Schweigger, 1812) and M. raniceps Gray, 1855 occurred sympatrically along the river. Chelonian diversity along the lower and upper Madeira appears to be complementary.

    Keywords: Chelonoidis; Chelus; conservation monitoring; Neotropics; Platemys; river dams

    MR-01. Mesoclemmys raniceps (photos: Francisco Villamarín).

    PE-04. Podocnemis expansa (photos: Claudia Keller).

    PS-02. Podocnemis sextuberculata (photos: Claudia Keller).

    Claudia Keller, Francisco Villamarín, Rafael Bernhard and Daniely Félix da Silva. 2017. Checklist of Chelonians from the upper Madeira River and the lower Madeira-Purus interfluvium (Brazilian Amazon), including A Range Expansion for Podocnemis sextuberculataCornalia, 1849.
     Check List. 12(4); 1937-1941.  DOI: 10.15560/12.4.1937

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    Solanum jobsonii   Martine, J.Cantley, & L.M.Lacey

    A new species of Solanum from the Australian “andromonoecious bush tomato clade” of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum jobsonii Martine, J.Cantley, & L.M.Lacey, sp. nov. is part of the S. eburneum Symon species group. It most closely resembles S. eburneum and S. watneyi Martine & Frawley of the northwestern part of the Northern Territory, but is separated geographically from them by the Sturt Plateau. Morphometric analyses show that S. jobsonii differs statistically from SeburneumSwatneyi, and S. diversiflorum F.Muell. – a similar species in habit and leaf characters – in several key reproductive and vegetative characters. We provide morphometric evidence for the recognition of S. jobsonii, a complete description, a table of comparisons within its species group, and a map showing species group distributions. One of the first new species to be described from Limmen National Park (established 2012), S. jobsonii is a testament to the value of designating and protecting public lands, as well as supporting science relating to them.

    Keywords: Limmen National Park, Northern Territory, Solanum watneyiSolanum eburneumSolanum diversiflorumSolanum jobsonii, Peter Jobson, andromonoecy, national parks, public lands, Australia

    Figure 2.  Solanum jobsonii Martine, J.Cantley, and L.M.Lacey and related species. 
    A Typical habitat in clay soils with limestone stones and laterite pebbles, Limmen National Park, NT S. jobsonii in flower and C in mature fruit D Corolla comparisons of staminate (upper) and hermaphrodite (lower) flowers for S. jobsonii (left) and S. diversiflorum (right) E Leaf shape across varying leaf ages for S. jobsonii (top) and S. diversiflorum (bottom) F S. jobsonii immature fruit with armed calyx G Corolla comparisons of staminate (upper) and hermaphrodite (lower) flowers for S. eburneum (left) and S. watneyi (right) H Leaf shape across varying leaf ages for S. watneyi (top) and S. eburneum (bottom) I Seed size, shape, and color comparisons from left to right – S. jobsoniiS. diversiflorumS. eburneum, and Swatneyi S. jobsonii trichome density of apical adaxial leaf surface (top) and apical abaxial leaf surface (bottom). 

    Photos A, B, C, F, G by J.T. Cantley; H by E.S. Frawley; D, E, I, J by L.M. Lacey. Yellow scale bars: B, D, F, G = 1.5 cm; C = 5 cm; E, H = 2.25 cm; I = 8 mm; J = 1.5 mm. 

    Solanum jobsonii Martine, J.Cantley, & L.M.Lacey, sp. nov.

    Diagnosis: With affinity to Solanum eburneumSolanum watneyi, and Solanum diversiflorum, but differing by the involute corolla margins, deeply dissected leaves with 6–12 lobes and smaller creamy-yellow fruits.

     Etymology: The specific epithet of “jobsonii” is selected to honor Peter Jobson, Senior Botanist at the Northern Territory Herbarium at Alice Springs, an expert on the Northern Territory flora and the leader of the 2016 expedition to collect this and numerous other Solanum taxa with the authors.

     L. Mae Lacey, Jason T. Cantley and Christopher T. Martine. 2017. Solanum jobsonii, A Novel Andromonoecious Bush Tomato Species from A New Australian National Park.
     PhytoKeys. 82; 1-13.  DOI:  10.3897/phytokeys.82.12106

    Newly established, a national park in Australia unveils a new plant species via @Pensoft @EurekAlert

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     Spongicoloides weijiaensis 
    Xu, Zhou & Wang, 2017 

    A new species of the deep-sea spongicolid genus Spongicoloides Hansen, 1908 is described and illustrated based on material from the northwestern Pacific. Spongicoloides weijiaensis sp. n. was found inside a hexactinellid sponge, Euplectella sp., sampled by the Chinese manned submersible “Jiaolong” at depths of 2279 m near the Weijia Guyot, in the Magellan Seamount Chain. The new species can be distinguished from all congeneric species by several morphological features, involving gill formula, spination of the carapace, antennal scale, third pereiopod, telson and uropod, posteroventral teeth of the pleura, and dactyli of the fourth and fifth pereiopods. An identification key to the Pacific species of Spongicoloides is provided.

    Keywords: Hexactinellida, Magellan Seamount Chain, Spongicoloides, Weijia Guyot

    Figure 1. Hexactinellid sponge, Euplectella sp., in situ (A) and shortly after collection (B)
    C, D Spongicoloides weijiaensis sp. n., ovigerous female and male shortly after extraction from the host sponge. 

    Family Spongicolidae Schram, 1986
    Genus Spongicoloides Hansen, 1908

    Spongicoloides weijiaensis sp. n.

