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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region

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    Thanos simonattoi 
    Delcourt & Iori, 2019

    Abelisaurid theropods are well-know from the Cretaceous of several parts of the Southern Hemisphere, including South America, Madagascar, and Africa, but also in India and Europe. Abelisaurids are high-diverse among other theropods with several cervicocephalic specializations reaching medium/large sizes. In the present contribution, we describe a new abelisaurid (Thanos simonattoi, gen. et sp. nov.) from the São José do Rio Preto Formation, Bauru Group, Brazil (Upper Cretaceous). Thanos differs from other theropods by having a well-developed keel becoming wider and deeper posteriorly on the ventral surface; two lateral small foramina separated by a relative wide wall on each lateral surface of the centrum, and well-developed and deep prezygapophyseal spinodiapophyseal fossae. The closed sutures between the axis and odontoid suggest that Thanos had reached a subadult/adult stage before death. Thanos is phylogenetically related to Brachyrostra abelisaurid. The keel on the ventral axial centrum in abelisauroids is here interpreted as a homoplastic condition that became more pronounced towards the phylogeny. The presence of well-developed keel in Thanos suggests that this taxon could be more derived than other abelisaurids. Finally, even though abelisaurids could reach large sizes, Thanos shared the environment with a larger theropod that was probably close to Megaraptora.

    KEYWORDS: Theropods, Brachyrostra, vertebra, axis, Thanos simonattoi

    Figure 4. An interpretative picture of the paleoenvironment of São José do Rio Preto Formation (Santonian, Upper Cretaceous). The picture shows two specimens of Thanos simonattoi (on the right side) and titanosaur sauropods (on the mid and left sides).
     Art by Deverson da Silva (Pepi).

    Systematic palaeontology 
    Dinosauria Owen, 1842 
    Theropoda Marsh, 1881 
    Ceratosauria Marsh 1884 

    Abelisauroidea Bonaparte and Novas, 1985 
    Abelisauridae Bonaparte and Novas, 1985 

    Brachyrostra Canale et al. 2009 

    Thanos simonattoi gen. et sp. nov. 

    Etymology: Genus name from the Greek thánato, meaning death and from the Marvel’s character Thanos, the Conquer, created by Jim Starlin. Species name in honor of Sérgio Simonatto, the discoverer of the specimen.

    In the present contribution, we have described a new abelisaurid from the São José do Rio Preto Formation, Upper Cretaceous of Brazil. Thanos simonattoi is distinguished from other abelisaurids by having a combination of features: a well-developed keel on the ventral surface becoming wider and deeper posteriorly; two lateral small foramina separated by a relative wide wall and two welldeveloped and deep prezygapophyseal spinodiapophyseal fossae. The keel on the ventral axial centrum of Thanos is interpreted as a homoplastic condition that became more pronounced towards the phylogeny, suggesting that this taxon could be more derived than other abelisaurids. The presence of a medium-sized abelisaurid in the São José do Rio Preto Formation increases the record of theropods, suggesting a complex carnivorous fauna during the Upper Cretaceous of Bauru Group. More findings are needed to better understand the morphology and the internal relationships of Thanos simonattoi.

    Rafael Delcourt and Fabiano Vidoi Iori. 2019. A New Abelisauridae (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from São José do Rio Preto Formation, Upper Cretaceous of Brazil and Comments on the Bauru Group Fauna. Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology. DOI: 10.1080/08912963.2018.1546700 
    Méndez AH, Novas FE and Iori FV. 2014. New Record of Abelisauroid Theropods from the Bauru Group (Upper Cretaceous), São Paulo State, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia. 17(1). Citeseer: 23–32.

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    Prionailurus bengalensis euptilura  (Elliott 1871)

    in Jo,  Baccus & Koprowski, 2018. 
     Mammals of Korea.... Zootaxa. 4522(1)

    The Korean Peninsula and its associated Pacific islands have a distinctive, yet poorly studied mammalian fauna. Korea was a land of invasions and wars for many centuries. The loss of large mammals per unit area that has occurred in Korea may have been greater than in any other country. The peninsula has a depauperate rodent community. The forests are mostly harvested, replaced by intensive agriculture. Unfortunately, the dissemination of information about the mammals of Korea and their taxonomy has been limited because most publications were written in Japanese or Korean. We provide an updated checklist of all the species of Korean mammals, including a review of their taxonomy, distribution, and conservation status based on information extracted from international museum collections, local survey databases (Wildlife Survey and National Nature-Environmental Survey, South Korea) and a literature review. We identify 84 species of terrestrial mammals and 43 species of marine mammals that occur, or once occurred, in Korea. Due to previous, erroneous identifications, we delisted three soricids, two vespertilionids, one phocid, one sciurid and one murid. In total, we confirm the presence in Korea of 127 species of mammals distributed in eight Orders and 32 Families. We provide dichotomous keys for the identification of all the Korean species of mammals together with updated distribution maps.

    Keywords:  Checklist, Conservation status, Distribution map, Identification Key, Korean mammals

    Prionailurus bengalensis euptilura  (Elliott 1871)

     Yeong-Seok Jo, John T. Baccus and John L. Koprowski. 2018.   Mammals of Korea: A Review of Their Taxonomy, Distribution and Conservation Status. Zootaxa. 4522(1); 1–216. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4522.1.1

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    Megophrys himalayana 
    Mahony, Kamei, Teeling & Biju, 2018

    The Megophrys major species group (MMSG) is composed of typically medium to large sized frogs. Within the genus, it is the most geographically widespread clade ranging from the western Himalayas to southern Indochina. In this study, we examined in detail the extent of cryptic diversity within the MMSG-Indian populations based on molecular data (up to ten genes) using multigene concatenation and coalescent-based phylogenetic techniques, species delimitation analyses and extensive morphological data.

    Molecular evidence suggests a high level of hidden cryptic diversity within the MMSG, particularly within the M. major species complex (MMC), highlighting overlapping distributions, a case of potential mitochondrial transfer between two species, and tree topology discordance between phylogenetic methods and mitochondrial and nuclear data sets. Most analyses indicated distinct eastern and western clades in the MMC, and that the western clade may further divide into a northern and a southern subclade.

