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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region

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    Gastrodia putaoensis X.H. Jin


    in Jin & Myint, 2017.
       DOI: 10.1111/njb.01581 

    Abstract
    Gastrodia putaoensis, a new species from the montane region in northern Myanmar, is described and illustrated. Gastrodia putaoensis is similar to G. dyeriana, but differs from it by having a narrowly triangular lip that is subdivided into two parts, with the apical part densely covered with yellow hairs and the apex obtuse and densely covered with red papillae.

    Figure 1.  Gastrodia putaoensis sp. nov. (A) habit, (B) sepal lobes and petals, (C) lip, (D) front view of column.

    Figure 2. Habit ofGastrodia putaoensis sp. nov.
    Figure 3. Close up of flower of Gastrodia putaoensis sp. nov. (A) sepal and petal tubes, (B) lip.

    Gastrodia putaoensis X.H. Jin sp. nov.


    A species similar to G. dyeriana, but differing by having greyish white flowers with the lip narrowly triangular and subdivided into two parts with the apical part near tip densely covered with yellow hairs, and the lip apex obtuse and densely covered with red papillae.

    Type: Myanmar, Kachin State, Putao District, Hkakaborazi National Park, under the montane evergreen broadleaf forests, 2200 m a.s.l.,   Xiaohua Jin et al., PT-2275 (holotype: PE!; isotypes: PE!, IBSC!).

    Etymology: The epithet of the new species is derived from the name of Putao District, northern Myanmar, where the type was collected.

    Ecology and distribution: Gastrodia putaoensis grows under montane broadleaf evergreen forest at 2000–2200 m a.s.l. During our fieldwork in Hkakaborazi in 2016, two populations with approximately 2000 plants were discovered. Both populations are far from any direct threats. Hence, this new species should be considered as ‘Least Concern’ (LC) according to IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (IUCN 20012001).


    Jin Xiao-Hua and Kyaw Myint. 2017. Gastrodia putaoensis sp. nov. (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae) from North Myanmar. Nordic Journal of Botany. 35(6); 730–732.  DOI: 10.1111/njb.01581



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    Gymnogeophagus taroba
     Casciotta, Almirón, Piálek & Říčan, 2017

    HISTORIA NATURAL. Tercera Serie. 7(2)

    Abstract

     The Gymnogeophagus setequedas group is based on our results composed of three endemic species of which one, Gymnogeophagus taroba sp. n., is described as a new species. The three species are diagnosable from each other and from other species of Gymnogeophagus by stable differences in several morphological characters among which the best are found in coloration patterns. Body and head shapes and meristic characters show lesser differentiation but several are also clearly diagnostic in the G. setequedas group. The G. setequedas group is strongly structured allopatrically. The prime candidates for this fragmentation and speciation are the origins of the waterfalls on the individual tributaries. The largest of the waterfalls, the famous Cataratas del Iguazú, with a height of 72 m, separate G. taroba sp. n. from its closest relatives G. che and G. setequedas. The original 28 m high Urugua-í falls separate G. che from G. setequedas. Gymnogeophagus setequedas is separated from G. che and G. taroba by large rapids (about 65m in total elevation above the río Paraná) and a former fall on the Acaray river and by the 45 m high Monday falls located a few km from the mouth of the Monday into the río Paraná just opposite the mouth of the Iguazú.

     Key words. Cichlid fishes, endemism, morphology, La Plata River basin, Paraná river basin


    Figure 3- Gymnogeophagus taroba, coloration of live specimens immediatelly after capture.
     (A-B) IBIGEO-I 449, paratype specimens, 87.8 mm, 79.8 mm. (C-D) MLP uncat., Říčan et al., February 2014, data as holotype. 

    Taxonomy
    Family Cichlidae Bonaparte, 1835
    Genus Gymnogeophagus Miranda Ribeiro, 1918

    Gymnogeophagus taroba, new species (Figures 1-7; Table 1)

    Gymnogeophagus aff. setequedas Casciotta et al., 2016
    (photo of live holotype, first mention of the species)

    Diagnosis. Gymnogeophagus taroba is distinguished from all species of Gymnogeophagus in the G.gymnogenys group by the possession of 23 to 25 E1 scales and the absence of a well developed adipose hump in adult males. Gymnogeophagus taroba is most easily distinguished from all species in the G. rhabdotus group (G. terrapurpura, G. rhabdotus, G. meridionalis, G. setequedas and G. che) by the pigmentation of the dorsal fin. ....

    ......

    Etymology. The specific epithet taroba refers to Tarobá, a warrior, and refers to a legend of the Kaingang people; a noun in apposition. The Kaingang were the original first inhabitants of the present province of Misiones in Argentina and the southern Brazilian states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul and also the southeastern state of São Paulo. Their language and culture is quite distinct from the neighboring Guaraní. The Kaingang language is classified as a member of the Gê language family. The legend tells that at the beginning of time, the río Iguazú was inhabited by a huge and monstrous serpent called Mboi, a guardian god. The Kaingang sacrificed a beautiful young maiden every year to Mboi. When Tarobá meets Naipí, chosen for the sacrifice, he rebells against the elders of the tribe who refuse to release her. Tarobá and Naipí try to escape in a canoe by the river. Mboi becomes furious and brakes the course of the river forming the Iguazú falls, catching the lovers. Naipí is transformed into one of the rocks of the falls, perpetually punished by the turbulent waters, and Tarobá is turned into a palm tree on the bank of the waterfall. Mboi lives submerged in the Garganta del Diablo, from where he watches over the lovers, preventing them from joining again. However, on sunny days and as a bridge of love, the rainbow overcomes the power of Mboi by rejoining Naipí and Tarobá.


    Jorge Casciotta, Adriana Almirón, Lubomir Piálek and Oldřich Říčan. 2017. Gymnogeophagus taroba (Teleostei: Cichlidae), A New Species from the río Iguazú Basin, Misiones, Argentina.  HISTORIA NATURAL. Tercera Serie. 7(2); 5-22.


    Resumen. En base a nuestros resultados, el grupo Gymnogeophagus setequedas esta compuesto por tres especies endémicas, de las cuales, G. taroba sp. n., se describe como una nueva especie. Las tres especies son diagnosticables entre sí y de otras especies de Gymnogeophagus por diferencias estables en varios caracteres morfológicos, entre los cuales los mejores son los patrones de coloración. La forma del cuerpo, la cabeza y los caracteres merísticos muestran una menor diferenciación, pero algunos también son claramente diagnósticos en el grupo G. setequedas. El grupo G. setequedas está fuertemente estructurado alopátricamente. La causa principal para esta fragmentación y especiación es la formación de cascadas en los afluentes. La más grande de las cascadas, la famosa Catarata del Iguazú, con una altura de 72 m, separa G. taroba sp. n. de sus parientes más cercanos G. che y G. setequedas. El salto original del Urugua–í de 28 m de altura, separa G. che de G. setequedas. Gymnogeophagus setequedas está separada de G. che y G. taroba por grandes rápidos (unos 65 m de elevación total sobre el río Paraná) y un primer salto en el río Acaray y por otro salto de 45 m de altura en el río Monday localizado a unos pocos kilómetros de la desembocadura del Monday en el río Paraná justo enfrente de la desembocadura del Iguazú. 
    Palabras clave. Cíclidos, endemismo, morfología, Cuenca del Plata, Cuenca del río Paraná


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    Xuedytes bellus  Tian & Huang, 2017

    in Tian, Huang & Wang, 2017

    Abstract
    Xuedytes bellus Tian & Huang, gen. et sp. n. is described from a limestone cave in Du’an Karst of Guangxi, a kingdom of cavernicolous trechine beetles in southern China. From a morphological point of view, Xuedytes Tian & Huang, gen. n. seems to be the most extremely cave-adapted trechines in the world. Superficially, it looks much like Giraffaphaenops Deuve, 2002 in general body shape, in particular the structure of the prothorax, but simultaneously it is similar to Dongodytes (s. str.) Deuve, 1993, based on elytral characters, including chaetotaxy. Hence the new genus seems to represent a lineage intermediate between Giraffaphaenops and Dongodytes (s. str.).