    Holotype: ovigerous female, cl 11.1 mm, near Weijia Guyot, Magellan Seamount Chain, North West Pacific, depth: 2279 m, associated with hexactinellid sponge, coll. team of “Jiaolong” submersible, 1 May 2016, sample 37I-JL106-1, SRSIO16050001.

    Paratype: male, cl 9.3 mm, same collection data as for holotype, sample 37I-JL106-2, SRSIO16050002.

    Diagnosis: Rostrum nearly horizontal, reaching to distal margin of basal article of antennular peduncle; rostral base triangular in dorsal view, each ventrolateral ridge armed with a minute spine. Carapace with distinct cervical groove; anterolateral margin with branchiostegal and pterygostomial spines, and several spinules situated posterior to them; postorbital region armed with one short longitudinal row of spinules; groups of similar spinules also present on posterior portion of cervical groove and rostrum. Second to fourth pleura each with one articular knob; first to third pleura broadly rounded and fourth to sixth pleura each with several posteroventral teeth. Telson quadrangular, with two conspicuous dorsolateral carinae each bearing 7–10 posteriorly directed spines. Eye devoid of dark pigment; eyestalk armed with minute spines. Lateral margin of antennal scale slightly concave, armed with 10–12 spines. Fixed finger of third pereiopod without row of small teeth on distoventral margin; ischium of third pereiopod with one row of 2–4 small teeth on flexor margin. Dactyli of fourth and fifth pereiopods biunguiculate primarily, bearing several much smaller accessory teeth arising from bases of ventral and dorsal ungues.

    Etymology: The specific name, weijiaensis, refers to the type locality, the Weijia Guyot, part of the Magellan Seamount Chain in the northwestern Pacific.

     Peng Xu, Yadong Zhou and Chunsheng Wang. 2017. A New Species of Deep-Sea Sponge-Associated Shrimp from the North-West Pacific (Decapoda, Stenopodidea, Spongicolidae). ZooKeys. 685; 1-14 DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.685.11341


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    Fig. 24.   Homolidae from the  South China Sea. Colour in life.
    ALamoha longirostris (Chen, 1986), female (24.9 × 20.3 mm);
    BLamoha murotoensis (Sakai, 1979), male (20.8 × 18.4 mm); CParomola macrochira Sakai, 1961, female (16.5 × 11.4 mm); DParomola macrochira Sakai, 1961, female (16.3 × 11.1 mm); EMoloha majora (Kubo, 1936), male (54.8 × 47.8 mm); FHomolochunia gadaletae Guinot & Richer de Forges, 1995, ovigerous female (34.1 × 26.4 mm); GHomolomania sibogae Ihle, 1912, male (15.4 × 11.3 mm); HParomolopsis boasi Wood-Mason, in Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891, male (20.1 × 17.7 mm). 

    Ng & Richer de Forges, 2017. RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY. 65

     Recent collections from southern Taiwan and the South China Sea obtained 10 species of homolid crabs, of which two species of Homologenus A. Milne-Edwards, in Henderson, 1888, are described as new. The taxonomy of the allied H. malayensis Ihle, 1912, from Indonesia and Papua New Guinea is also clarified. The identity of Lamoha superciliosa (Wood-Mason, in Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891)s. str. from the Indian Ocean is discussed and specimens from East Asian seas that had been referred to this species are here shown to be conspecific with L. longirostris (Chen, 1986) instead. The taxonomy of L. superciliosa and L. longirostris is treated.

     Key words. Taxonomy, new species, South China Sea, deep sea, homolid crabs, Homologenus

    Fig. 24. Colour in life, AH from South China Sea;
    I, J from Papua New Guinea and Bismarck Sea.
    A, Lamoha longirostris (Chen, 1986), female (24.9 × 20.3 mm) (ZRC 2016.0555); B, Lamoha murotoensis (Sakai, 1979), male (20.8 × 18.4 mm) (ZRC 2016.0200); C, Paromola macrochira Sakai, 1961, female (16.5 × 11.4 mm) (ZRC 2016.0560); D, Paromola macrochira Sakai, 1961, female (16.3 × 11.1 mm) (ZRC 2016.0562); E, Moloha majora (Kubo, 1936), male (54.8 × 47.8 mm) (ZRC 2016.0197); F, Homolochunia gadaletae Guinot & Richer de Forges, 1995, ovigerous female (34.1 × 26.4 mm) (ZRC 2016.0198); G, Homolomania sibogae Ihle, 1912, male (15.4 × 11.3 mm) (ZRC 2016.0199); H, Paromolopsis boasi Wood-Mason, in Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891, male (20.1 × 17.7 mm) (ZRC 2016.0565);
    I, Homologenus malayensis Ihle, 1912, ovigerous female (16.0 × 13.9 mm) (MNHN-IU-2015-80); J, Homologenus malayensis Ihle, 1912, ovigerous female (14.9 × 9.9 mm) (MNHN-IU-2014-8052). 

    Homologenus exilis n. sp.

    Etymology. From the Latin “exilis” meaning “thin or slender”, alluding to the relatively long ambulatory legs of the species when compared to the other new species, H. brevipes. Used as a noun in apposition.

    Homologenus brevipes n. sp. 

    Etymology. The name alludes to the relatively shorter ambulatory legs of this species when compared to those of the allied new species, H. exilis. Used as a noun in apposition.