    A detailed taxonomic review of Indian members of the Megophrys major species group is provided. Previously undocumented complex nomenclatural issues involving known species are highlighted and resolved. Megophrys monticolais taxonomically redefined for the first time as a valid species since its synonymy with M. parva in 1893. The taxonomic status of two recently described species, Xenophrys katabhako and X. sanu are discussed in light of increased molecular and morphological sampling, and are synonymised with M. monticola. Megophrys monticola and M. robusta are redescribed based on their original type specimens and recently collected material. Megophrys major is neotypified and M. robusta lectotypified to remove prevailing nomenclatural instability. Four new large sized Indian MMC species are formally described from the Northeast Indian states of Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and Nagaland, and Myanmar. All South Asian MMSG species are morphologically diagnosed from known congeners in the group. The geographic distributions of all taxa discussed are significantly redefined based on the revised taxonomy and extensive literature review. Morphological and molecular evidence suggests that Megophrys major sensu stricto might be endemic to Northeast India; M. glandulosa is formally removed from the Indian and Bhutan species checklists. Numerous misidentifications in literature are highlighted and corrected. In order to reduce future misidentifications of species reported from surrounding regions, high definition images of the holotypes of three Chinese species, M. glandulosa, M. medogensis and M. zhangi are provided for the first time, and a detailed description of Myanmar specimens of M. glandulosa is also given. This study provides the principle foundation for further research into the taxonomic status of the remaining, currently undescribed MMC taxa from Southeast Asia.

    Keywords: Reptilia, nomenclature, molecular systematics, integrative taxonomy, morphology, conservation, natural history

    Stephen Mahony, Rachunliu G. Kamei, Emma C. Teeling and S. D. Biju. 2018. Cryptic Diversity within the Megophrys major Species Group (Amphibia: Megophryidae) of the Asian Horned Frogs: Phylogenetic Perspectives and A Taxonomic Revision of South Asian Taxa, with Descriptions of Four New Species. Zootaxa. 4523(1); 1–96.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4523.1.1


    Deuti K, Grosjean S, Nicolas V, Vasudevan K and Ohler A. 2017. Nomenclatural puzzle in early Xenophrys nomina (Anura, Megophryidae) solved with description of two new species from India (Darjeeling hills and Sikkim). Alytes. 34:20-48.

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    Blakistonia sp.

    in Harrison, Rix, Harvey & Austin, 2018

    A combined molecular and morphological approach was used to revise the Australian spiny trapdoor spiders of the genus Blakistonia Hogg. Where possible, our molecular approach used sequence data from the COI barcoding gene, which were analysed using Bayesian, RAxML and neighbour-joining approaches. These molecular data were combined with morphology to describe and diagnose the genus, to redescribe the type (and only previously valid) species, B. aurea Hogg, 1902, and to diagnose, describe and map 19 new speciesBlakistonia bassi sp. n., B. bella sp. n., B. birksi sp. n., B. carnarvon sp. n., B. emmottiorum sp. n., B. gemmelli sp. n., B. hortoni sp. n., B. mainae sp. n., B. maryae sp. n., B. newtoni sp. n., B. nullarborensis sp. n., B. olea sp. n., B. parva sp. n., B. pidax sp. n., B. plata sp. n., B. raveni sp. n., B. tariae sp. n., B. tunstilli sp. n., and B. wingellina sp. n. The genus Blakistonia is found to be distributed throughout the Australian arid and semi-arid zones, from the Wheatbelt region of Western Australia to central Queensland and western Victoria.

    Keywords: Araneae, taxonomy, morphology, arid zone, Arbanitinae, Arbanitini

     Sophie E. Harrison, Michael G. Rix, Mark S. Harvey and Andrew D. Austin. 2018. Systematics of the Australian Spiny Trapdoor Spiders of the Genus Blakistonia Hogg (Araneae: Idiopidae). Zootaxa.  4518(1); 1–76.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4518.1.1

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    Alaskagorgia splendicitrina
    Horvath & Stone, 2018

    An unusual new species of plexaurid octocoral, Alaskagorgia splendicitrina, is described from a specimen collected in the far west Aleutian Island Archipelago, Alaska, USA. Unusual features that separate it from its only congener include: the vibrant yellow color of the live colony and an arborescent growth form with numerous coiling and twisting branches, the pale yellow color of the sclerites and the lack of small and densely warted double-headed sclerites. The new species is represented by only a single specimen despite extensive sampling in the region during the past several decades; the speculation is that it radiated from the much less explored region to the west.

    Keywords: Coelenterata, Taxonomy, new species, cold-water coral, subarctic, Aleutian Islands

    Holotype of Alaskagorgia splendicitrina n. sp. Whole, live colony upon collection. 

    Class Octocorallia
    Suborder Holaxonia
    Family Plexauridae Gray, 1859

     Genus Alaskagorgia Sánchez and Cairns, 2004

    Alaskagorgia splendicitrina sp. nov.

    Etymology. The species designation is derived from the Latin word for “bright” or “vibrant” (=splendius) and the Latin for “lemon-yellow” (=citrina).
     Common name. Lemon-yellow Squat Gorgonian.

    Type locality. Stalemate Bank, western Aleutian Islands, .... 184 m.

    Elizabeth A. Horvath and Robert P. Stone. 2018. Another Unusual New Gorgonian (Anthozoa: Octocorallia: Plexauridae) from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Zootaxa. 4524(1); 112–120. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4524.1.8

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    Utricularia biceps  Gonella & Baleeiro

    in Gonella & Baleeiro, 2018.

    Utricularia biceps (Lentibulariaceae), a new species belonging to U. sect. Foliosa, is here described and illustrated. This new species is endemic to the campos rupestres of eastern Brazil, an extremely biodiverse and endangered vegetation. Notes on phenology, ecology, habitat, and conservation are provided, along with a discussion on the features that distinguish this species from the other taxa of the genus. The recent discovery of this and many other new species in the Botumirim region, in northern Minas Gerais, highlight this area as a priority for biodiversity conservation and emphasize the importance of extensive studies on the flora of the region.

    Keywords: carnivorous plants, conservation, Lamiales, taxonomy, Eudicots

    Paulo Minatel Gonella and Paulo César Baleeiro. 2018. Utricularia biceps (Lentibulariaceae), A New Carnivorous Species Endemic to the Campos Rupestres of Brazil. Phytotaxa. 376(5);  214–222. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.376.5.4

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    Spatuloricaria terracanticum 
    Londoño-Burbano, Urbano-Bonilla, Rojas-Molina, Ramírez-Gil, & Prada-Pedreros, 2018

    A new species of Spatuloricaria is described from the Orinoco River basin, Colombia. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: a broad, dark brown stripe on the first pre-dorsal plate, which occupies the entire plate, reaching the preopercle, and sometimes reaching the second pre-dorsal plate; the possession of a small group of plates posterior to the urogenital pore; the abdominal surface with scattered, very small plates leaving naked areas; the possession of five transverse dark brown bands on the dorsal region; and four to five premaxillary teeth. The new species is the first valid species of Spatuloricaria distributed in the Orinoco River basin. Ecological notes of the species and comments regarding the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the genus are offered.

    Fig. 2. Spatuloricaria terracanticum, coloration in life; MPUJ 13401, Colombia, Meta, Villavicencio, Guayuriba River, tributary to the upper Meta River, Orinoco basin.
    Photograph by A. Ortega-Lara. 