    Keywords: aphaenopsian, Guangxi, ground beetle, troglobite


          
    Figure 1. Habitus of Xuedytes bellus Tian & Huang, gen. et sp. n., holotype male.
    Figure 2. Head (ventral) of Xuedytes bellus, a paratype female.

    Taxonomic treatment

    Xuedytes Tian & Huang, gen. n.
     Type species: Xuedytes bellus Tian & Huang, sp. n.

    Generic characteristics: Highly modified aphaenopsian trechines, body shape, in particular prothorax, similar to that in Giraffaphaenops, but elytra generally like in Dongodytes (s. str.) (Fig. 1); large-sized, with body (especially prothorax and elytra) and appendages thin and extremely elongated, eyeless and unpigmented; fore body part (head including mandibles, plus prothorax) much longer than, or as long as (excluding mandibles) elytra, respectively; body smooth; three pairs of frontal setiferous pores present on head; mandibles thin and elongated, feebly curved apically, longer than head width, right mandible edentate; labial suture completely missing; mentum bisetose on either side of tooth at base, base broadly concave; mental tooth simple, short and blunt at tip; submentum 8-setose; ligula bisetose at apex (Fig. 2); antennae very long, antennomeres 10 and 11 extending beyond elytral apices. Prothorax similar to that of Giraffaphaenops, wider than head, very strongly elongated, much longer than head including mandibles, propleura distinctly tumid in basal 1/3, visible from above; pronotum barrel-shaped, thin and distinctly elongated, lateral margins visible throughout from above, slightly narrower than head; hind latero-marginal setae absent, but two long latero-marginal setae plus two or three additional short setae present from middle to front. Elytra similar to those in Dongodytes (s. str.), narrow anteriorly and dilated posteriorly, side margins narrowly bordered throughout, shoulders lacking; striae virtually missing, only weakly traceable; two dorsal and the pre-apical setiferous pores present, each with a very long seta; chaetotaxy similar to that in Dongodytes (s. str.). Protibia smooth, without longitudinal sulcus; protarsomeres not modified in male. Ventrites VII bisetose apically in male, but quadrisetose in female. Male genitalia moderately sclerotized, small, strongly curved ventrally in lateral view, with a quite large and thin sagittal aileron; apical lobe wide and broad in dorsal view; parameres much shorter than median lobe, yet well-developed.

    Etymology: “Xue + dytes”. “Xue” in Chinese means “cave”, to indicate that the beetles are cavernicolous. Gender masculine.

    Generic range: China (Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region).


    Xuedytes bellus Tian & Huang, sp. n.

    Diagnosis: A large-sized, blind, cave-adapted trechine, remarkably modified morphologically, with both prothorax and elytra highly elongated and slender so that body five times longer than wide, antennae slightly shorter than body including mandibles, extending beyond elytral apices; head, pronotum and base of elytra covered with sparse erect setae. Habitus as in Figs 1 and 3.

    Etymology: Bellus”, in Latin meaning “beautiful”, to refer to this beautiful aphaenopsian beetle.



    Figure 5.  Cave II, southeastern Du’an, the type locality of Xuedytes bellus, and sympatric cave animals
     a, b cave environs and opening c a chamber in the cave where the beetles were collected d a running beetle in cave e, f cave spiders g, h cave millipedes i a cave woodlouse j a cave cricket. 

    Distribution: China (Guangxi: Du’an). Known only from Cave II.

    This cave maintains a natural condition, opening on a small hill on the northern bank of the Hongshui River. The entrance is surrounded by dense bushes and not readily accessible (Fig. 5a, b). The total length of the cave is still unknown, but said to be about 200 m, according to local people. It is sufficiently wet inside the gallery and is good for cave fauna. The beetles were found running on walls and stalactites (Fig. 5c, d), sympatric with spiders (Fig. 5e, f), millipedes (Fig. 5g, h), woodlice (Fig. 5i) and crickets (Fig. 5j).


     Mingyi Tian, Sunbin Huang and Dianmei Wang. 2017. Discovery of A Most Remarkable Cave-specialized Trechine Beetle from southern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae).  ZooKeys. 725: 37-47.  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.725.21040


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    Chamaesphecia montis (Leech, 1889)
    in Yata, Gorbunov, Aoki & Naoki, 2018. 

    The systematic position of Aegeria montis Leech, 1889 and Zhuosesia zhuoxiana Yang, 1977 is discussed. Having studied newly collected material, we transfer A. montis to the genus Chamaesphecia Spuler, 1910, subgenus Chamaesphecia s. str. The male of this species and its genitalia are illustrated for the first time. The host-plant of its larvae is assumed to be a species of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae).

            Zhuosesia Yang, 1977, syn. nov., is shown to be a junior subjective synonym of Chamaesphecia Spuler, 1910 with the new combination of its type species, Chamaesphecia zhuoxiana (Yang, 1977), comb. nov.

    Keywords:  Lepidoptera, Chamaesphecia, clearwing moth, Euphorbia, host-plant, East Palaearctic, Honshu, Japan, new combination, new synonym, systematics, taxonomy, Zhuosesia zhuoxiana





    Naoki Yata, Arita G. Gorbunov, Yutaka Aoki and Yoshichika Naoki. 2018. On the Taxonomy and Biology of the Clearwing Moth Aegeria montis (Lepidoptera, Sesiidae). Zootaxa. 4369(3);  443–450. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4369.3.9

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     Nymphargus caucanus  
    Rada, Ospina-Sarria & Guayasamin, 2017


    Abstract.
    Thirty species of the glassfrogs genus Nymphargus, including a new species, are known to inhabit the cloud forest of the Andes of Colombia and Ecuador. Four of these species (Nymphargus anomalus, N. ignotus, N. rosada, and the new species) are unusual by having a tan-brown dorsal coloration instead of the widespread green coloration commonly found in glassfrogs. Herein, we review tan-brown glassfrogs species, providing information on their external morphology, color ontogeny, ecology, and distribution. The new taxon inhabits the Andes of southwestern Colombia, Departamento del Cauca, and it is distinguished from other centrolenids by having a tan-brown dorsum with dark spots lacking ocelli, reduced (basal) webbing between outermost fingers, and lacking iridophores on the digestive tract and hepatic peritonea. We also find that Nymphargus ignotus is a polymorphic species distributed along the western flank of the Cordillera Occidental in Colombia. The egg masses of N. ignotus are similar to those known in others Nymphargus species, except for the presence of supplementary empty capsules. The distribution, abundance and function of empty capsules and the nature of the tan-brown color pattern in glassfrogs are discussed.

    Keywords: Amphibia, Cauca, Egg masses, Nymphargus, Munchique National Natural Park (PNN), Systematics

      Nymphargus caucanus sp. nov. female (ICN 33238, holotype, El Tambo Municipality, Cauca, 1,700 m asl; photo: John D. Lynch). 

    Figure 1. Photographs of tan species of Nymphargus in life.
    (A) Nymphargus anomalus (live specimen to be deposited at QCAZ, PUCE 29336, Pastaza, Ecuador, 1,668 m asl; photo: Luis A. Coloma); (B) N. ignotus ICN 55799, La Cumbre Municipality, Chicoral, 1,950 m asl; photo: MAR; (C) N. rosada ICN 34761 (PR 15553, holotype, Samaná Municipality, Caldas, 1,430–1,500 m asl; photo: Pedro M. Ruiz-Carranza (†) and Maria Cristina Ardila-Robayo); (D) N. caucanus sp. nov. female (ICN 33238, holotype, El Tambo Municipality, Cauca, 1,700 m asl; photo: John D. Lynch). 



