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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region

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    Cyrtodactylus bansocensis 
     Luu, Nguyen, Le, Bonkowski & Ziegler, 2016

    Abstract

    We describe a new species of the genus Cyrtodactylus from Khammouane Province, central Laos based on morphological features and molecular data. Morphologically, Cyrtodactylus bansocensis sp. nov. is differentiated from other congeners by a unique combination of the following characters: medium size, SVL reaching 74.0 mm; dorsal pattern consisting of four light transverse bands between limb insertions; supranasals in contact with each other; dorsal tubercles at midbody in 14–15 irregular rows; lateral folds present without interspersed tubercles; ventral scales between ventrolateral folds 34–35; precloacal and femoral pores in males 34, separated by four poreless scales in the male holotype and in a continuous row in the male paratype; enlarged femoral and precloacal scales present; postcloacal tubercles 5–7 on each side; dorsal tubercles present at tail base; and subcaudal scales transversely enlarged. Molecular analyses revealed the new species to be closely related to Cyrtodactylus rufford, which is also found in Khammouane Province.

    Keywords: Reptilia, Cyrtodactylus bansocensis sp. nov., limestone karst, morphology, phylogeny, taxonomy




     Vinh Quang Luu, Truong Nguyen, Minh Duc Le, Michael Bonkowski and Thomas Ziegler. 2016. A New Species of Karst-dwelling Bent-toed Gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Khammouane Province, central Laos.  ZOOTAXA. 4079(1):87-102.   DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4079.1.6

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    Cyrtodactylus rex sp. n. in life. A adult female holotype SAMA R67636 from the Sepik River Basin, East Sepik Province B juvenile paratype SAMA R67637 from Sepik River Basin, Sandaun Province. 
    Cyrtodactylus equestris sp. n. in life. Paratype MZB lace 5435
    from near Marina Valen Village, Papua Province, Indonesia. 
    Genotyped Cyrtodactylus novaeguineae from southern slopes of the Central Cordillera of New Guinea. 
    Photographs: S. Richards.  DOI:  10.3897/zookeys.562.6052  

    Abstract
    The diverse biota of New Guinea includes many nominally widespread species that actually comprise multiple deeply divergent lineages with more localised histories of evolution. Here we investigate the systematics of the very large geckos of the Cyrtodactylus novaeguineae complex using molecular and morphological data. These data reveal two widespread and divergent lineages that can be distinguished from each other, and from type material of Cyrtodactylus novaeguineae, by aspects of size, build, coloration and male scalation. On the basis of these differences we describe two new species. Both have wide distributions that overlap extensively in the foothill forests of the North Papuan Mountains, however one is seemingly restricted to hill and lower montane forests on the ranges themselves, while the other is more widespread throughout the surrounding lowlands. The taxon endemic to the North Papuan Mountains is related to an apparently lowland form currently known only from Waigeo and Batanta Island far to the west – hinting at a history on island arcs that accreted to form the North Papuan Mountains.

    Keywords: Arc accretion, Endemism, Indonesia, lizard, orogeny, Papua New Guinea, Papua Province, Sepik Basin



    Paul Oliver, Stephen Richards, Mumpuni Mumpuni and Herbert Rösler. 2016. The Knight and the King: Two New Species of Giant Bent-toed Gecko (Cyrtodactylus, Gekkonidae, Squamata) from northern New Guinea, with Comments on Endemism in the North Papuan Mountains. ZooKeys. 562: 105-130. DOI:  10.3897/zookeys.562.6052




    The scaled king and his knight: Two new giant bent-toed gecko species from New Guinea http://phy.so/374325864 via @physorg_com

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    Olyra praestigiosa
    Ng & Ferraris, 2016


    Abstract

    We describe Olyra praestigiosa, a new anguilliform bagrid catfish, from the Brahmaputra River drainage in Bangladesh and northeastern India. The new species differs from congeners in having the following unique combination of characters: interorbital distance 30–37% HL; body depth at anus 6–9% SL; length of adipose-fin base 99–16% SL; adipose fin separate from upper principal caudal-fin rays; post-adipose distance 15–18% SL; 17–22 anal-fin rays; caudal peduncle length 14–19% SL; and caudal peduncle depth 6–8% SL.