    Spatuloricaria terracanticum, new species

    Spatuloricaria sp.—Urbano-Bonilla et al., 2018:74 [listed; included in identification key for Loricariidae genera and species of the Cusiana River, Orinoco River basin].

    Etymology.—The specific epithet is from the latin terra [earth] and canticum [song]. It is dedicated to the Llanos work songs (cantos de vaquería). Its origin dates back to the 16th century and has been transferred from generation to generation in the Llanos region of Colombia and Venezuela. Sung a cappella, melodies reflect the feeling and the close relationship of the llanero with their myths, beliefs, nature, climate, and animals. Although these songs have been gradually lost within modern society due to economic, political, and social causes, UNESCO has declared them as intangible cultural heritage of humanity

    Alejandro Londoño-Burbano, Alexander Urbano-Bonilla, Yecid Rojas-Molina, Hernando Ramírez-Gil, and Saúl Prada-Pedreros. 2018. A New Species of Spatuloricaria Schultz, 1944 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae), from the Orinoco River Basin, Colombia. Copeia. 106(4); 611-621. DOI: 10.1643/CI-18-087   


    Una nueva especie de Spatuloricaria, proveniente del río Orinoco, Colombia, es descrita. La nueva especie se distingue de sus congéneres por los siguientes caracteres: una banda transversal ancha en la primera placa predorsal, la cual ocupa toda la placa y el preopérculo, alcanzado algunas veces la segunda placa predorsal; un grupo de pequeñas placas posterior al poro urogenital; abdomen cubierto por placas pequeñas y dispersas, las cuales dejan áreas desnudas; presencia de cinco bandas transversales marrón oscuro en la región dorsal; y cuatro a cinco dientes en el premaxilar. La nueva especie es la primera especie válida de Spatuloricaria distribuida en la cuenca del río Orinoco. Se presentan notas ecológicas de la especie, y comentarios con relación a la taxonomía y relaciones filogenéticas del género.

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    in Meegaskumbura, Senevirathne, Manamendra-Arachchi, et al., 2019. 

    Pseudophilautus diversification, begins during Oligocene (31 MYA)
    • A stately pace of lineage accumulation despite orogeny and climate change.
    • Assemblages in most regions comprise of species arising from diverse clades.
    • MRCA of a back-migrating clade to India (8.8 MYA), reconstructs as a lowland form.
     • Island’s mountains serve as species pumps and refuges for Pseudophilautus evolution.

    Pseudophilautus comprises an endemic diversification predominantly associated with the wet tropical regions of Sri Lanka that provides an opportunity to examine the effects of geography and historical climate change on diversification. Using a time-calibrated multi-gene phylogeny, we analyze the tempo of diversification in the context of past climate and geography to identify historical drivers of current patterns of diversity and distribution. Molecular dating suggests that the diversification was seeded by migration across a land-bridge connection from India during a period of climatic cooling and drying, the Oi-1 glacial maximum around the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. Lineage-through-time plots suggest a gradual and constant rate of diversification, beginning in the Oligocene and extending through the late Miocene and early Pliocene with a slight burst in the Pleistocene. There is no indication of an early-burst phase of diversification characteristic of many adaptive radiations, nor were there bursts of diversification associated with favorable climate shifts such as the intensification of monsoons. However, a late Miocene (8.8 MYA) back-migration to India occurred following the establishment of the monsoon. The back migration, however, did not trigger a diversification in India similar to that manifest in Sri Lanka, likely due to occupation of available habitat, and consequent lack of ecological opportunity, by the earlier radiation of a sister lineage of frogs (Raorchestes) with similar ecology. Phylogenetic area reconstructions show a pattern of sister species distributed across adjacent mountain ranges or from different parts of large montane regions, highlighting the importance of isolation and allopatric speciation. Hence, local species communities are composed of species from disparate clades that, in most cases, have been assembled through migration rather than in situ speciation. Lowland lineages are derived from montane lineages. Thus, the hills of Sri Lanka acted as species pumps as well as refuges throughout the 31 million years of evolution, highlighting the importance of tropical montane regions for both the generation and maintenance of biodiversity.

    Keywords: Ancestral-area reconstruction, Biogeography, Ecological opportunity, Diversification, Molecular dating, Speciation

     Madhava Meegaskumbura, Gayani Senevirathne, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda, James Hanken and Christopher J. Schneider. 2019. Diversification of Shrub Frogs (Rhacophoridae, Pseudophilautus) in Sri Lanka – Timing and Geographic context. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. In Press. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2018.11.004

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    Lisowicia bojani 
    Sulej & Niedźwiedzki, 2018

    Here, we describe the dicynodont Lisowicia bojani, from the Late Triassic of Poland, a gigantic synapsid with seemingly upright subcursorial limbs that reached an estimated length of more than 4.5 meters, height of 2.6 meters, and body mass of 9 tons. Lisowicia is the youngest undisputed dicynodont and the largest nondinosaurian terrestrial tetrapod from the Triassic. The lack of lines of arrested growth and the highly remodeled cortex of its limb bones suggest permanently rapid growth and recalls that of dinosaurs and mammals. The discovery of Lisowicia overturns the established picture of the Triassic megaherbivore radiation as a phenomenon restricted to dinosaurs and shows that stem-group mammals were capable of reaching body sizes that were not attained again in mammalian evolution until the latest Eocene.

    Lisowicia bojani gen. et sp. nov., hind limb elements (femur, fibula, tibia) preserved in situ, upper bone-bearing interval, Lipie Śląskie clay-pit at Lisowice.

    Artistic reconstruction of Lisowicia bojani, front view.
    Illustration: Karolina Suchan-Okulska

    Systematic paleontology
     Synapsida Osborn, 1903 
    Therapsida Broom, 1905 
    Anomodontia Owen, 1860 
    Dicynodontia Owen, 1860 
    Placeriinae King, 1988 

    Lisowicia gen. nov. 

    Type species.Lisowicia bojani sp. nov.

    Diagnosis. The dicynodont differs from all other dicynodonts as it possesses the following unique combination of character states, visible in the holotype (ZPAL V.33/96, left humerus): 1) the humerus has a narrower entepicondyle in comparison with other dicynodonts (autapomorphy); 2) the entepicondylar foramen of the humerus is absent (autapomorphy); 3) the supinator process is longer (it is 31% of the total humerus length) than in other dicynodonts. 

    Lisowicia bojani sp. nov. 

    Etymology. Lisowicia, from the name of the village Lisowice where the bones were found; bojani, in honor of Ludwig Heinrich Bojanus (1776–1827), comparative anatomist and paleontologist.

    Age. Late Norian-earliest Rhaetian, Late Triassic.