    Marco Rada, Jhon Jairo Ospina-Sarria and Juan M. Guayasamin. 2017. A Taxonomic Review of Tan-Brown Glassfrogs (Anura: Centrolenidae), with the Description of A New Species from Southwestern Colombia. South American Journal of Herpetology. 12(2); 136-156.  DOI: 10.2994/SAJH-D-16-00026.1


      



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    Asaccus arnoldi
     Simó-Riudalbas, Tarroso, Papenfuss, Al-Sariri & Carranza, 2018

    Abstract
    The Hajar Mountains are the highest mountain range in eastern Arabia. Despite being classified as a mountain desert, it is considered one of the top biodiversity hotspots of Arabia. As a result of its relatively old geological origin, complex topography, environmental heterogeneity and geographic isolation from other mountain ranges, its fauna and flora have diversified significantly producing high levels of endemicity, particularly amongst reptiles. Several genetic studies indicate that this diversity may still be underestimated, especially within some groups containing morphologically similar species like the nocturnal geckos of the genus Asaccus. These have radiated extensively on both sides of the Gulf of Oman, in the Hajar Mountains and the Zagros Mountains of south-west Asia, and are a good example of the faunal affinities between these two mountain ranges. In the present work, we analyse A. gallagheri, the smallest species of the Arabian radiation, using an unprecedented sampling across its entire distribution range and an integrative approach combining morphological, macroecological and multilocus molecular data with the objective of clarifying its systematics and phylogeography. The results support the presence of two allopatric species within A. gallagheri that split approximately 6 Ma. The newly discovered species is endemic to the Eastern Hajars and is described herein mainly on the basis of its smaller size and high genetic divergence from A. gallagheri. The molecular analyses also uncovered remarkable levels of genetic diversity within both species. The present study highlights the diversity of the genus Asaccus in south-east Arabia and stresses its relevance from a conservation point of view.

    Key words: Arabia, biogeography, endemicity, geckos, Hajar Mountains, hypervolumes, species delimitation, taxonomy

    Fig. 3. View of the type locality and general appearance in life of Asaccus arnoldi sp. nov.
    1) Holotype of A. arnoldi sp. nov. (male; voucher code BMNH.2008.961);
    2) Rocky sides of Wadi Bani Khalid in 2016;
    3) Female (above) and male (below) A. arnoldi sp. nov. with the characteristic dimorphic tail colouration.
    All photographs taken by Salvador Carranza.

    Asaccus Dixon and Anderson, 1973
    Asaccus arnoldi sp. nov.







    Asaccus arnoldi sp. nov.

    Etymology. The species epithet arnoldi is a genitive Latin noun to honour the British herpetologist, Dr E.Nicholas Arnold, for his life-long dedication and contribution to Arabian herpetology, including the description of the little-known gecko Asaccus gallagheri 45 years ago.  


    Marc Simó-Riudalbas, Pedro Tarroso, Theodore Papenfuss, Thuraya Al-Sariri and Salvador Carranza. 2018. Systematics, Biogeography and Evolution of Asaccus gallagheri (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae) with the Description of A New Endemic Species from Oman. Systematics and Biodiversity.  DOI: 10.1080/14772000.2017.1403496





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    Myzomela irianawidodoae
    Prawiradilaga, Baveja, Suparno, Ashari, Ng, Gwee, Verbelen& Rheindt, 2017

     photo:  Philippe Verbelen 

    ABSTRACT
    The avifauna of Rote Island in the Lesser Sundas is not well studied and generally considered to be similar to that of adjacent Timor Island. However, some cases of bird endemism have recently been documented on this island. A population of Myzomela honeyeater is one such example. First observed in October 1990, it has been subsumed with Myzomela dammermani from Sumba Island given its superficially similar appearance. Based on extensive morphological inspection and bioacoustic analysis, we here describe this population as a new taxon to science. Apart from previously overlooked plumage distinctions, the new taxon bioacoustically differs from M. dammermani in the presence or absence of several unique call types and considerable differences across two parameters in shared call types. Considering the importance of bioacoustics in avian species delimitation, we propose that the new Rote Myzomela be considered a distinct species. Given continued habitat conversion across its small range, we propose the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat status Vulnerable for the species.

    Key words: bird, Lesser Sundas, Myzomela, new species, Rote Island


    Male ‘Rote Myzomela’ Myzomela irianawidodoae sp. nov., near Bolatena village, Rote Island, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia, April 2014.

    Figure 1. Map showing distribution of a select group of Myzomela taxa with a similar morphology.
    A– Sumba Myzomela M. dammermani (Sumba Island; turquoise), B– the newly-described Rote Myzomela [Myzomela irianawidodoae] (Rote Island; red), C– Timor Myzomela M. vulnerata (Timor Island; dark blue), D– Banda Myzomela M. boiei (Banda Island arc and Tanimbar Islands; pink), E –Red-headed Myzomela M. erythrocephala (coastal Australia and Papua, Aru Islands; yellow).

    Myzomela irianawidodoae, species nova
    English name: Rote Myzomela
    Indonesian name: Myzomela Rote

    Etymology: We are pleased to name this species after Iriana Widodo, the current First Lady of the Republic of Indonesia, to recognise her keen interest in Indonesia’s birdlife and her valuable stewardship and advocacy for Indonesia’s natural environments.

    ....




    Dewi Malia Prawiradilaga, Pratibha Baveja, Suparno, Hidayat Ashari, Nathaniel Sheng Rong Ng, Chyi Yin Gwee, Philippe Verbelen and Frank Erwin Rheindt. 2017.    A Colourful New Species of Myzomela Honeyeater from Rote Island in eastern Indonesia. Treubia. 44:77-100.
     ResearchGate.net/publication/322163070_A_COLOURFUL_NEW_SPECIES_OF_MYZOMELA_HONEYEATER_FROM_ROTE_ISLAND_IN_EASTERN_INDONESIA

    Philippe Verbelen, Colin R. Trainor, Veerle Dossche and Rohan P. Fisher. 2017. Rote Island, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia: an emerging hotspot of avian endemism. BirdingAsia. 27; 57-73.
    ResearchGate.net/publication/319099457_Rote_Island_East_Nusa_Tenggara_Province_Indonesia_an_emerging_hotspot_of_avian_endemism

    Description d'une nouvelle espèce d'oiseau en Indonésie, le Myzomèle de Rote (d'Iriana Widodo) | Ornithomedia.com: ornithomedia.com/magazine/etudes/description-nouvelle-espece-oiseau-indonesie-myzomele-rote-iriana-widodo-02595.html 



    The discovery of Myzomela irianawidodoae — named after Indonesia’s first lady, Iriana Joko Widodo — involved a series of separate field studies between 1990 and 2015 by different groups of researchers, according to a paper published Dec. 31, 2017, in the scientific journal Treubia.

    Meet Indonesia’s new honeyeater species from Rote Island news.mongabay.com/2018/01/meet-indonesias-new-honeyeater-species-from-rote-island/ via @Mongabay


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    Caligoneus cavernicola
     Komai & Fujita, 2018


    Abstract

    Two species of alpheid shrimp collected from a marine cave off Ie Island, Okinawa Islands, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, are reported. Caligoneus cavernicola n. gen., n. sp., is described on the basis of six specimens, including two ovigerous individuals. The new monotypic genus shares a number of features with Salmoneus Holthuis, 1955 and Triacanthoneus Anker, 2010; however, the dorsally elevated rostrum and the symmetrical pereopods 1 (= chelipeds) of “minor form” distinguish Caligoneus n. gen. from the latter two genera. Other potentially diagnostic characters between the new genus and the latter two genera are also discussed. The new taxon is clearly adapted to stygobiotic environments, with its reduced cornea and very slender elongate pereopods. In addition, two complete specimens of Salmoneus antricola Komai, Yamada & Yunokawa, 2015, collected in the same cave, supplement the original description of the species, which was based on a unique holotype with a damaged telson.