    Peter K. L. Ng and Bertrand Richer de Forges. 2017. On A Collection of Homolidae from the South China Sea, with Descriptions of Two New Species of Homologenus A. Milne-Edwards, in Henderson, 1888, and the Identities of Homologenus malayensis Ihle, 1912, and Lamoha superciliosa (Wood-Mason, in Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891).

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    Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) in the Brazilian Pantanal.
    Faux and Field provide developmental support for the surprising hypothesis that rheas, as well as other ratites including ostriches and emus, have evolved flightlessness and large size independently.
    photo: Daniel J. Field


    Recent phylogenetic studies question the monophyly of ratites (large, flightless birds incorporating ostriches, rheas, kiwis, emus and cassowaries), suggesting their paraphyly with respect to flying tinamous (Tinamidae). Flightlessness and large body size have thus likely evolved repeatedly among ratites, and separately in ostriches (Struthio) and emus (Dromaius). Here, we test this hypothesis with data from wing developmental trajectories in ostriches, emus, tinamous and chickens. We find the rate of ostrich embryonic wing growth falls within the range of variation exhibited by flying taxa (tinamous and chickens), but that of emus is extremely slow. These results indicate flightlessness was acquired by different developmental mechanisms in the ancestors of ostriches (peramorphosis) and the emu–cassowary clade (paedomorphosis), and corroborate the hypothesis that flight loss has evolved repeatedly among ratites.

    KEYWORDS: ratites, flightlessness, evo devo, embryology, Palaeognathae, heterochrony

    Cynthia Faux and Daniel J. Field. 2017. Distinct Developmental Pathways Underlie Independent Losses of Flight in Ratites. Biology Letters.  DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2017.0234

      The face you make after seeing #BiologyLetters new cover... (photo from @daniel_j_field) via @RSocPublishing

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    Oligodon huahin
    Pauwels, Larsen, Suthanthangjai, David & Sumontha, 2017

    งูคุดหัวหิน หรือ งูปี่แก้วลายหัวหิน || DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4291.3.6 


    We describe Oligodon huahin sp. nov. from a bamboo forest locality on the road to Pala-U waterfall, Hua Hin District, Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, peninsular Thailand. It is characterized by a maximal known SVL of 553.7 mm; 6 maxillary teeth, the posterior two enlarged; 17-17-15 or 17-15-15 dorsal scale rows; 166–173 ventrals and 35–41 subcaudals in males; a single anal; deeply forked hemipenes lacking spines and papillae, extending in situ to the 14th subcaudal; faint to nearly indistinct vertebral, paravertebral and lateral stripes; no dorsal or supracaudal blotches or crossbars; and an uniformly ivory venter lacking subrectangular or squarish blotches. We also report the first finding of Oligodon deuvei in Thailand based on a specimen from Loei Province.

    Keywords: Reptilia, Thai-Malay Peninsula, Thailand, Oligodon huahin sp. nov., Oligodon deuvei, taxonomy

     Live Oligodon huahin sp. nov. (QSMI 1502) in situ at the type locality.  H. Larsen.

    Photograph by Henning Larsen

    Etymology: The specific epithet is an invariable noun in honor of the administrative district where the type locality lies and of its charming main city Hua Hin. The following common names are given "Hua Hin Kukri Snake" (English), "Ngu Ngod Hua Hin"«งูคุดหัวหิน» or "Ngu Peekeaw Lai Hua Hin"«งูปี่แก้วลายหัวหิน» (Thai),"Oligodon de Hua Hin" (French) and "Hua Hin Kukrinatter" (German).

    Habitat, behaviour and ecology: The habitat, behaviour and ecology of this species is poorly known, even though all specimens used for the species description were found in mixed bamboo forest area, the species is likely to inhabit several other types of habitats and elevations as well. Based on data for other members of the genus Oligodon, O. huahin is thought to be a oviparous (egg-laying) species. This species is nocturnal.

    Oligodon huahin sp. nov. is added to a list of endemic reptile species we have recently described from the northern part of the Thai Peninsula, in Phetchaburi and Prachuap Khiri Khan provinces: Cnemaspis punctatonuchalisGrismer, Sumontha, Cota, Grismer, Wood, Pauwels & Kunya, 2010, Cyrtodactylus phetchaburiensisandC. samroiyotPauwels & Sumontha, 2014 and Ptychozoon kaengkrachanenseSumontha, Pauwels, Kunya, Limlikhitaksorn, Ruksue, Taokratok, Ansermet & Chanhome, 2012. Far from being remote, their type-localities are within about four hours or less of easy drive from Bangkok metropolis, and illustrate how much still remains to be done to fully inventory the herpetofauna of Thailand. ....

     Olivier S. G. Pauwels, Henning Larsen, Winai Suthanthangjai, Patrick David and Montri Sumontha. 2017. A New Kukri Snake (Colubridae: Oligodon) from Hua Hin District, and the First record of O. deuvei from Thailand. Zootaxa. 4291(3); 531–548. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4291.3.6


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    Impatiens chikuensis Kiew
    Impatiens foxworthyi M.R.Hend

    Peninsular Malaysian Impatiens foxworthyi M.R.Hend. is distinct from the Thai I. opinata Craib. Three new Impatiens species are described: Impatiens glaricola Kiew with purple flowers, Impatiens chikuensis Kiew with pale yellow flowers, and Impatiens vinosa Kiew with deep red flowers. While Impatiens foxworthyi is widespread on karst limestone in Kelantan and Pahang, the three new species are narrowly endemic to Kelantan limestone and are critically endangered.