    Tomasz Sulej and Grzegorz Niedźwiedzki. 2018. An Elephant-sized Late Triassic Synapsid with Erect Limbs. Science.  eaal4853.  DOI:  10.1126/science.aal4853

    Scientists find remains of huge ancient herbivore via @physorg_com

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    Flavipanurgus ibericus (Warncke, 1972)

    in Cross & Wood, 2018. 

    Flavipanurgus is a small genus of panurgine bees known only from the Iberian Peninsula. Despite its status as one of the few bee genera endemic to Europe, Flavipanurgus are poorly represented in collections and until recently, their ecology had been almost unknown. Flavipanurgus ibericus (Warncke, 1972) was described from southern Iberia, with a northern subspecies F. i. kastiliensis (Warncke, 1987) later described from the north. Recent collections in Portugal have revealed clear differences in the pollen collecting patterns of the two taxa, with southern females collecting exclusively from Jasione montana and northern females from Sedum species. In combination with this ecological difference, COI and 28S barcode data indicate that Flavipanurgus kastiliensis stat. nov. should be raised to full species status. The male of Flavipanurgus ibericus s. str. is described for the first time, and updated keys to Flavipanurgus species are provided. Flavipanurgus fuzetus Patiny, 1999 is recorded for the first time from Spain. Further significant records and new floral associations for Flavipanurgus are also presented.

    Keywords: Hymenoptera, DNA barcoding, host plant choice, identification key, oligolecty, taxonomy

     Ian Cross and Thomas J. Wood. 2018. New Data on the Iberian Endemic Bee Genus Flavipanurgus Warncke (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Andrenidae): Ecological and Genomic Data reveal A Hidden Species. Zootaxa. 4521(4); 563–572. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4521.4.5

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    Raclitia indica Gray, 1842 

    in Quah,Wood,Grismer & Anuar, 2018.
     Photo by Evan Quah.

    The taxonomic position of the rare Selangor Mud Snake (Raclitia indica) Gray to other species of homalopsids has remained uncertain due to the scarcity of specimens in collections and the lack of genetic material for comparison. Here we report the first molecular phylogenetic examination of this species based on recently acquired material. The study recovered R. indica nested within the clade of advanced, fanged homalopsids and the sister species to Erpeton tentaculatus Lácèpede. We also present notes on variation observed in the new specimens as well as range extensions for the species.

    Keywords: Reptilia, Reptile, Squamata, Enhydris, conservation, endemic, biodiversity

     Raclitia indica from Lubuk Yu, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia.
     Photo by Evan Quah.

    Evan S.H. Quah,Perry L. Jr. Wood,L. Lee Grismer andShahrul Anuar Mohd Sah. 2018. On the Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Rare Selangor Mud Snake (Raclitia indica) Gray (Serpentes, Homalopsidae) from Peninsular Malaysia.  Zootaxa. 4514(1); 53–64. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4514.1.4

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    Cyrtodactylus chaunghanakwaensis  
    Grismer, Wood, Thura, Quah, Murdoch, et al., 2018. 

    An integrative phylogenetic taxonomic analysis recovers three additional new species of karst-associated Cyrtodactylus Gray (Squamata: Gekkonidae) – Cyrtodactylus bayinnyiensis sp. nov.C. chaunghanakwaensis sp. nov. and C. naungkayaingensis sp. nov. – from a narrow zone in the Salween Basin of Kayin and Mon states in eastern Myanmar from which nine new species were recently described. This degree of unprecedented diversity and site-specific endemism will no doubt continue to rise when at least 44 unsurveyed karstic habitat-islands in this same area are also explored. These data indicate that karst habitats not only serve as foci for speciation, but their rugged terrain spares them from agricultural development and, as such, they are the only habitats in the Salween Basin wherein much of the pre-agricultural herpetofauna can survive. This continues to underscore the fact that karst habitats in Myanmar harbour a significant portion of that country’s herpetofauna, some of which remains undescribed. Despite eastern Myanmar constituting some of the most extensive karstic regions in South-east Asia, they are the least legally protected, with only 1% of their terrain recognised as vulnerable. Until karst habitats in Myanmar are thoroughly investigated, a significant portion of this country’s herpetological diversity will remain underestimated and unprotected. Therefore, issues associated with karst conservation and management in Myanmar should be elevated to a new level of urgency.

    KEYWORDS: Cyrtodactylus, conservation, karst habitats, Myanmar, Salween Basin, new species, phylogenetic taxonomy

    Cyrtodactylus bayinnyiensis sp. nov. 
    Bayin Nyi Cave bent-toed gecko

    Distribution: Cyrtodactylus bayinnyiensis sp. nov. is known only from ..., Hpa-an District, Mon State, Myanmar.

    Etymology: The specific epithet, bayinnyiensis, is a noun in apposition in reference to the type locality of Bayin Nyi Cave.

    Adult female paratype of Cyrtodactylus chaunghanakwaensis sp. nov. (LSUHC 13299) from Chaunghanakwa Hill, Mawlamyine District, Mon State, Myanmar.  

    Chaunghanakwa Hill, Mawlamyine District, Mon State, Myanmar

    Cyrtodactylus chaunghanakwaensis sp. nov. 
    Chaunghanakwa Hill bent-toed gecko

    Distribution: Cyrtodactylus chaunghanakwaensis sp. nov. is known only from ..., Mawlamyine District, Mon State, Myanmar. 

    Etymology: The specific epithet, chaunghanakwaensis, is a noun in apposition in reference to the type locality of Chaunghahakwa Hill.

    Cyrtodactylus naungkayaingensis sp. nov. 
    Naung Ka Yaing Hill bent-toed gecko

    Distribution: Cyrtodactylus naungkayaingensis sp. nov. is known only from ..., Hpa-an District, Mon State, Myanmar. 

    Etymology: The specific epithet, naungkayaingensis, is a noun in apposition in reference to the type locality of Naung Ka Yaing Hill.

    L. Lee Grismer, Perry L. Wood Jr., Myint Kyaw Thura, Evan S.H. Quah, Matthew L. Murdoch, Marta S. Grismer, Mark W. Herr, Aung Lin and Htet Kyaw. 2018. Three More New Species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Salween Basin of eastern Myanmar underscore the Urgent Need for the Conservation of Karst Habitats. Journal of Natural History. 52(19-20); 1243-1294. DOI:  10.1080/00222933.2018.1449911

    Geckos galore – Myanmar’s lizard bonanza yields record numbers of new species

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     Leoheo domatiophorus Chaowasku, D.T. Ngo & H.T. Le

    in Chaowasku, Damthongdee, Jongsook, et al., 2018. 