    Keywords: Crustacea, Caligoneus cavernicola, Ie Island, stygobiotic, Triacanthoneus




    Tomoyuki Komai and Yoshihisa Fujita. 2018. A New Genus and New Species of Alpheid Shrimp from A Marine Cave in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, with Additional Record of Salmoneus antricola Komai, Yamada & Yunokawa, 2015 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea). Zootaxa. 4369(4); 575–586.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4369.4.7



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    Tsuga ulleungensis

    in Holman, Del Tredici, Havill, Lee, Cronn, Cushman, Mathews, Raubeson & Campbell. 2017.    DOI: 10.1600/036364417X696474 

    Abstract
    Species delimitation in Pinaceae is often challenged by limited morphological differentiation and introgression. In Tsuga (hemlocks), species delimitation has been most challenging among northeastern Asian taxa, where the species are weakly marked morphologically and range in number from three to five in previous studies. Two low-copy nuclear four-coumarase-ligase (4CL) genes andmorphology strongly support a clade of the Japanese endemic T. diversifolia and T. sieboldii from Japan and Ulleung island (Ulleungdo) in Korea. This clade is here referred to as the oceanic hemlocks. 4CL strongly supports a sister-group relationship of the widespread northeastern Asian T. chinensis and eastern North American T. caroliniana. In contrast, chloroplast genomes, which are markedly reduced in Tsuga and relatives, strongly support Japanese T. sieboldii as sister to T. chinensis and moderately support T. caroliniana as sister to a clade of T. diversifolia and hemlocks from Ulleungdo. These divergent topologies suggest chloroplast capture of T. chinensis by Japanese T. sieboldii. Ulleungdo hemlocks are distinct from other northeastern Asian species in leaf and cone morphology and phenologically in common-garden observations. We therefore describe these hemlocks as a new species, Tsuga ulleungensis.

    Keywords: Chloroplast capture, island endemic, plastid genomes, quantitative morphology, Ulleungdo



    Garth Holman, Peter Del Tredici, Nathan Havill, Nam Sook Lee, Richard Cronn, Kevin Cushman, Sarah Mathews, Linda Raubeson and Christopher S. Campbell. 2017. A New Species and Introgression in Eastern Asian Hemlocks (Pinaceae: Tsuga). Systematic Botany. 42(4); 1-15.  DOI: 10.1600/036364417X696474




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    Amblyceps improcerum
     Ng & Kottelat, 2018


    Abstract 
    A new species of amblycipitid catfish is here described from the Indawgyi Lake basin of the Irrawaddy River drainage in Kachin State, Myanmar as Amblyceps improcerum, new species. It can be distinguished from congeners in having a unique combination of the following characters: lower jaw longer than upper; head length 17.4–22.3% SL; head width 13.7–15.2% SL; head depth 9.0–11.7% SL; interorbital distance 31–39% HL; eye diameter 7–10% HL; 37–38 vertebrae; lateral line incomplete; predorsal length 25.5–30.7% SL; smooth posterior margin of pectoral spine; pectoral-fin length 13.5–16.8% SL; pelvic-fin length 9.6–13.4% SL; dorsal-to-adipose distance 25.2–28.7% SL; length of adipose-fin base 19.4–23.3% SL; adipose fin separate from dorsal procurrent caudal-fin rays; preanal length 62.1–66.9% SL; body depth at anus 9.8–12.8% SL; depth of caudal peduncle 10.1–12.6% SL; length of caudal peduncle 21.4–24.0% SL, post-adipose distance 15.8–17.8% SL; weakly-forked caudal fin with short broadly, rounded lobes (length of longest ray 1.3–1.5 times length of median rays); centrally projecting hooks on proximal lepidotrichia of median caudal-fin rays absent.

    Keywords: Ostariophysi, Sisoroidea, Irrawaddy river, New species 


    Fig. 1 Amblyceps improcerum, holotype, MHNG 2768.061, 53.2 mm SL; Myanmar: Kachin State: Lake Indawgyi basin. Dorsal, lateral and ventral views


    Amblyceps improcerum, new species

    Etymology: The specific epithet comes from the Latin adjective improcerus, −a, −um, meaning "not tall" or "undersized", in reference to the relatively short caudalfin lobes and adipose-fin base of this species when compared to nearly all congeners.


    Heok Hee Ng and Maurice Kottelat. 2018. Amblyceps improcerum, A New Sisoroid Catfish from Kachin State, Myanmar (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Amblycipitidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes.  DOI: 10.1007/s10641-017-0712-0


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    Allodesmus demerei 
    Boessenecker & Churchill, 2018


    Abstract
    The family Desmatophocidae represents an early radiation of extinct pinnipeds that peaked in diversity during the middle Miocene. Although represented by abundant well-preserved fossils, the taxonomy and evolutionary relationships of this family remain poorly known. Late Miocene desmatophocids have been recorded, although none have been formally described, preventing a thorough appraisal of their decline and extinction. We report the discovery of a new species, Allodesmus demerei sp. nov., represented by a partial skeleton with cranium, mandibles, and axial skeleton, from the upper Miocene Montesano Formation of Washington, prompting reinterpretation of desmatophocid taxonomy, phylogeny, and extinction. Phylogenetic analysis (95 characters, 26 taxa) found strong support for monophyletic Desmatophocidae and Allodesmus. Desmatophocidae was found as sister to Phocidae with poor support. Allodesmus demerei was placed within the Allodesmus as the sister taxon to Allodesmus kernensis. The geochronologically young age (10.5–9.1 Mya) of Al. demerei establishes this species as the last of the desmatophocid seals. The middle Miocene peak in desmatophocid diversity coincides with the middle Miocene climatic optimum, suggesting that declining sea surface temperature played a role in their decline and extinction. Walruses diversified and increased in body size during the mid- to late Miocene as desmatophocids declined, suggesting some form of ecological displacement.








    Robert W. Boessenecker and Morgan Churchill. 2018. The Last of the Desmatophocid Seals: A New Species of Allodesmus from the upper Miocene of Washington, USA, and a revision of the taxonomy of Desmatophocidae.  Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. zlx098.  DOI:  10.1093/zoolinnean/zlx098 

    Remains found in Grays Harbor lead to discovery of new species kxro.com/remains-found-grays-harbor-lead-discovery-new-species/



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    Cornufer exedrus
    Travers, Richards, Broadhead & Brown, 2018


    Abstract

    We describe a new species of Cornufer, subgenus Batrachylodes, from high-elevation forests of New Britain Island in the Bismarck Archipelago of Eastern Melanesia. The new species, Cornufer exedrus sp. nov., is a biogeographically disjunct member of the Batrachylodes clade, representing the first record of the subgenus from outside of the Solomon Archipelago. The new species is a small terrestrial form from dense, closed-canopy forests above 1500 meters elevation in the Nakanai Mountains of eastern New Britain. It differs from its closest relatives, the other members of the subgenus Batrachylodes, on the basis of its minute body size, degree of digital disc expansion, reduced subdigital tuberculation, color pattern, and other traits related to its small size. We also provide a description of the new species’ simple advertisement call. The diversity of ceratobatrachid frogs of the Bismarck Archipelago is most likely still underestimated despite several recent surveys. Our understanding of evolutionary trends and species boundaries in the subgenus Batrachylodes currently is hampered by lack of genetic samples and call recordings corresponding to voucher specimens of the endemic species of Bougainville Island.

    Keywords: Amphibia, Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea, Southwest Pacific, Sticky-toed frogs, advertisement calls




     Scott L. Travers, Stephen J. Richards,  Taylor S. Broadhead and Rafe M. Brown. 2018. A New Miniature Melanesian Forest Frog (Ceratobatrachidae: Cornufer) from New Britain Island, Constituting the First Record of the Subgenus Batrachylodes from Outside of the Solomon Archipelago. Zootaxa. 4370(1); 23–44.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4370.1.2


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    Gigandipus chiappei
    Xing, Lockley, Klein, Zeng, Cai, Luo & Li, 2018


    Highlights
    1. First example of a Cretaceous track morphotype attributable to Gigandipus.
    2. Second report largest avian theropod tracks Wupus from Lower Cretaceous.
    3. The similarity between K1 and J1 theropod ichnotaxa in East Asia.