    Keywords. Balsams, conservation assessments, Peninsular Malaysia


    1. Impatiens chikuensis Kiew, sp. nov.
    Etymology. Named for the only locality from where it is known, viz. FELDA Chiku limestone

    2. Impatiens foxworthyi M.R.Hend., Gard. Bull. Straits Settlem. 4: 50 (1927); Henderson, J. Malayan Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 17: 38 (1939); Henderson, Malayan Nat. J. 3: 35 (1948). – TYPE: Peninsular Malaysia, Pahang, Gua [Goa] Kechapi, February 1924 Md. Nur (with Foxworthy) SFN11912 (holotype SING). (Fig. 4)

     Impatiens opinata auct. non Craib: Shimizu, S.E. Asian Stud. 8(2): 216 (1970); Chin, Gard. Bull. Singapore 32: 96 (1979); Kiew, Malayan Naturalist 38(3): 33 (1985); Kiew in Henderson’s Malaysian Wild Fl. Dicot. 173 (2014).

    Etymology. F.W. Foxworthy (1877–1950), American forester and the first forest research officer (1918–1932) in Malaya.

    3. Impatiens glaricola Kiew, sp. nov.
    Etymology. Latin, glara = scree -icola = dwelling, from its habitat.

    4. Impatiens vinosa Kiew, sp. nov.
    Etymology. Latin, vinosa = wine-red, referring to the flower colour.

    R. Kiew. 2016. Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) Species from Karst Limestone in Kelantan, Malaysia, including Three New Species. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore. 68(2); 225–238. DOI:  10.3850/S2382581216000181

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    Male Paleosuchus trigonatus captured in Claro River

    (Campos, Muniz & Magnusson, 2017) 
     DOI:  10.15560/13.4.91

    We present new records of occurrence of Schneider’s Dwarf Caiman, Paleosuchus trigonatus and extend its geographical distribution. Eight individuals were caught in the following locations: Sangue River, in the municipality of Campo Novo dos Parecis, Claro River and Marapi River, in the municipality of São José do Rio Claro, and tributaries of the Juruena River, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. These records extend the geographical distribution of the species nearly 500 km south of the limit given in published range maps.

    Keywords: New records; conservation; Paleosuchus; Mato Grosso; Brazilian Amazon

    Figure 1. Male specimen of Paleosuchus trigonatus captured in Claro River, showing some diagnostic characters.
    A. General view of the body. B. Head shape. C. Arrow indicates the two scales of the sacral region. D. Post-occipital region.

    Figure 3. New records of the geographic distribution of Paleosuchus trigonatus in the Sangue, Claro, Marapi and Alegre rivers in the Cerrado biome, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Triangle = 8 individuals captured; inverted triangle = 3 individuals observed and not captured.

     Zilca Campos, Fábio Muniz and William E Magnusson. 2017. Extension of the Geographical Distribution of Schneider’s Dwarf Caiman, Paleosuchus trigonatus (Schneider, 1801) (Crocodylia: Alligatoridae), in the Amazon–Cerrado Transition, Brazil.
     Check List. 13(4); 91-94.  DOI:  10.15560/13.4.91

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    Arquatopotamon jizushanense
     Chu, Zhou & Sun, 2017


    A new genus Arquatopotamon gen. n. of the family Potamidae Ortmann, 1896, is established and a new species, Arquatopotamon jizushanense sp. n. from Yunnan Province, China is described. The new genus is established based on the distinctive distal part of the male first gonopod, with arched-shaped subterminal and terminal segments (in mesioventral view) and female gonopores (vulvae) on thoracic sternites 5/6 and a combination of characters including the carapace and male telson, while it is similar to the five known genera in Yunnan Province and adjacent area, Tenuipotamon Dai, 1990Pararanguna Dai & Chen, 1985Trichopotamon Dai & Chen, 1985Potamiscus Alcock, 1909 and Aparapotamon Dai & Chen, 1985, in having a third maxilliped exopod without a flagellum. Present molecular data based on a barcoding marker of 16S rDNA provide strong support for the genus as being new.

    Keywords: Crustacea, new genus, new species, taxonomy

    Coloration in life of male Arquatopotamon jizushanense gen. n., sp. n. 

    Family Potamidae Ortmann, 1896 

    Arquatopotamon gen. n.
    Type species.Arquatopotamon jizushanensesp. n., by monotypy. 

    Etymology. The genus name is derived from the Latin arquatus for “arched”, which describes the arched male first gonopod of the type species for the genus. Potamon is the type genus of the family Potamidae. Gender neuter.

    Arquatopotamon jizushanense sp. n. 

    Distribution and habitat. Arquatopotamon jizushanense gen. n., sp. n. was found under stones in small hill streams in ...village, Jizushan Town, Binchuan County, Dali City in Yunnan Province, China; at an altitude of 1778 m. No other potamids were observed at the type locality. 

    Live coloration. Carapace is usually dark brown, whereas chelipeds and ambulatory legs are reddish brown to purple in life. 

    Etymology. Arquatopotamon jizushanense gen. n., sp. n. is named after the type locality, Jizushan Town in Yunnan Province, China.