    Recent botanical expeditions in central Vietnam yielded an unknown species of Annonaceae that could not be confidently identified to subfamily, tribe, and genus. Preliminary BLAST® searches based on plastid data have suggested that this taxon is genetically closely-related to the following tribes of subfamily Malmeoideae: Malmeeae, Fenerivieae, Maasieae, Phoenicantheae, Dendrokingstonieae, Monocarpieae, and Miliuseae. Using representatives of Piptostigmateae, another tribe of Malmeoideae, as outgroups and including representatives of all other tribes of Malmeoideae, molecular phylogenetic analyses of seven combined plastid markers (rbcL, matK, ndhF, ycf1 exons; trnL intron; trnL-trnF, psbA-trnH intergenic spacers) inferred the enigmatic Vietnamese taxon as belonging to the monotypic tribe Monocarpieae. Detailed morphological comparisons between this taxon and its sister group, Monocarpia Miq., warranted the recognition of a second genus of Monocarpieae to accommodate our unknown taxonLeoheo Chaowasku with a single speciesLeoheo domatiophorus Chaowasku, D.T. Ngo & H.T. Le. The morphology of the new genus agrees well with the diagnostic traits of Monocarpieae, e.g., a percurrent tertiary venation of the leaves, a highly reduced number of carpels per flower, enlarged and lobed stigmas, multiple ovules/seeds per ovary/monocarp, considerably large monocarps with a hardened pericarp when dry, and spiniform ruminations of the endosperm. However, the new genus does not exhibit two characteristic features of Monocarpia: terminal inflorescences and generally distinct intramarginal leaf veins. In addition, the new genus possesses three autapomorphic characters: hairy domatia on the lower leaf surface, longitudinal ridges on the monocarp surface, and subsessile monocarps with a stout stipe. The tribe Monocarpieae is consequently enlarged to include the genus Leoheo. The enlarged Monocarpieae, along with the recently established monotypic tribe Phoenicantheae and two other related tribes, Dendrokingstonieae and Miliuseae, are discussed.

    Keywords: ANNONACEAE, Monocarpieae, Leoheo, Vietnam, Molecular phylogeny, New genus, New species, Taxonomy

    Fig. 5. – Reproductive organs of Leoheo domatiophorus Chaowasku, D.T. Ngo & H.T. Le:
    A. Flower with petals and stamens removed; B. Flower with petals, stamens, and carpels removed, back view, showing outer side of sepals; C. Same as (B), but on another side, showing a volcano-shaped torus and inner side of sepals; D. Inner side of an outer petal; E. Outer side of an outer petal; F. Inner side of an inner petal; G. Outer side of an inner petal; H. Stamen, abaxial side; I. Stamen, adaxial side; J. Carpels, showing enlarged and irregularly lobed stigmas; K. Fruit, showing longitudinal ridges on monocarp surface; L. Seed, lateral view, showing a raphe; M. Seed, lateral view, showing a pitted and slightly rugose surface; N. Cross section of a seed, showing spiniform endosperm ruminations.

     [A–J: HUAF collectors 2009-03-19-ND, CMUB; K: Chaowasku 131, CMUB; L–N: Chaowasku 165, CMUB] 
    [Drawing: A. Damthongdee]

    Fig. 6. – Leoheo domatiophorus Chaowasku, D.T. Ngo & H.T. Le, showing habit with inflorescences and flowers. [HUAF collectors 2009-03-19-ND,CMUB] [Drawing: A. Damthongdee]

     Leoheo Chaowasku, gen. nov. 
    Typus: Leoheo domatiophorus Chaowasku, D.T. Ngo & H.T. Le. 

    Etymology. – The generic epithet Leoheo is from the local Vietnamese name of “Lèo Heo” for this plant and is designated as a masculine noun of nominative singular in third declension with genitive singular “Leoheonis”.

     C–H: Leoheo domatiophorus Chaowasku, D.T. Ngo & H.T. Le; 
    C. Leaf without intramarginal veins; D. Fruit, showing monocarps with longitudinal ridges; E. Flowering branches; F. Dissected flower and young fruit; G. Dissected flower, showing detached stamens and stigmas; H. Flower, showing enlarged and irregularly lobed stigmas.
    [C–D: Chaowasku 131, CMUB; E–H: HUAF collectors 2009-03-19-ND, CMUB]
     [Photos: A: Arbainsyah; B: S. Gardner & P. Sidisunthorn; C–H: D.T. Ngo]

    Leoheo domatiophorus Chaowasku, D.T. Ngo & H.T. Le. 

    Leoheo domatiophorus Chaowasku, D.T. Ngo & H.T. Le, spec. nova 
     Holotypus: Vietnam. Prov. Thua Thien-Hue: Nam Đông Distr., ... (CMUB!; iso-: G!, P!). 

    Leoheo domatiophorus Chaowasku, D.T. Ngo & H.T. Le differs from species of the genus Monocarpia Miq. by the lack of intramarginal leaf veins and by having axillary inflorescences, leaf domatia, longitudinal ridges on the monocarp surface, and subsessile monocarps with a stout stipe.

    Etymology. – The specific epithet domatiophorus is a masculine adjective in first and second declensions, referring to “domatia” on the lower leaf surface.

    Tanawat Chaowasku, Anissara Damthongdee, Hathaichanok Jongsook, Dung T. Ngo, Hung T. Le, Duc M. Tran and Somran Suddee. 2018.  Enlarging the Monotypic Monocarpieae (Annonaceae, Malmeoideae): Recognition of A Second Genus from Vietnam informed by Morphology and Molecular Phylogenetics. Candollea. 73(2);  261–275. DOI: 10.15553/c2018v732a11


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    Cyrtodactylus kazirangaensis 
    Agarwal, Mahony, Giri, Chitanya & Bauer, 2018

       DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4524.5.1 

    We use mitochondrial sequence data to identify divergent lineages within the gekkonid genus Cyrtodactylus in northeast India and use morphological data to describe six new species from within the Indo-Burma clade of Cyrtodactylus. The new species share an irregular colour pattern but differ from described species from the region in morphology and mitochondrial sequence data (>11 % uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence). Three new species are from along the Brahmaputra River and three are from mountains south of the Brahmaputra, including the largest Cyrtodactylus from India and the fifth gecko to be described from a major Indian city, Guwahati.

    Keywords: Reptilia, Cyrtodactylus khasiensis, endemic species, morphology, Myanmar, ND2, taxonomy


    We recovered the same topology as Agarwal et al. 2014, with moderate support for the south of Brahmaputra clade (Fig. 2). A basal split within the south of Brahmaputra clade separates a mountain (clade M in Agarwal et al. 2014) and lowland clade (clade N), which contain a total of seven, unnamed divergent lineages. The lowland clade includes taxa from lowlands south of the Brahmaputra—the species C. ayeyarwadyensis Bauer, C. khasiensis, and C. tripuraensis Agarwal, Mahony, Giri, Chaitanya and Bauer; and the new species C. guwahatiensis sp. nov., C. kazirangaensis sp. nov., and C. septentrionalis sp. nov. The mountain clade has three species from Myanmar, C. brevidactylus Bauer, C. chrysopylos Bauer, and C. gansi Bauer; and the new species C. jaintiaensis sp. nov., C. montanus sp. nov., C. nagalandensis sp. nov. and the unnamed C. sp. Mizoram from mountains in northeast India. ND2 p-distance results are provided in Table 2 and are discussed below in comparisons sections. We describe six of these genetically divergent lineages from across the lowland and mountain clades as new species below.