    Abstract
    A newly discovered Jiaguan Formation (Lower Cretaceous) tracksite from the Linjiang region of Guizhou Province, China, reveals the first example of a Cretaceous track morphotype attributable to the non-avian theropod ichnogenus Gigandipus, here named Gigandipus chiappei ichnosp nov. The theropod dominated locality also reveals the second report of the avian theropod ichnogenus Wupus, one of the largest avian traces currently known from the Lower Cretaceous. The Linjiang site provides evidence to support previous interpretations of a distinctive Lower Cretaceous theropod-dominated ichnofauna that was widespread in China and East Asia and highlights the similarity between Lower Cretaceous theropod ichnotaxa in East Asia and those found in the Lower Jurassic both in East Asia and elsewhere. These similarities in turn create various ichnotaxonomic challenges familiar to researchers working on theropod tracks, and we recommend caution in the naming of new theropod ichnotaxa at the ichnogenus level.

    Keywords: Early Cretaceous; Jiaguan Formation; theropod tracks; Gigandipus; Wupus




     Gigandipus tracks

    Theropoda Marsh, 1881
    Gigandipodidae Lull, 1904

    Gigandipus Hitchcock, 1856; Lull, 1904
    Type ichnospeciesG. caudatus Lull, 1904

    Gigandipus chiappei ichnosp. nov.

    Etymology. The specific name is in honor of Dr. Luis M. Chiappe, a distinguished paleontologist who is world-renowned on the origin and early evolution birds.

    ....


     Conclusions 
    The Linjiang tracksite in the Jiaguan Formation of Guizhou Province reveals the first example of a Cretaceous track morphotype attributable to the non-avian theropod ichnogenus Gigandipus, here named G. chiappei ichnosp nov. The site also reveals only the second report of the avian theropod ichnogenus Wupus, which is one of the largest avian traces currently known from the Lower Cretaceous. The discovery underscores the importance of the Jiaguan Formation as a major source of tetrapod (theropod) data in the Sichuan Basin region from which little or no useful body fossil data have been recovered.
     Data from the Linjiang site provide growing support for a distinctive and widespread Lower Cretaceous theropod-dominated ichnofauna in China. This ichnofauna also shows notable similarities to other Lower Cretaceous theropod dominated ichnofaunas from East Asia, notably Korea. There are also taxonomically challenging similarities between these Lower Cretaceous ichnofaunas and those found in the Lower Jurassic both in East Asia and elsewhere. These challenges, which raise perennial “lumper-splitter” debates, suggest ichnologists should exercise caution naming new ichnotaxa, especially at the ichnogenus level.  


    Lida Xing, Martin G. Lockley, Hendrik Klein, Rong Zeng, Sifu Cai, Xiuchun Luo and Chen Li. 2018. Theropod Assemblages and A New Ichnotaxon Gigandipus chiappei ichnosp. nov. from the Jiaguan Formation, Lower Cretaceous of Guizhou Province, China. Geoscience Frontiers. In Press. DOI: 10.1016/j.gsf.2017.12.012

      


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    Figure 1. The four main groups of myriapods. AOtostigmus (Parotostigmuspococki (Northern Range, Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago) (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha); BHanseniella sp. (South Island, New Zealand) (Symphyla, Scutigerellidae); CPauropus huxleyi (Massachusetts, USA) (Pauropoda, Tetramerocerata); and DPlatydesmus sp. (La Selva, Costa Rica) (Diplopoda, Platydesmida).
    Fernández, Edgecombe & Giribet, 2018.

    Abstract
    The interrelationships of the four classes of Myriapoda have been an unresolved question in arthropod phylogenetics and an example of conflict between morphology and molecules. Morphology and development provide compelling support for Diplopoda (millipedes) and Pauropoda being closest relatives, and moderate support for Symphyla being more closely related to the diplopod-pauropod group than any of them are to Chilopoda (centipedes). In contrast, several molecular datasets have contradicted the Diplopoda–Pauropoda grouping (named Dignatha), often recovering a Symphyla–Pauropoda group (named Edafopoda). Here we present the first transcriptomic data including a pauropod and both families of symphylans, allowing myriapod interrelationships to be inferred from phylogenomic data from representatives of all main lineages. Phylogenomic analyses consistently recovered Dignatha with strong support. Taxon removal experiments identified outgroup choice as a critical factor affecting myriapod interrelationships. Diversification of millipedes in the Ordovician and centipedes in the Silurian closely approximates fossil evidence whereas the deeper nodes of the myriapod tree date to various depths in the Cambrian-Early Ordovician, roughly coinciding with recent estimates of terrestrialisation in other arthropod lineages, including hexapods and arachnids.

    Figure 2A. Preferred phylogenetic hypothesis of myriapod interrelationships (PhyloBayes, matrix 1). 2B. DensiTree visualization of the four most congruent analyseis (PhyloBayes, matrices 2 and 3; PhyML, matrix 3). 2C, 2D. Main conflicting alternative hypothesis (2C, PhyML, matrix 2; 2D, PhyML, matrix 1). 2E. Phylogenetic hypothesis of Myriapoda based on 232 morphological characters coded for both extant and extinct species (see Methods for further details); strict consensus of 488 trees of 257 steps; Fossil taxa are identified with a dagger symbol. Black circles in nodes represent high support (> 95% posterior probability, > 90% bootstrap support). CHE: Chelicerata. PAN: Pancrustacea. CHI: Chilopoda. SYM: Symphyla. PAU: Pauropoda. DIP: Diplopoda. Colour codes for each clade are maintained in all figures.

    Figure 1. The four main groups of myriapods.
    AOtostigmus (Parotostigmuspococki (Northern Range, Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago) (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha); BHanseniella sp. (South Island, New Zealand) (Symphyla, Scutigerellidae); CPauropus huxleyi (Massachusetts, USA) (Pauropoda, Tetramerocerata); and DPlatydesmus sp. (La Selva, Costa Rica) (Diplopoda, Platydesmida).

    Rosa Fernández, Gregory D. Edgecombe and Gonzalo Giribet. 2018. Phylogenomics Illuminates the Backbone of the Myriapoda Tree of Life and Reconciles Morphological and Molecular Phylogenies. Scientific Reports. 8, 83.  DOI:  10.1038/s41598-017-18562-w


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    Ninia teresitae
    Angarita-Sierra & Lynch, 2017


    Abstract

    We describe a new species of the genus Ninia from the Chocó-Magdalena biogeographic province, which was previously reported as a distinct population of N. maculata or as N. atrata from the western slopes of the Cordillera Occidental of Colombia. The new species is similar to N. atrata, N. celata, N. espinali, N. franciscoi, and N. maculata. It shares the following characteristics with the species mentioned above: 19 dorsal scale rows without reductions; dorsal ground color black or dark brown; white or cream occipital nuchal collar. However, it is easily distinguished from all other congeners because it has a non-regular color pattern in the ventral surfaces of the head and body, subcaudal surface homogeneously black or dark brown, two nasal scales, and one lateral projection ornamented with a large basal hook-shaped spine that is larger than any other spine on the hemipenial body. The presence of a lateral projection on the hemipenial body makes the new species the only member of the genus from South America that shares this feature with its Central American congeners. This feature suggests a closer relationship with this linage. Finally, our results indicate that proper and careful revision of the Ninia atrata species complex will help to understand and clarify the taxonomic composition of the genus.

    Keywords: Reptilia, External morphology, Biogeography of the Colombian Pacific lowlands, Hemipenis, Ninia atrata, Ninia maculata, taxonomy


    Ninia teresitae sp. nov. 

    FIGURE 2. General view of the holotype (ICN 12527) of Ninia teresitae sp. nov., in life (A), dorsal (B) and ventral (C) views after its preservation.

    Etymology. The specific epithet teresitae represent the Latin translation of the nickname from the Spanish “Teresita” and is given in honor to the grandmother of the first author, Maria Teresa Guerrero (1915−2013). “Teresita” was one of the most influential persons in her grandson’s life, who never failed to support him and encouraged his endless passion for snakes.


    Teddy Angarita-Sierra and John D. Lynch. 2017. A New Species of Ninia (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from Chocó-Magdalena Biogeographical Province, western Colombia. Zootaxa. 4244(4); 478–492.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4244.4.2


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    Dregea taynguyenensis T.B. Tran & Rodda

    in Tran, Van, Thu, Choi, Eum & Rodda, 2018

    Abstract

    The new species Dregea taynguyenensis from Vietnam is described, illustrated and compared with the other Dregea species occurring in Vietnam and neighbouring countries D. cuneifolia, D. sinensis, D. volubilis and D. yunnanensis. Dregea taynguyenensis differs from these species by the leaf blade secondary veins number, calyx lobes shape, and corolla lobes size.