    Keywords: Pisces, New fish species, Brahmaputra River drainage




    Heok Hee Ng and Carl J Jr. Ferraris. 2016. A New Species of Anguilliform Catfish (Actinopterygii: Siluriformes: Bagridae) from Bangladesh and northeastern India. Zootaxa. 4079.3; 388-392. DOI:  mapress.com/j/zt/article/view/zootaxa.4079.3.6


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    Endangered Species 2014

    Carcharodon carcharias (Great white shark)  Rhincodon typus (Whale shark)
    Sphyrna lewini (Scalloped hammerhead)  Cetorhinus maximus (Basking shark)


    Abstract

    An annotated checklist of the chondrichthyan fishes (sharks, batoids and chimaeras) of the world is presented. As of 7 November 2015, the number of species totals 1188, comprising 16 orders, 61 families and 199 genera. The checklist includes nine orders, 34 families, 105 genera and 509 species of sharks; six orders, 24 families, 88 genera and 630 species of batoids (skates and rays); one order, three families, six genera and 49 species of holocephalans (chimaeras). The most speciose shark orders are the Carcharhiniformes with 284 species, followed by the Squaliformes with 119. The most species-rich batoid orders are the Rajiformes with 285 species and the Myliobatiformes with 210. This checklist represents the first global checklist of chondrichthyans to include information on maximum size, geographic and depth distributions, as well as comments on taxonomically problematic species and recent and regularly overlooked synonymizations. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the biogeographical diversity of the species across 10 major areas of occurrence is given, including updated figures for previously published hotspots of chondrichthyan biodiversity, providing the detailed numbers of chondrichthyan species per major area, and revealing centres of distribution for several taxa


    S. Weigmann. 2016. Annotated Checklist of the Living Sharks, Batoids and Chimaeras (Chondrichthyes) of the World, with A Focus on Biogeographical Diversity
     Journal of Fish Biology. DOI: 10.1111/jfb.12874


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    Biharian Barbel | Barbus biharicus
    Antal, László & Kotlík, 2016  

    Highlights
    • Currently, three species of rheophilic barbels are recognized from the Danube basin.
    • New samples from the Hungarian plain were sequenced for mtDNA and nuclear markers.
    • Barbels from Sebes-Körös River form a new clade and differ morphologically.
    • The newly discovered lineage is described here as Barbus biharicus sp. nov.

    Abstract
    Three species of small-sized rheophilic Barbus fishes are endemic to and widely distributed throughout the mountain regions in the Danube River basin. In Hungary, barbels referred to as B. petenyi occur in streams in the foothills of the Carpathians near the borders with Slovakia, Ukraine and Romania. However, up to now, no genetic investigations were carried out on rheophilic barbels in this region. This study aims to clarify the taxonomic identity and distribution of the rheophilic barbels in the Hungarian plain based on molecular and morphological analyses. Two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b, ATPase 6/8) and one nuclear gene (beta-actin intron 2) were sequenced and several morphometric and meristic characters were recorded. Phylogenetic and morphological analyses revealed that there are four genetically distinct lineages among the rheophilic barbels in the Carpathian Basin. The results demonstrated that North-Hungarian Barbus populations belong to B. carpathicus and that B. petenyi presumably does not occur in Hungary. As expected, B. balcanicus was only recorded in samples from the Balkans analyzed for reference. A distinct species, new to science, was discovered to be present in Sebes-Körös River (Crişul Repede) in eastern Hungary and western Romania and is formally described here as Barbus biharicus Antal, László, Kotlík – sp. nov.