    Cyrtodactylus guwahatiensis sp. nov.

    Etymology. The specific epithet is a toponym for the type locality of the species, Guwahati, the largest city in Assam and northeast India.

    FIGURE 6. Cyrtodactylus kazirangaensis sp. nov. in life (adult male paratype BNHS 2149).

    Cyrtodactylus kazirangaensis sp. nov. 

    Etymology. The specific epithet is a toponym for Kaziranga National Park, which is adjacent to the type locality. Kaziranga, a World Heritage Site, is best known for having most of the world’s surviving Indian one-horned rhinoceros, though it has high biodiversity across taxonomic groups.

    Cyrtodactylus septentrionalis sp. nov.

    Etymology. The specific epithet is a nominative, masculine, singular, Latin adjective meaning “northern”, as this species is the only known member of the lowland clade (Agarwal et al. 2014) that is found north of the Brahmaputra River, the other five known species of the clade are found south of the Brahmaputra River.

    Cyrtodactylus jaintiaensis sp. nov. 

    Etymology. The specific epithet is a toponym named after the type locality of the new species in the Jaintia Hills, West Jaintia Hills district, Meghalaya.

    Cyrtodactylus montanus sp. nov. 

    Etymology. The specific epithet is a nominative, masculine, singular, Latin adjective meaning “pertaining to a mountain” as this species is a member of the mountain clade, and is restricted to a mountainous region in northwestern Tripura.

    Cyrtodactylus nagalandensis sp. nov. 

    Etymology. This is the first endemic gecko from Nagaland, and the specific epithet is a toponym for the state. 

     Ishan Agarwal, Stephen Mahony, Varad B. Giri, R. Chitanya and Aaron M. Bauer. 2018. Six New Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from northeast India. Zootaxa.  4524(5); 501–535.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4524.5.1

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    Gymnopus nidus-avis César, Bandala & Montoya

    in César, Bandala, Montoya  & Ramos, 2018. 

    A new species of Gymnopus is described on the basis of collections from the subtropical cloud forest of eastern Mexico. Macro- and micromorphological characters, in combination with ITS sequences obtained from fruit body tissues, were used for its taxonomic circumscription. Basidiomata of this species were found growing scattered on fallen twigs of Quercus and also developing abundant long, black, wiry rhizomorphs. The authors discovered that these latter are used as part of nesting material by Mionectesoleaginous (Tyrannidae) inhabiting the subtropical cloud forest studied. A macro- and microscopical description as well as a discussion and illustrations are provided. A new combination in Gymnopus is proposed for Marasmiuswestii, a synonym of Marasmiusbrevipes.

    Keywords: Marasmioid fungi, Neotropical fungi, nesting biology, Omphalotaceae

    Figure 2. Gymnopus nidus-avis: basidiomata (César 36, holotype).
    Scale bar: 4 mm 

    Gymnopus nidus-avis César, Bandala & Montoya, sp. nov.

    Holotype: MEXICO. Veracruz: Municipality of Xalapa, Santuario del Bosque de Niebla, Instituto de Ecología A.C., 1343 m a.s.l., gregarious, on fallen twigs of Quercus, 20 April 2016, Cesar 36 (XAL).

    Diagnosis: Pileus pale brown to brown. Lamellae adnexed, distant, very pale brown. Basidiospores ellipsoid to subcylindrical. Basidia 2–4-spored, narrowly clavate. Cheilocystidia 20–39 × 3–8 µm, irregularly cylindrical, with constrictions and small lateral appendages. Pileipellis hyphae with colourless incrustations; terminal elements appendiculate. Pileus and lamellar tissues clampless.

    Etymology: Referring to the use of rhizomorphs as nesting material by birds.

     Enrique César, Victor M. Bandala, Leticia Montoya and Antero Ramos. 2018. A New Gymnopus Species with Rhizomorphs and Its Record as Nesting Material by Birds (Tyrannidae) in the Subtropical Cloud Forest from eastern Mexico. MycoKeys. 42: 21-34.  DOI: 10.3897/mycokeys.42.28894

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    Austrolebias queguay
    Serra & Loureiro, 2018  

      DOI: 10.3897/zse.94.29115  

    In this article we describe a new species of the annual fish genus Austrolebias from the lower Uruguay river basin. The fusion of the urogenital papilla to the first anal fin ray in males and the pigmentation pattern, indicates a close relationship with the clade formed by A. bellottii, A. melanoorus, and A. univentripinnis. The new species can be differentiated from those by the following combination of characters: presence of well-defined light bands contrasting with the sides of the body, the distal portion of the anal fin dark gray, pelvic fins dark bluish green and bases united at about 50–80% on their medial margins, pectoral fins with iridescent blue sub-marginal band, and general coloration of body bluish green. The new species can only be found in wetlands of the Queguay river, an area included in the Uruguayan protected areas system and represents so far the only annual fish species endemic to the lower Uruguay river basin.

    Key Words: Austrolebias bellottii species group, Systematics, La Plata basin

    Austrolebias queguay sp. n. 
    Figure 2. 
    A. paratype male (ZVCP 11620); B. non type male, not preserved (right side, photo flipped)

    Figure 2. A. Austrolebias queguay sp. n. paratype male (ZVCP 11620); B. A. queguay non type male, not preserved (right side, photo flipped); C. i non preserved male; D. A. univentripinnis male (UFRGS 18064, right side photo flipped); E. A. melanoorus topotype male (ZVCP13651); F. Detail of pectoral and pelvic fins of A. melanoorus; G. Detail of pectoral and pelvic fins of  A. queguay.

    Figure 3. A. Austrolebias queguay sp. n. female: paratype ZVCP 11620; B. A. bellottii female (ZVCP 11560); C. A. univentripinnis female (UFRGS 18066); D. A. melanoorus topotype female (ZVCP 13651).

    Austrolebias queguay sp. n.
    Austrolebias sp. in Loureiro et al. (2018)

    Diagnosis: The new species differs from all the other species of the genus except Austrolebias bellottii, A. univentripinnis and A. melanoorus, by the presence of the urogenital papilla attached to the anal fin in males (vs. free from the anal fin). It differs from A. bellottii and A. univentripinnis by the presence of well-defined light blue bands contrasting with the sides of the body in adult males (vs. vertical rows of light blue dots) (Fig. 2); from A. melanoorus, by the presence of dark gray coloration of the distal portion of the anal fin in males (vs. distal portion of anal-fin black), pelvic-fins dark bluish green (observed in ventral view) and bases united at about 50–80% on their medial margins (vs. dark gray and united about 50% or less), pectoral-fins with iridescent blue sub-marginal band (vs. sub-marginal band absent), and general coloration of the body bluish green (vs. grayish sky blue).