    Keywords: Asclepiadaceae, Marsdenieae, Southeast Asia, Wattakaka, Eudicots



    Dregea taynguyenensis T.B. Tran & Rodda, spec. nov. 

    Dregea taynguyenensis is most similar to D. cuneifolia due to the elliptic-oblong leaf blades, cuneate at base and acuminate at apex. The former is distinguished from the latter by having 7–10 secondary veins each side of midrib (vs. 5–6 in D. cuneifolia), calyx lobes lanceolate to linear (vs. ovate) and corolla lobes 10.2–12.6 × 5.3–6.4 mm (vs. c. 4 × 4 mm).

    ....

    Etymology:— The specific epithet refers to the type locality, Tay Nguyen area in Vietnam.. 

    Distribution and ecology:— Dregea taynguyenensis is only found in Vietnam, Gia Lai province, Tay Nguyen area where it grows in sunny places in secondary forest, in association with Bidens pilosa Linnaeus (1753: 832), Jasminum lanceolarium Roxburg (1820: 97), Maclurodendron oligophlebium (Merrill 1923: 246) T.G. Hartley (1982: 13), Mallotus paniculatus (Lamarck in Lamarck & Poiret 1786: 207) Müller Argoviensis (1865: 34), Melicope pteleifolia (Champion ex Bentham in Bentham 1851: 330) T.G. Hartley (1993: 521). 

    FIGURE 1. Dregea taynguyenensis. Flowering branch in the habitat of the type locality. Photograph by T.B. Tran (9 June 2011).
    FIGURE 2. Dregea taynguyenensis.A, Leaf blade, abaxial side (left), adaxial side (right); B, Inflorescence with flower buds; C, Flowering branch; D, Inflorescence with greenish flowers; E, Inflorescence with flowers yellowish flushed purple. Based on T.B. Tran et al. Bach 0906201101 (HN), photographs by T.B. Tran (9 June 2011). 

    The Bach Tran, Hai Do Van, Ha Bui Thu, Sangho Choi, Sangmi Eum and Michele Rodda. 2018. Dregea taynguyenensis (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), A New Species from Vietnam. Phytotaxa. 333(2); 267–273. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.333.2.11



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    [left] Dendropsophus kamagarini
    [right] Dendropsophus kubricki
    Rivadeneira, Venegas & Ron, 2018

    [lower] Dendropsophus parviceps (Boulenger, 1882)


    Abstract
    The genus Dendropsophus is one of the most speciose among Neotropical anurans and its number of described species is increasing. Herein, molecular, morphological, and bioacoustic evidence are combined to assess species limits within D. parviceps, a widely distributed species in the Amazon Basin. Phylogenetic relationships were assessed using 3040 bp sequences of mitochondrial DNA, genes 12S, ND1, and CO1. The phylogeny shows three well-supported clades. Bioacoustic and morphological divergence is congruent with those clades demonstrating that Dendropsophus parviceps is a species complex. Dendropsophus parviceps sensu stricto occurs in the Amazon basin of Ecuador, northern Peru, southern Colombia and northwestern Brazil. It is sister to two previously undescribed species, Dendropsophus kubricki sp. n. from central Peru and Dendropsophus kamagarini sp. n. from southern Peru, northeastern Bolivia, and northwestern Brazil. Genetic distances (uncorrected p, gene 12S) between D. parviceps and the new species is 3 to 4%. Dendropsophus kamagarini sp. n. can be distinguished from D. parviceps by having a prominent conical tubercle on the distal edge of the upper eyelid (tubercle absent in D. parviceps). Dendropsophus kubricki sp. n. differs from D. parviceps by having scattered low tubercles on the upper eyelids (smooth in D. parviceps). Dendropsophus parviceps and both new species differ from all their congeners by their small size (adult maximum SVL = 28.39 mm in females, 22.73 mm in males) and by having a bright orange blotch on the hidden areas of the shanks and under arms. The advertisement call of the two new species has lower dominant frequency relative to D. parviceps. Probable speciation modes are discussed. Available evidence indicates that ecological speciation along an elevation gradient is unlikely in this species complex.

    Keywords: Advertisement call, Amazon Basin, cryptic species, integrative taxonomy, morphology, phylogeny


    Figure 6. Dorsolateral and ventral views of Dendropsophus parviceps in life:
     A, B Adult male, from type locality Sarayaku, Pastaza, Ecuador (QCAZ 52752) C, D Adult male, from Canelos, Pastaza, Ecuador (QCAZ 52816) E Adult male, from Yasuní, Orellana, Ecuador (QCAZ 51073) F Amplectant pair from Nuevo Rocafuerte, Río Napo, Orellana, Ecuador (QCAZ 44773–74) G, H Adult female, from Chiroisla, Río Napo, Orellana, Ecuador (QCAZ 44440). Photographs by S. Ron.

    Figure 1. Bayesian consensus phylogeny of Dendropsophus parviceps species complex based on 3040 bp of mtDNA. Node support is indicated with Bayesian posterior probabilities (pp) above branches and non-parametric bootstrap support below. Asteriks denote nodes with pp = 1 and bootstrap values = 100%. Outgroups, bootstrap values < 60%, and pp < 0.8 are not shown. Museum number and locality are provided for each sample. Abbreviations: BR = Brazil, PE = Peru, and EC = Ecuador.

    Figure 9. Distribution of Dendropsophus parviceps species complex.
    Dendropsophus parviceps (Northern Clade, blue crosses), D. kubricki sp. n. (Central Clade, green circles), D. kamagarini sp. n. (Southern Clade, orange rhombi). Stars = type locality, figures with a small black dot at the center = referred specimens, and hollow figures = unconfirmed records.

    Dendropsophus parviceps (Boulenger, 1882) 
    Hyla parviceps Boulenger, 1882: 393. Holotype BMNH 1947.2.13.51, an adult female from “Sarayacu”, Pastaza Province, Ecuador.
    Hyla parviceps– Duellman and Crump 1974: 19; Duellman 1978: 156.
    Dendropsophus parviceps– Faivovich et al. 2005: 93.

    Diagnosis: Throughout the species account, coloration refers to preserved specimens unless otherwise noted. Dendropsophus parviceps is characterized by: (1) small size, mean SVL 16.4 mm in males (range 14.3–18.7; n = 65), 22.5 mm in females (range 20.3–24.4; n = 30); (2) throat sexually dimorphic, dark flecks posteriorly in males vs. white blotch with two or three longitudinal stripes or without stripes posteriorly in females (Fig. 8); (3) snout truncate in dorsal and lateral views, slightly inclined posteroventrally in lateral view; (4) nostrils slightly prominent; (5) tympanum visible, concealed posterodorsally, tympanic membrane differentiated and annulus evident; (6) conical tubercles on upper eyelid absent; (7) thoracic fold absent; (8) ulnar tubercles and outer tarsal tubercles indistinct; (9) axillary membrane present; (10) skin on dorsal surfaces smooth with scattered small tubercles; skin on chest areolate; skin on belly, posterior surfaces of thighs, and subcloacal area coarsely areolate; skin on throat and other surfaces smooth; (11) dark brown markings on dorsum (Fig. 8); (12) thenar tubercle is distinct; (13) hand webbing formula II11/2–2III2-–2-IV, feet webbing formula I1-−2-II1-−2-III1-–2IV2−1-V; (14) in life, dorsal surfaces brown, tan or grayish tan; (15) orange to amber blotch on the proximal ventral surface of shanks and under arms, from the axillae to near the elbow, in life (white to creamy white in preservative); (16) one suborbital white bar present both in life and preservative; (17) thighs are black to dark brown with two or three white spots on the anterodorsal surfaces both in life and preservative; (18) iris in life is creamy white to reddish brown with brow or dark brown reticulations.