    Kelin Chu, Lijun Zhou and Hongying Sun. 2017.  A New Genus and New Species of Freshwater Crab (Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae Ortmann, 1896) from Yunnan Province, China. Zootaxa. 4286(2);241–253. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4286.2.7

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    Parafimbrios lao Teynié, David, Lottier, Le, Vidal et Nguyen, 2015
    from Doi Phu Kha National Park, Nan Province, Thailand


    The genus and species of xenodermatid snake, Parafimbrios lao Teynié, David, Lottier, Le, Vidal et Nguyen, 2015 (Squamata: Caenophidia: Xenodermatidae), was described from Laos. In this paper, a new country record of this species is reported for Thailand. Three specimens were collected from the same locality in Nan Province, northern Thailand. Their morphology closely matches that of the two specimens known from Laos and of a single specimen from Vietnam. The Thai records extend the range of the species 250 km to the southwest. The habitat of the specimens from Nan is discussed in phylogeographic perspective.

    Keywords: Parafimbrios lao; Doi Phu Kha National Park; distribution; new records; phylogeography; taxonomy

    Lateral view of the living specimen. Note the ridges of skin between internasals and rostral. 

    Alexandre Teynié and Sjon Hauser. 2017. First Record of Parafimbrios lao Teynié, David, Lottier, Le, Vidal et Nguyen, 2015 (Squamata: Caenophidia: Xenodermatidae) for Thailand.   Russian Journal of Herpetology 24(1); 35-40.

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    Bolitoglossa yariguiensis
     Meza-Joya, Hernández-Jaimes & Ramos-Pallares, 2017


    A new species of Bolitoglossa (Plethodontidae) is described from Andean cloud forests on the western slope of Serranía de los Yariguíes in the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia. This new species is distinguished from all other species of the Bolitoglossa adspersa species group by differences in adult body size, morphometric proportions, and tooth counts. The validity of the new species is also supported by molecular analyses. This new species increases the number of salamander species in Colombia to 23 and highlights the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia, with 11 species, as the region with the highest diversity of Bolitoglossa in South America.

    Keywords:  Amphibia, Bolitoglossa adspersa species group, cloud forest, Cordillera Oriental of Colombia, molecular and morphometric analyses

    Bolitoglossa yariguiensis

    Fabio Leonardo Meza-Joya, Carlos Hernández-Jaimes and Eliana Ramos-Pallares. 2017. A New Species of Salamander (Caudata, Plethodontidae, Bolitoglossa) from Serranía de los Yariguíes, Colombia.  Zootaxa. 4294(1); 93–111.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4294.1.4

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    Theloderma moloch (Annandale, 1912)
    Yunnan, China, 1000 m elevation.

    Photo by Mian Hou 


    The problems of identification, number and distribution of Theloderma species living in China are discussed on the base of new original morphological and molecular data collected during the last years. According to the author’s results there are six known Theloderma species living in China: Theloderma albopunctatum (Liu et Hu, 1962), Theloderma baibungense Jiang, Fei et Huang, 2007, Theloderma bicolor (Bourret, 1937), Theloderma corticale (Boulenger, 1903), Theloderma moloch (Annandale, 1912), and Theloderma rhododiscus Liu et Hu, 1962.

    Keywords: taxonomy; distribution; Theloderma; new records; China

    Theloderma corticale (Boulenger, 1903)
    English name. Tonkin Bug-eyed Frog, Kwangsi Warty Treefrog.
    Etymology. The specific epithet is derived from Latin “cortex,” genit. cortices or corticulus, means bark.
    Distribution. Known from south China, Laos, and Vietnam.

    Theloderma bicolor(Bourret, 1937)
    English name. Chapa Bug-eyed Frog. 
    Etymology. the specific epithet is derived from Latin “bis,” means two, twice; and color is from Latin “color,” as hue, tint or complexion.
    Distribution. Northwest to central Vietnam; southwest China.

     Theloderma moloch  (Annandale, 1912)

    Theloderma asperum species group, such as Theloderma albopunctatum (southern China to central Indochina), Theloderma baibungense(SE Himalaya) and T. asperum (south Indochina to Malaysian Peninsula).

    Theloderma rhododiscus  Liu et Hu, 1962


    According to above discussion, currently there are six known Theloderma species in China, such as Theloderma albopunctatum (Liu et Hu, 1962), Theloderma baibungense Jiang, Fei et Huang, 2007, Theloderma bicolor (Bourret, 1937), Theloderma corticale (Boulenger, 1903), Theloderma moloch (Annandale, 1912), and Theloderma rhododiscus Liu et Hu, 1962 

    Hou Mian, Yu Guo-Hua, Chen Hong-man, Liao Chang-Le, Zhang Li, Chen Jin, Li Pi-Peng and Nikolai L. Orlov. 2017. The Taxonomic Status and Distribution Range of Six Theloderma Species (Anura: Rhacophoridae) with A New Record in China.
     Russian Journal of Herpetology. 24(2); 91-127.
     Theloderma in China(Anura: Rhacophoridae); Taxonomic Status and Distribution Range 

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    A new circumscription and a total of six microendemic species, four of them new to science, are herein presented for Siderasis, based on field and herbaria studies, and cultivated material. We provide an identification key to the species and a distribution map, description, comments, conservation assessment, and illustration for each species. Also, we present an emended key to the genera of subtribe Dichorisandrinae, and comments on the morphology and systematics of the subtribe.