     Figure 6. Geographic distribution of Austrolebias queguay sp. n. (orange dots, Uruguay river basin), A. bellottii (yellow dots, Paraná and Uruguay river basins), A. melanoorus (red dots, Negro and Yaguarón river basins), and A. univentripinnis (green dots, Yaguaron river basin). Orange star indicates type locality.

    Figure 7. Type locality of Austrolebias queguay sp. n., wetlands of middle Queguay river basin.

    Etymology: The specific name, queguay, is in reference to Queguay river basin, the type locality of the new species, treated as a noun in apposition to the generic name.

    Distribution: Austrolebias queguay is endemic to the wetlands of middle Queguay river basin (30 meters above sea level), Paysandú Department, Uruguay, which flows to the lower Uruguay river (Fig. 6).

    Ecology: As many species of the family Rivulidae, A. queguay presents an annual life cycle which includes drought resistant eggs and diapausing embryos. All species of Austrolebias are obligate annuals (Berois et al. 2016). In the Pampa biome there is not a defined dry season, so dried environments can be found between mid spring to early fall (depending on the year), when evaporation is higher than precipitations (Williams 2006; García et al. 2017). Austrolebias species can be found in small grassland ponds and seasonal floodplain wetlands; however the new species has been found so far only in the latter environments (Fig. 7).

     Wilson S. Serra and Marcelo Loureiro. 2018. Austrolebias queguay (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae), A New Species of Annual Killifish Endemic to the lower Uruguay River Basin. Zoosystematics and Evolution. 94(2): 547-556.  DOI: 10.3897/zse.94.29115

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     Scapsipedus icipe Hugel & Tanga, 2018

     in Tanga, Magara, Ayieko, et al., 2018. 

    A new cricket of the genus Scapsipedus is described from Kenya. The distribution, acoustic behavior, including call and courtship song, mitochondrial sequences, and data on the biology of that new species are given. This edible cricket is a very promising species for mass production for food and feed.

    Keywords: Orthoptera, new species, bioacoustics, insect farming

    Scapsipedus icipe Hugel & Tanga, n. sp.

    Etymology. This new cricket is named after the type locality, International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe), Duduville Campus, Nairobi, Kenya.

     Chrysantus M. Tanga, Henlay J. O. Magara, Monica A. Ayieko, Robert S. Copeland, Fathiya M. Khamis, Samira A. Mohamed, Fidelis L. O. Ombura, Saliou Niassy, Sevgan Subramanian, Komi K. M. Fiaboe, Nanna Roos, Sunday Ekesi and Sylvain Hugel. 2018. A New Edible Cricket Species from Africa of the Genus ScapsipedusZootaxa. 4486(3): 383–392.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4486.3.9

    New edible cricket species discovered in Kenya 

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    Chinapotamon maolanense
    Zou, Bai & Zhou​, 2018

    Chinapotamon maolanense sp. n. from Maolan National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, southwest China, is described. C. maolanense sp. n. has diagnostic features of Chinapotamon, such as a slender and sinuous male first gonopod, prominently convex carapace, and one-third ratio of frons to carapace width. This new species can be distinguished from congeners by the combination of the following characters: relatively slender subterminal segment of the first gonopods, nearly oval-shaped carapace, anterolateral margin cristate of carapace and an oval-shaped gap between the fingers of the male major chela. In addition, we used a 16S rRNA gene fragment to explore the relationship between C. maolanense sp. n. and C. glabrum, C. depressum and other freshwater crabs distributed in Guizhou; the results support the new species being assigned to Chinapotamon and clearly different from other species used in the analysis.

    Figure 7: Living color. (A and B) Chinapotamon maolanense n. sp. Paratype male (32.9 × 25.1 mm) (NCU MCP 196102). Photograph courtesy of Xian-min Zhou, October 2010.

    Figure 2: Chinapotamon maolanense n. sp.  Holotype male (35.8 × 25.9 mm) (NCU MCP 196101).
     (A) Overall habitus; (B) dorsal view of carapace; (C) frontal view of cephalothorax; (D) left third maxilliped. Photograph courtesy of Xian-min Zou, August 2017.

    Family Potamidae Ortmann, 1896

    Chinapotamon Dai & Naiyanetr, 1994

    Chinapotamon maolanense sp. n. (Figs. 2–7)

    Materials examined. Holotype: ♂ (35.8 × 25.9 mm) (NCU MCP 196101), ..., Baixian Hill, Banzhai Village, Lino County, Guizhou Province, ..., 532 m asl. Xian-min Zhou, October 2010. 
    Paratypes: 1♀ (allotype) (36.7 × 26.6) (NCU MCP 196107), same data as holotype; 1♂ (32.9 × 25.1 mm) (NCU MCP 196102). Others: 5♂ (40.4 × 30.9, 30.2 × 22.8, 28.9 × 21.4, 27.8 × 20.7, 27.7 × 19.5) (NCU MCP 196103, 196105, 196106, 196109, 196110), same data as holotype; and 2♀ (38.5 × 29.7, 31.6 × 23.5) (NCU MCP 196104, 196108), same data as holotype.

    Description. Carapace nearly oval, widest at anterior one-third, 1.3–1.4 times as broad as long (mean = 1.34, specimens in the Materials examined sections were measured); dorsal surface (Figs. 2A and 2B) smooth, with inconspicuous small granular depression, prominently convex horizontally at anterior one-third and bent forward and backward. Branchial regions slightly convex laterally, with inconspicuous granular depressions. Epigastric cristae low, separated by a narrow gap; central part of the epigastric region slightly depressed. Postorbital cristae very low, not fused with epigastric cristae. Anterolateral margin distinctly cristate, lined with granules. Frons approximately one-third as wide as the carapace. Orbits (Fig. 2C) suboval. Epistome longitudinally narrow, posterior margin with blunt median lobe (Fig. 2B). Ocular peduncle (Fig. 2C) relative slender, medially constricted, distal end (cornea) and base with approximately same diameter.

    Etymology. The species is named after the type locality: the Maolan National Nature Reserve.

    Figure 1: Typical karst terrain of Maolan National Nature Reserve.
    Photo: Xian-min Zhou, August, 2017.

    Figure 8: Habitat of Chinapotamon maolanense n. sp.  at the type locality.
    Photograph: Xian-min Zhou, October, 2010.