    .....

    Distribution and ecology: Dendropsophus parviceps is known from 39 localities in the Ecuadorian Amazon basin (Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Sucumbíos, and Tungurahua provinces; Fig. 9), few localities in the Peruvian Amazon basin at northwest Loreto (Andoas and San Jacinto; Fig. 9), the Colombian Amazon (Río Apaporis, Vaupés Department, and Ceilán, Caquetá Department; Cochran and Goin 1970; Fig. 9), and northern Brazil (“Taracuá” [= Taracuacá], Río Uaupés, Amazonas State; Melin 1941). Elevation range is 151 m (Andoas) to 1600 m above sea level (Río Verde). Our Colombian records are unverified and are based on Cochran and Goin (1970) who examined three specimens (MLS 54 and MCZ 28058–59) and explicitly mention the absence of tubercles on the upper eyelids. Moreover, the SVL for a gravid female from Ceilan (MLS 54, 21.8 mm) falls outside the known size range of D. kubricki sp. n. and D. kamagarini sp. n. (Table 3). Ecuadorian localities from Sucumbíos province are close to the Colombian border further suggesting the presence of D. parviceps in Colombia. In addition, there is an unconfirmed register of D. parviceps from Ramal do Purupuru, km 34 on the BR-319 highway (3.3535°S, 59.8557°W, 35 m, Amazonas State, Brazil; Fig. 9).

    Dendropsophus parviceps inhabits Amazonian lower montane forest, Amazonian foothill forest, and Amazonian evergreen lowland rainforest (habitat types based on Ron et al. 2017). Dendropsophus parviceps is an opportunistic breeder and can be found in primary and secondary forest, temporary ponds, flooded areas, swamps, and artificial open areas. Calling activity starts at dusk (17–18h), but it is mainly nocturnal. According to Lynch (2005), D. parviceps is a canopy species that visits the lower forest strata for breeding.


    Figure 10. Dorsolateral and ventral views ofDendropsophus kamagarini sp. n. in life:
    A, B Adult male, from La Habana, Tambopata, Peru (CORBIDI 5259) C, D Adult male, from Bahuaja, Puno, Peru (CORBIDI 13148) E–H Adult females, from Pagoreni norte, La Convención, Peru E, F not collected. Dorsolateral and ventral views of Dendropsophus kamagarini sp. n. in life: G, H (CORBIDI 10018) I, J Adult male, from Tahuamanu, Nicolás Suárez, Bolivia (11.4074°S, 69.0180°W, 260 m, not collected) K, L Adult male, from El Negro, Manuripi, Bolivia (12.3134°S, 68.6689°W, 187 m, not collected) N Adult male, from Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil (10.0387°S, 67.7957°W, 160 m, not collected) M Adult male, from Rio Madeira, Rondônia, Brazil (8.8482°S, 64.0689°W, 110 m, not collected). Photos A, B, E–H by V. Duran, C, D by P. J. Venegas I–L by A. Muñoz, N by P.R. Melo-Sampaio, and M by A.P. Lima. 


      

    Dendropsophus kamagarini sp. n.

    Etymology: The specific name kamagarini is a noun derived from the Matsigenka language, which means demon or devil (Snell et al. 2011). The Matsigenka language is spoken by the Matsigenka people who inhabit the highlands and lowlands of southeastern Peru, in the departments of Cusco and Madre de Dios. Judeo-Christian religions depict the demon as a human figure with horns. The species name is in allusion to the prominent horn-like tubercles on the upper eyelid of D. kamagarini.

    Diagnosis: Throughout the species description, coloration refers to preserved specimens unless otherwise noted. The new species is assigned to the genus Dendropsophus based on our phylogenetic results (Fig. 1) and the overall similarity with D. parviceps and other species of the genus (Figs 10–11). Dendropsophus kamagarini is a medium-sized species, relative to other species in the D. parviceps group and is characterized by the following combination of traits: (1) size sexually dimorphic; mean SVL 19.9 mm in males (range 17.6–22.7; n = 35), 26.1 mm in females (range 24.0–28.1; n = 7); (2) throat brown mottled with white flecks posteriorly in males vs. white blotch with flecks or with stripes posteriorly in females (Fig. 11); (3) snout is short and truncate in dorsal and lateral views; (4) nostrils slightly protuberant; (5) tympanum visible, tympanic membrane non-differentiated, annulus distinct; (6) one prominent conical tubercle on the distal edge of the upper eyelid; (7) thoracic fold indistinct to barely evident; (8) ulnar tubercles and outer tarsal tubercles distinct; (9) axillary membrane present; (10) skin on dorsal surfaces smooth with scattered tubercles; skin on chest, belly, posterior surfaces of thighs, and subcloacal area coarsely areolate; skin on throat grooved with scattered tubercles; (11) dark brown markings on dorsum (Fig. 11); (12) thenar tubercle distinct; (13) hand webbing formula II1-–2+III1-–1-IV, feet webbing formula I11/2–2+II1-–1III1-–2-IV2–1V; (14) in life, dorsum tan, brown or reddish brown; (15) orange to amber blotch on the proximal ventral surface of shanks and under arms, from the axillae to near the elbow, in life (white to creamy white in preserved); (16) one suborbital white bar present both in life and preserved; (17) thighs black to dark brown with two or three spots on the anterodorsal surfaces both in life and preserved; (18) iris in life creamy white with brown to reddish brown reticulations and a cream ring around pupil.

    Distribution and ecology: Dendropsophus kamagarini occurs in the Amazon basin of southeastern Peru (Cusco and Madre de Dios regions; Fig. 9), northwestern Brazil (Acre and Rondônia states; Fig. 9), and northeastern Bolivia, from the Andean slopes to lowland tropical rainforest (Fig. 9). Localities with known elevation range from 150 m (Acre) to 1696 m (Ochigoteni) above sea level.


    Figure 13. Dorsolateral and ventral views of Dendropsophus kubricki sp. n. in life:
     A, B Holotype, adult male, from Río Tapiche, Requena, Peru (CORBIDI 15778) C, D Adult male from Río Tapiche, Requena, Peru (CORBIDI 15782) E Adult male from Jenaro Herrera, Requena, Peru (not collected) F Adults, pair in amplexus from Jenaro Herrera, Requena, Peru (not collected).Dorsolateral and ventral views of Dendropsophus kubricki sp. n. in life: G, H Adult female from Jenaro Herrera, Requena, Peru (not collected) I, J Adult female from Area de Conservación Municipal Chambira, Picota, Peru (CORBIDI 8864) K Adult female from Tarapoto, San Martín, Peru (6.4306°S, 76.2903°W, 600 m, not collected) L Adults, pair in amplexus from Area de Conservación Municipal Chambira, Picota, Peru (CORBIDI 8864–63). Photographs by P. J. Venegas. 

      

    Dendropsophus kubricki sp. n.

    Etymology: The specific name kubricki is a noun in the genitive case and is a patronym for Stanley Kubrick, an American filmmaker who is one of the most brilliant and influential film directors of all time. We dedicate this species to him for his legacy to film culture and science fiction.