    Keywords: Atlantic Forest, Brazil, Commelinales, Neotropical flora, spiderwort, Tradescantieae

    Figure 1. Floral morphology of subtribe Dichorisandrinae s.l.
    ASiderasis Raf. emend M.Pell. & Faden: Sfuscata (Lodd.) H.E.Moore S. albofasciata M.Pell. S. zorzanellii M.Pell. & Faden.
    DDichorisandra J.C.Mikan: Dacaulis Cogn. Dhexandra (Aubl.) C.B.Clarke Dthyrsiflora J.C.Mikan D. paranaënsis D.Maia et alDnana Aona & M.C.E.Amaral I D. incurva Mart. J Dpenduliflora Kunth K Dsagittata Aona & M.C.E.Amaral L Dradicalis Nees & Mart.
    Cochliostema odoratissimum Lem. Geogenanthus rhizanthus (Ule) G.Brückn. Plowmanianthus panamensis Faden & C.R.Hardy.
    Photographs A–B, D–G, J by M.O.O. Pellegrini, C by J.P.F. Zorzanelli, H by V. Bittrich, I by G.H. Shimizu, K by J.L. Costa-Lima, L by M.A.N. Coelho, M by R. Moran, N by D. Scherberich, and O by C.R. Hardy. 

    Siderasis Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 67. 1837, emend. M.Pell. & Faden

    Pyrrheima Hassk., Flora 52: 366. 1869, nom. illeg. Type species (designated here).
     Ploddigesii Hassk., nomilleg. [≡ S. fuscata (Lodd.) H.E.Moore].

    Type species: Siderasis acaulis Raf. [≡ Sfuscata (Lodd.) H.E.Moore].

    Etymology: Siderasis was named in allusion to the peculiar red to bright-red hairs that cover almost the entire plant, but especially the leaves. However, only S. fuscata possesses the aforementioned hairs, and all of the remaining species possess leaf blades covered by hyaline to light brown, rarely rusty hairs.

    Habitat, distribution and ecology: Siderasis is endemic to the Atlantic Forest domain in coastal Brazil, occurring in the states of Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro (Fig. 2). More specifically, Siderasis is restricted to the Central Corridor of the Atlantic Forest, growing in remnants of semideciduous forests associated with inselbergs, between 90–1350 m above sea level. The genus is composed exclusively by microendemic species distributed in very small and fragmented subpopulations, susceptible to deforestation and illegal collection of specimens for ornamental purposes.


    1. Siderasis albofasciata M.Pell., Nordic J. Bot. 35(1): 30. 2017.

    Etymology: The epithet means “white-striped”, making reference to the thin and always present, white to silver stripe along the midvein of this species’ leaves.

    Distribution and habitat: Siderasis albofasciata is known exclusively from the municipalities of Santa Teresa and Fundão, state of Espírito Santo (Fig. 2). It occurs in the understory of evergreen forests, in shady areas with shallow and rocky soil, with great leaf-litter accumulation.

    Figure 7. Siderasis almeidae M.Pell. & Faden. A habit, showing a fertile rosette B detail of the elongated aerial stem, showing the rusty internodes and leaf-sheaths C detail of the lanate indumentum on the abaxial side of the leaf blade D detail of the hispid indumentum on the adaxial side of the leaf blade E detail of the inflorescence, showing the contracted cincinnus and some floral buds F front view of a flower, showing the fleshy and internally purple sepals, and the lanate ovary. Photographs A, F by M.A.N. Coelho, remaining photographs by M.O.O. Pellegrini. 

    2. Siderasis almeidae M.Pell. & Faden, sp. nov.

    Diagnosis: Similar to S. fuscata due to its rusty indumentum in the leaves, lilac to purple rhomboid petals and white anthers. Also, similar to S. albofasciata due to its sessile to subpetiolate leaves, blades adaxially hispid and abaxially lanate, present bracteoles, and purple filaments and style. Nevertheless, Siderasis almeidae is peculiar in lacking terminal tubers in the roots, subterraneous stems, and having aerial stems elongate and trailing in the leaf litter, leaves entirely green, fleshy showy sepals, and a densely lanate ovary.

    Etymology: The epithet honors Brazilian botanist Rafael Felipe de Almeida, a prominent specialist in Malpighiaceae, contributor in the studies of Commelinaceae, husband of the first author, and co-collector of the holotype, for his unmeasurable support in the field and in my research.

    Distribution and habitat: Siderasis almeidae is confined to the municipalities of Itamarajú and Prado, Bahia (Fig. 2). It occurs in the “mata higrófila” vegetation with emerging rocky formations, in shady and moist areas. In the type locality, the subpopulations were found growing in great accumulations of leaf litter, among dense clusters of Marantaceae. The area is greatly disturbed, and within private property.

    3. Siderasis fuscata (Lodd.) H.E.Moore, Baileya 4: 28. 1956.

    Etymology: The epithet “fuscata” means dark-colored, in allusion to the red to bright red hairs that cover almost the entire plant, in opposition to the normally hyaline hairs in most Commelinaceae.

    Distribution and habitat: Siderasis fuscata is endemic to the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro (with several localities inside Floresta da Tijuca) and Niterói (with just one locality, Alto Mourão), in the Rio de Janeiro state (Fig. 2). It occurs in the vegetation on hillsides (mata de encosta) near the littoral, in shady areas with shallow and rocky soil.

    Figure 9. Siderasis medusoidesM.Pell. & Faden. A habit, showing a fertile rosette B detail of the synflorescence, showing the elongated and tangled cincinni C front view of a flower, showing small ants near the flower center D detail of the capsule. Photographs by P. Fiaschi. 