    Ecological note. Karst terrain usually lacks soil and water, but in karst forests such as the Maolan National Nature Reserve, water could be conserved by dead branches and deciduous layers, and groundwater is another source. C. maolanense sp. n. crabs are locally known as “mountain crabs” because the species is generally distributed in low-altitude mountain forests. This species inhabits small mountain streams with low water flow and even moist soil where the surface has no flow; in contrast, most other Chinapotamon species live under stones in streams, while C. dashiwei and C. clarkei live in streams in caves. This species inhabits environments with dead leaves, dead branches, and humus (Fig. 8).

    Remarks. Chinapotamon is characterized by the sinuous and slender G1, prominently convex dorsal surface of the carapace, and frons approximately one-third as wide as the carapace (Dai, 1999; Ng, 2017). C. maolanense sp. n. has all these features. Compared with the other Chinapotamon species, the shape of the G1 of C. maolanense sp. n. is similar to that of C. anlongense, C. depressum, C. dashiwei, and C. clarkei, but the terminal segment of the G1 of the new species is fairly straight, whereas those of the other four species are clearly curved. The subterminal segment of the G1 of C. maolanense sp. n. is almost as slender as the terminal segment, but the subterminal segment of the other four species are clearly stouter than the terminal segment. Additionally, the nearly ovate and prominent convex carapace, the large, oval-shaped gap between the fingers of the male major chela, and the uncountable granular teeth along the anterolateral margin of C. maolanense sp. n. are all distinguishable features (Table 2).

    General Discussion: 
    China has the largest area of karst in the world, most of which is located in the subtropical climate zone in southern China (Liu et al., 2014; Zhou, 1987). Based on theoretical inference or speculation due to existing forest fragments, these karst landforms are believed to have been covered with dense forest vegetation before human influence, but these forests are gradually disappearing and are nearly destroyed (Han, Tang & Wu, 2010). Thus, the discovery of the Maolan karst forest and the primitiveness and richness of the forest vegetation in this area have attracted attention from researchers (Han, Tang & Wu, 2010), but biodiversity surveys in this region have mainly focused on plants (Zhou, 1987). Among the collections of freshwater crab specimens in this area, we found a new species described herein as C. maolanense sp. n.

    Most known Chinapotamon species are distributed in Guangxi and Guangdong Provinces, China, except for C. anlongense and C. xingrenense from southwest Guizhou Province, where the average altitude is 1,000–2,000 m. Dai (1999) also collected observations at altitudes above 1,000 m. However, the average altitude of the type locality of C. maolanense in southern Guizhou Province is approximately 500 m, and the main terrain of this area is a low karst peak cluster instead of high mountains. In contrast to the other karst-dwelling crabs, the specimens of C. maolanense were not collected from caves but rather from the humus layer in the forest with small water flow or even just a wet environment; this is a rare habitat for freshwater crabs. In this case, we speculate that this species may have more athletic ability.

    Jie-Xin Zou, Jun Bai and Xian-Min Zhou​. 2018. A New Species of Karst-dwelling Freshwater Crab of the Genus Chinapotamon Dai & Naiyanetr, 1994 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae), from Guizhou, southwest China. PeerJ. 6:e5947.  DOI: 10.7717/peerj.5947

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    Mico marcai (Alperin, 1993) 

    in Silva, Bizri, Gonçalves, et al,. 2018.  
    photo: Marcelo Santana. 

    The Roosevelt–Rondon Expedition marmoset Mico marcai was first collected in 1914 and all information on this primate previously came from three skins brought back by this expedition. As a result, M. marcai is categorized as Data Deficient on the IUCN Red List. As the presumed range of M. marcai lies on the path of the advancing arc of deforestation in Brazil, the collection of relevant data to assess the conservation status of this Amazonian species is of some urgency. Here we present the first field data on the distribution and population size of, and threats to, Mmarcai, to reassess the species’ conservation status. During 2012–2015 we surveyed the species in the Marmelos–Aripuanã interfluve, and estimated its density using distance sampling. We also used spatial predictive modelling to estimate forest loss within the species range under two deforestation scenarios. We found the marmoset in 13 localities and estimated its extent of occurrence to be 31,073 km2. We estimated the species’ density to be 8.31 individuals/km2 and extrapolated this to estimate a total population of 258,218 individuals (CI 150,705–441,860). Under a business-as-usual deforestation scenario, c. 10,000 km2 of forest, comprising 33% of the species’ range, would be lost in three marmoset generations (c. 18 years), and we, therefore, recommend that M. marcai be categorized as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List based on criterion A3c. Other Amazonian marmosets require similar reassessment as their ranges also fall in the path of the arc of deforestation.

    Keywords: Brazil, conservation status, Data Deficient, forest loss, marmoset, Mico marcai, Roosevelt–Rondon Expedition, southern Amazonia

    photos: Marcelo Santana.

    Felipe Ennes Silva, Hani Rocha El Bizri, Jonas da Rosa Gonçalves, Lísley P. Lemos, Rodrigo Costa-Araújo, Ivan J. Lima, Aline Tavares Santos, Marcelo Ismar Santana, Caetano L. B. Franco and Jean P. Boubli. 2018.   The Roosevelt–Rondon Expedition Marmoset Mico marcai: Unveiling the Conservation Status of A Data Deficient Species. Oryx—The International Journal of Conservation. DOI:  10.1017/S0030605318000303

    Lack of information as a threat for Amazonian marmosets « Life Sciences « Cambridge Core Blog

    Guilherme Siniciato Terra Garbino. 2014. The Taxonomic Status of Mico marcai (Alperin 1993) and Mico manicorensis (van Roosmalen et al. 2000) (Cebidae, Callitrichinae) from Southwestern Brazilian Amazonia. International Journal of Primatology. 35 (2): 529–546. DOI: 10.1007/s10764-014-9766-4
    Felipe Ennes Silva, Rodrigo Costa Araújo and Hermano Gomes Lopes Nunes. 2014. Population Trends and Conservation Status of Mico marcai in Aripuanã River Basin, Amazon, Brazil.   FINAL REPORT.

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    Cirrhilabrus sanguineus Cornic, 1987

    in Tea, Frable & Van Der Wal, 2018. 

    The labrid fish Cirrhilabrus sanguineus Cornic is redescribed on the basis of the neotype, two male specimens, and an additional female specimen recently collected from the northern coast of Mauritius. We provide new live and nuptial colouration descriptions, as well as the first documented female specimen for the species. we also include a molecular phylogenetic analysis of related species, with brief comments on phylogenetic interpretation of putative relationships amongst members of the genus Cirrhilabrus.

    Keywords: Pisces, taxonomy, ichthyology, Mauritius, systematics, fairy wrasse

    Yi-Kai Tea, Benjamin Frable and Cara Van Der Wal. 2018. Redescription and Phylogenetic Placement of Cirrhilabrus sanguineus Cornic (Teleostei: Labridae), with First Documentation of the Female Form. Zootaxa. 4526(3); 358–372. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4526.3.5

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