    Diagnosis: Throughout the species description, coloration refers to preserved specimens unless otherwise noted. The new species is assigned to the genus Dendropsophus based on our phylogenetic results (Fig. 1) and the overall similarity with D. parviceps and other species of the genus (Figs 13–14). Dendropsophus kubricki is a medium-sized species, relative to other species in the D. parviceps group and is characterized by the following combination of traits: (1) size sexually dimorphic; mean SVL 19.4 mm in males (range 18.3–20.1; n = 14), 26.0 mm in females (range 22.0–28.4; n = 8); (2) throat with white flecks posteriorly in males and white blotch with stripes posteriorly in females (Fig. 14); (3) snout truncate in dorsal view, rounded and inclined posteroventrally in lateral view; (4) nostrils slightly prominent; (5) tympanum distinct, rounded, concealed posterodorsally, tympanic membrane non-differentiated and annulus evident; (6) low tubercles on upper eyelid can be distinct or ill-defined; (7) thoracic fold slightly evident or indistinct; (8) ulnar tubercles and outer tarsal tubercles low; (9) axillary membrane present; (10) skin on dorsal surfaces smooth with scattered tubercles mainly on head; skin on throat areolate, skin on chest, belly, posterior surfaces of thighs, and subcloacal area coarsely areolate; (11) dark brown markings on dorsum consisting of chevrons and transverse blotches in variable arrangements (Fig. 14); (12) thenar tubercle distinct; (13) hand webbing formula II1-−2+III1-−1-IV, foot webbing formula I1-−2-II1-−2-III1-–2IV2−1-V; (14) in life, dorsal surfaces reddish brown, brown, or grayish tan; (15) orange to amber blotch on the proximal ventral surface of shanks and under arms, from the axillae to near elbow, in life (white to creamy white in preserved); (16) one suborbital white bar present both in life and preserved; (17) anterodorsal surfaces of thighs are black to dark brown with two or three white spots, both in life and preserved; (18) iris in life is reddish brown, brown or silver gray.

    Distribution and ecology: Dendropsophus kubricki is distributed in the Amazon basin in northeastern and central Peru (Fig. 9), at elevations between 106 (Jenaro Herrera) and 725 m (Cordillera Azul). Dendropsophus kubricki was found in flooded forest. Specimens from Chambira were collected in a small pond in a Terra Firme forest. Males call at night while perching on leaves of bushes and trees. They were observed between 0.3 and 0.4 m above the water.

           

     C. Daniel Rivadeneira, Pablo J. Venegas and Santiago R. Ron. 2018. Species Limits within the Widespread Amazonian treefrog Dendropsophus parviceps with Descriptions of Two New Species (Anura, Hylidae). ZooKeys. 726; 25-77.  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.726.13864


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    Trimma hamartium
    Winterbottom, 2018


    Abstract

    A new species of Trimma is described from South-West Islands of Palau. Trimma hamartium n. sp. lacks scales on the cheeks and opercle, has 8–9 scales in the predorsal midline, 17–19 pectoral-fin rays with 5–10 branched rays in the middle of the fin, an unbranched 5th pelvic-fin ray that is 51–64% the length of the 4th ray, 17–19 gill rakers on the outer surface of the first gill arch, an U-shaped interorbital trench with a narrow, slit-like postorbital trench ending at the last papilla in row p, and has 6 papillae in row c beneath the eye. When freshly collected, the species is very similar in appearance to T. preclarum, with which it is syntopic at three of the more northern islands of the South-West Islands.

    Keywords: Pisces, taxonomy, Western Pacific, coral reef gobies, COI gene




    Richard Winterbottom. 2018. A New Species of Trimma (Pisces; Gobiidae) from the South-West Islands of Palau, western Pacific Ocean. Zootaxa. 4370(2); 123–136. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4370.2.2


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    Thismia thaithongiana
     Chantanaorr. & Suddee

    in Chantanaorrapint & Suddee, 2018.

    With more than 60 currently accepted species, Thismia Griffith (1844: 221) is the largest genus of the tribe Thismieae of Dioscoreaceae (sensu APG 2016, or Thismiaceae of other authors). The genus is widely distributed mainly in the tropical and subtropical regions with a concentration of species in Southeast Asia (ca. 30 species) including the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Thailand and Vietnam. In last decade, many new taxa have been described from Southeast Asia (e.g. Larsen & Averyanov 2007, Chantanaorrapint 2008 2012, Tsukaya & Okada 2012, Dančák et al. 2013, Nuraliev et al. 2014 2015, Truong et al. 2014, Tsukaya et al. 2014, Chantanaorrapint & Sridith 2015, Hroneš et al. 2015, Chantanaorrapint et al. 2016, Sochor et al. 2017). Members of the genus are small mycoheterotrophic herbs with a highly reduced habit and usually grow among leaf litter in shady wet forests.

    Keywords: Doi Hua Mot; Umphang; mycoheterotrophic; taxonomy; Thailand; Thismia; Monocots





    พิศวงตานกฮูกหรือพิศวงไทยทองThismia thaithongiana Chantanaorr. & Suddee ตีพิมพ์ในวารสาร Phytotaxa. 333(2): 287–292. 2018. คำระบุชนิดตั้งให้เป็นเกียรติแก่ รศ.ดร.อบฉันท์ ไทยทอง


     Sahut Chantanaorrapint and Somran Suddee. 2018. Thismia thaithongiana (Dioscoreaceae: Thismieae), A New Species of Mycoheterotroph from An Unusual Habitat. Phytotaxa. 333(2); 287–292. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.333.2.14



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     Lecanorchis nigricans var. nigricansLecanorchis nigricans var. patipetala   Lecanorchis nigricans var. yakusimensis
    emend. Suetsugu & Fukunaga

    in Suetsugu, Shimaoka, Fukunaga & Sawa, 2018.

    Abstract
    To elucidate the taxonomy of the Lecanorchis nigricans Honda, 1931 species complex, the present study investigated the detailed morphology of three L. nigricans varieties in Japan. While L. nigricans var. patipetala Y.Sawa, 1980 and L. nigricans var. yakusimensis T.Hashim., 1990 have often been treated as synonyms of L. nigricans var. nigricans, the present study demonstrates that the three varieties are morphologically distinct. More specifically, L. nigricans var. nigricans only produces complete cleistogamous flowers and is distinct from the plants currently called “Lnigricans”, which are identical to the chasmogamous variety L. nigricans var. patipetala. The other chasmogamous variety L. nigricans var. yakusimensis can be easily distinguished from L. nigricans var. patipetala by its more spatulate tepals and higher cucullate lip. Therefore, the present study provides emended description of the three Lnigricans varieties based on type specimens and specimens collected from type localities. In addition, the isotype specimen of L. nigricans var. patipetala is designated as the lectotype because the holotype has been lost.

    Keywords: Japan, Lecanorchis nigricans var. yakusimensisLecanorchis nigricans var. patipetalaLecanorchis taiwaniana, lectotypification, mycoheterotrophy, taxonomy


    A Flowering plant and B cleistogamous flowers of Lecanorchis nigricans var. nigricans in Oka, Kamitonda, Wakayama, Japan (its type locality). Photographed by Hirokazu Fukunaga 

    C Flowering plant and D a flower of Lecanorchis nigricans var. patipetala in Haruno, Kochi, Japan.   E Flowering plant and F a flower of Lecanorchis nigricans var. yakusimensis collected in Hanaage River, Yakushima, Japan (its type locality).
    Photographed by Hiroaki Yamashita.

    Figure 1. Photographs of three varieties of Lecanorchis nigricans in their natural habitats.
    A Flowering plant and B cleistogamous flowers of Lecanorchis nigricans var. nigricans in Oka, Kamitonda, Wakayama, Japan (its type locality). Photographed by Hirokazu Fukunaga
    C Flowering plant and D a flower of Lecanorchis nigricans var. patipetala in Haruno, Kochi, Japan. Photographed by Hisanori Takeuchi
      E Flowering plant and F a flower of Lecanorchis nigricans var. yakusimensis collected in Hanaage River, Yakushima, Japan (its type locality). Photographed by Hiroaki Yamashita.

    Taxonomic treatment 

    Lecanorchis nigricans Honda emend. Suetsugu & Fukunaga

    Type: JAPAN, Wakayama Pref., Nishimuro County, Iwata, Oka, date unknown 1931, K. Kashiyama s.n. (holotype TI!; Isotype TI!).

    • Lecanorchis nigricans var. nigricans

    • Lecanorchis nigricans Honda var. patipetala Y.Sawa emend. Suetsugu & Fukunaga

    • Lecanorchis nigricans Honda var. yakusimensis T.Hashim. emend. Suetsugu & Fukunaga


    Kenji Suetsugu, Chie Shimaoka, Hirokazu Fukunaga and Shinichiro Sawa. 2018. The Taxonomic Identity of Three Varieties of Lecanorchis nigricans (Vanilleae, Vanilloideae, Orchidaceae) in Japan. PhytoKeys. 92: 17-35.  DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.92.21657


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