    4. Siderasis medusoides M.Pell. & Faden, sp. nov.

    Diagnosis: Similar to S. almeidae due to its sessile to subpetiolate, entirely green leaves, present bracteoles, sessile flowers, purple filaments and style combined with white anthers, and oblongoid to broadly oblongoid capsules. Siderasis medusoides is distinct due to its membranous leaves, elongate and tangled cincinni, small flowers, and purple to dark blue and elliptic to narrowly obovate or spatulate petals.

    Etymology: The epithet alludes to the extremely elongated cincinni, common in mature individuals of this species, due to their resemblance to the snakes that composed the hair of Medusa, one of the three Gorgon sisters from Greek mythology.

    Distribution and habitat: Siderasis medusoides is known from the municipalities of Marilândia and Santa Leopoldina, in the state of Espírito Santo (Fig. 2). It grows in lowland Atlantic Forest, in shady and moist areas with great leaf litter accumulation, 90–550 m above the sea level.

    5. Siderasis spectabilis M.Pell. & Faden, sp. nov.

    Diagnosis: Very distinctive due to its vining habit, distichously-alternate leaves, blades asymmetric at base, main florescence a many-branched thyrse, with alternate cincinni, flowers zygomorphic, bisexual or staminate, stamens unequal, curved upwards, sigmoid filaments, and capsules globose and shallowly foveolate. It can be differentiated from S. zorzanellii by its membranous and velutine leaves, inflorescences always terminal in the secondary branches, petals dark mauve to vinaceous, rarely light pink or white, with margins ciliate with non-moniliform hairs.

    Etymology: The epithet means “admirable, remarkable, spectacular”, in allusion to its distinctive growth form, small flowers with a peculiar coloration, and the unique petal margins ciliate with non-moniliform hairs.

    Distribution and habitat: Siderasis spectabilis is confined to the type locality, in the native vegetation of the Horto Santos Lima (currently the headquarters of the Desengano State Park), in Santa Maria Madalena, state of Rio de Janeiro (Fig. 2). Nothing is known about this species habitat, since the original labels give no information on the area and all field expeditions to recollect this plant have been unsuccessful.

    6. Siderasis zorzanellii M.Pell. & Faden, sp. nov.

    Diagnosis: Similar to S. spectabilis due to its vining habit, distichously-alternate leaves, blades asymmetric at base, main florescence a many-branched thyrse, with alternate cincinni, flowers bisexual or staminate, zygomorphic, stamens unequal, curved upwards and sigmoid filaments. It can be differentiated from by its chartaceous and sparsely velutine leaves, inflorescences axillary in the primary branches or terminal in the secondary branches, and petals white with glabrous margins.

    Etymology: The epithet honors the collector of the type specimens, João Paulo Fernandes Zorzanelli, Brazilian botanist and dear friend of the authors. JPFZ is an active and prominent collector in the state of Espírito Santo, with collections currently focused on Serra do Valentim, the type locality of S. zorzanellii.

    Distribution and habitat: Siderasis zorzanellii is confined to the municipality of Iúna, Espírito Santo (Fig. 2). It occurs in the “Floresta Ombrófila Densa Montana” vegetation, at 1200–1350 m above the sea level, generally near disturbed sites, being less frequent in well-preserved areas. This could be related to its climbing habit and the need of more sunlight exposure then the rosette species of the genus. This pattern is common in other liana and vine groups, such as Bignoniaceae, Malpighiaceae, and Sapindaceae (Acevedo-Rodríguez, pers. comm.), especially evident in big families such as Asteraceae, where the primarily climbing genus Mikania Willd. is almost exclusively found at the edge of forests, along trails, and in disturbed areas (Oliveira 2015).

    Final remarks
    The present work adds four new species to Siderasis, along with the addition of new morphological characters that help clarify the circumscription of the group. Siderasis Raf. emend. M.Pell. & Faden may be uniquely characterized as comprising small perennial rosette herbs or robust perennial vines, with shoots determinate or indeterminate, leaves spirally- or distichously-alternate. The inflorescences are terminal or axillary, either a many-branched thyrse with alternate cincinni or reduced to a solitary cincinnus, cincinni always several-flowered. The flowers are chasmogamous, bisexual or male, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, and petals with glabrous margins or ciliated with non-moniliform hairs. The androecium is composed of 6 fertile stamens, filaments straight or sigmoid, anthers dorsifixed and extrorsely rimose, anther sacs semicircular, divergent, connectives expanded and quadrangular. In the gynoecium, the stigma is annular-truncate or annular-capitate, marginally papillate with unicellular papillae restricted to the margin of the stigmatic regions. Also, similar to Dichorisandra, the capsules are thick-walled, and the seeds are arillate, biseriate to partially uniseriate, with semidorsal or semilateral embryotega, and a C-shaped hilum. All species accepted by us are easily diagnosed by a unique and constant combination of morphological character states. Furthermore, each species can be easily separated based on their geographical distribution, since they are microendemics, with non-overlapping distribution areas (Fig. 2).

    As indicated by several systematic studies in Commelinaceae (Evans et al. 2000, 2003; Hardy 2001; Wade et al. 2006; Zuiderveen et al. 2011; Hertweck and Pires 2014) and by the morphological evidence presented here and by Pellegrini (2017), the need to recircumscribe subtribe Dichorisandrinae is pressing. Aside from the cytological character of x=19 large chromosomes described by Jones and Jopling (1972) and hypothesized by Faden and Hunt (1991), no macro or micromorphological synapomorphies were found so far for subtribe Dichorisandrinae in its current circumscription. On the other hand, if subtribe Dichorisandrinae is recircumscribed to exclusively contain Dichorisandra and Siderasis, Dichorisandrinae s.s. can be easily morphologically characterized by its thick-walled capsules, the biseriate to partially uniseriate arillate seeds, semidorsal to semilateral embryotega, and C-shaped hilum. The lineage composed by Geogenanthus (Cochliostema+Plowmanianthus) needs to be formally recognized as a subtribe, and can be easily circumscribed by its petals with marginally fringed with moniliform hairs, and anthers sacs curved to spirally-coiled and appressed to each other. Phylogenetic studies using both nuclear and chloroplast sequences seem promising in elucidating phylogenetic incongruences in Commelinaceae (e.g. Burns et al. 2011). However, most phylogenetic in the family so far completely disregard morphological data, with the exception of Evans et al. (2000, 2003). Studies focusing on the systematics and recircumscription of Dichorisandrinae are currently being conducted, combining morphological and molecular data (Pellegrini et al., in prep.), and should shed some light on the evolution of the reproductive biology in the family.

     Marco O.O. Pellegrini and Robert B. Faden. 2017. Recircumscription and Taxonomic Revision of Siderasis, with Comments on the Systematics of Subtribe Dichorisandrinae (Commelinaceae).  PhytoKeys. 83; 1-41.   DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.83.13490

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    Scutalus chango
    Araya​ & Breure, 2017

      DOI: 10.7717/peerj.3538 


    A new species of Scutalus Albers, 1850 (Gastropoda: Bulimulidae), Scutalus chango sp. n., is described from a coastal area of northern Chile. Empty shells of this new species were found buried in sand and under boulders and rocks in the foothills of the Chilean Coastal Range at Paposo, Región de Antofagasta. This new species is distinguished from all other Chilean terrestrial snails by its slender shell with a flared and reflected aperture, and by the presence of a columellar fold. This is the first record of Scutalus in Chile, and the southernmost record for this endemic South American bulimulid genus. The presence of this species in Paposo highlights the need for further research and for conservation guidelines in coastal areas of northern Chile, which have comparatively high levels of biodiversity and endemism.

    Figure 2: Type locality and habitat of Scutalus chango sp. n.: under boulders at foothills of the Chilean Coastal Range (SE view), north of Paposo, Región de Antofagasta, northern Chile.

    Figure 4: Scutalus chango n. sp. Holotype MPCCL 020617, (A) apertural view, (B) side view (external lip view), (C) abapertural view, (D) side view (umbilical view), (E) detail of sculpture and sutures, (F) detail of umbilicus and columellar lip, (G) detail of columellar fold, (H) basal view; Paratype 5 MPCCL 030617D, (I) detail of columellar fold; Paratype 1 MPCCL 030617A, (J) apertural view, (K) abapertural view; Paratype 2 MPCCL 030617B (juvenile specimen), (L) apertural view, (M) side view (external lip view), (N) abapertural view; Paratype 3 MPCCL 030617C (juvenile specimen), (O) apertural view, (P) side view (external lip view), (Q) abapertural view.

    Scale bars are 10 mm for (A–D), (G–H), (J–K), (L–Q), and 5 mm for (E–F) and (I).

    Systematic account

    Superfamily Orthalicoidea Martens, 1860
    Family Bulimulidae Tryon, 1867

    Genus Scutalus Albers, 1850

    Diagnosis (Modified from Breure, 1979): Shell elongate-ovate to rather globose or depressed conical; (broadly) perforate; solid. Whitish to brownish in color, often with darker spiral bands, with axial streaks or coalescent spots in some species. Surface granulate or with incrassate growth striae. Protoconch pit-reticulate. Whorls slightly convex. Aperture (sub) ovate. Peristome more or less expanded. Columella in some species with a fold within the last whorl.

    Type speciesBulinus proteus Broderip, 1832

    Scutalus chango new species 
    Diagnosis: A species with a medium sized thick and elongated shell (H to 25.5 mm), whitish or variegated in color, sculptured by growth lines and sometimes presenting shallow varices. The shell is mainly characterized by the subovate peristome with an expanded and reflexed outer lip, a narrow and deep umbilicus and by the presence of a columellar fold.

    Type locality: Foothills of the Chilean Coastal Range, north of Paposo (24°55′S; 70°30′W, altitude 150–170 m), Comuna de Taltal, Región de Antofagasta, northern Chile.

    Distribution and habitat: Only known from type locality; shells found in humus under boulders and fallen rocks, usually near communities of the arborescent cacti Eulychnia iquiquensis, the large succulent shrub Euphorbia lactiflua and other small vegetation in the foothills of the Chilean Coastal Range. Many old shells and shell fragments were found buried in sediments in creeks and gullies, but no live specimens were recovered.

    Etymology: A patronym (noun in apposition) in honor of the Chango people (now extinct) who inhabited coastal areas of northern Chile, having their last communities at Paposo, the type locality of the new species.


    A new terrestrial bulimulid species (Gastropoda: Orthalicoidea), Scutalus chango sp. n., is described from Paposo, Región de Antofagasta, northern Chile, being the first record of the genus Scutalus in Chile and the southernmost record for this endemic South American genus. The new species may represent part of a relict fauna at the coastal area of northern Chile, with close relationship with species from central-northern Peru.

    Juan Francisco Araya​ and Abraham S.H. Breure. 2017. A New Terrestrial Snail Species (Gastropoda: Bulimulidae) from the Región de Antofagasta, northern Chile.
     PeerJ. 5:e3538.  DOI: 10.7717/peerj.3538


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