     Antal, L., László, B., Kotlík, P., Mozsár, A., Czeglédi, I., Oldal, M., Kemenesi, G., Jakab, F. and Nagy, S.A. 2016. Phylogenetic Evidence for A New Species of Barbus in the Danube River Basin. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 96: 187–194.  DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2015.11.023


    A tudomány előtt eddig ismeretlen új halfajt fedeztek fel a Körösben! - Ecolounge http://ecolounge.hu/vadon/a-tudomany-elott-eddig-ismeretlen-uj-halfajt-fedeztek-fel-a-korosben via @ecolounge_hu




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    Gopherus evgoodei 
    Edwards, Karl, Vaughn, Rosen, Meléndez Torres & Murphy, 2016


     Abstract

    Desert tortoises (Testudines; Testudinidae; Gopherus agassizii group) have an extensive distribution throughout the Mojave, Colorado, and Sonoran desert regions. Not surprisingly, they exhibit a tremendous amount of ecological, behavioral, morphological and genetic variation. Gopherus agassizii was considered a single species for almost 150 years but recently the species was split into the nominate form and Morafka’s desert tortoise, G. morafkai, the latter occurring south and east of the Colorado River. Whereas a large body of literature focuses on tortoises in the United States, a dearth of investigations exists for Mexican animals. Notwithstanding, Mexican populations of desert tortoises in the southern part of the range of G. morafkai are distinct, particularly where the tortoises occur in tropical thornscrub and tropical deciduous forest. Recent studies have shed light on the ecology, morphology and genetics of these southern ‘desert’ tortoises. All evidence warrants recognition of this clade as a distinctive taxon and herein we describe it asGopherus evgoodei sp. n. The description of the new species significantly reduces and limits the distribution of G. morafkai to desert scrub habitat only. By contrast, G. evgoodei sp. n. occurs in thornscrub and tropical deciduous forests only and this leaves it with the smallest range of the three sister species. We present conservation implications for the newly described Gopherus evgoodei, which already faces impending threats.

    Keywords: Gopherus agassizii, Gopherus morafkai, Sinaloa, Sonora, Testudinidae, Xerobates




          

    Taylor Edwards, Alice Karl, Mercy Vaughn, Philip Rosen, Christina Meléndez Torres and Robert W. Murphy. 2016. The Desert Tortoise Trichotomy: Mexico hosts a third, New Sister-species of Tortoise in the Gopherus morafkai-G. agassizii group. ZooKeys 562: 131-158. DOI:  10.3897/zookeys.562.6124


              

     The third sister: Long-suspected third desert tortoise species proven to exist in Mexico

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    Abstract

    Tomiyamichthys levisquama is described as a new species from the Northern Territory and Queensland, Australia from estuaries and soft bottom marine environments. It is distinctive in body and head shape, head coloration and by the absence of ctenoid scales on the body. It is compared with the related species Tomiyamichthys russus (Cantor 1849), which has ctenoid scales on the posterior part of the body. The validity of the name Tomiyamichthys over Flabelligobius is discussed, with both genera being described in the same paper, here accepting Tomiyamichthys as the appropriate name.

    Keywords: Pisces, new species, Tomiyamichthys, Australia




    Douglass F. Hoese, Kochi Shibukawa and Jeffrey W. Johnson. 2016. Description of A New Species of Tomiyamichthys from Australia with A Discussion of the Generic Name. Zootaxa.  4079(5)

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    Figure 6. Dorsal and ventral morphological comparison between the Amazophrynella spp. (Unvoucher specimens): A  Ajavierbustamantei sp. n. Aminuta Abokermanni Avote A. manaos Amatses A. amazonicola.

    Amazophrynella javierbustamantei
    Rojas, Chaparro, Carvalho, Avila, Farias, Hrbek & Gordo, 2016

    Figure 7. Dorsal and ventral variation of Amazophrynella javierbustamantei sp. n. (Unvoucher specimens):
    AC Nueva Arequipa, Madre de Dios Department B Basin of Bajo Urubamba, Cusco Department.

    Abstract
    A new species of the genus Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) is described from the departments of Madre de Dios, Cusco and Junin in Peru. An integrative taxonomy approach is used. A morphological diagnosis, morphometrics comparisons, description of the advertisement call, and the phylogenetic relationships of the new species are provided.Amazophrynella javierbustamantei sp. n. differs from other species of Amazophrynella by: intermediate body-size (snout-vent length 14.9 mm in males, n = 26 and 19.6 mm in females, n = 20), tuberculate skin texture of body, greatest hand length of the Amazophrynella spp. (3.6 mm in males, n = 26 and 4.6 mm in females, n = 20), venter coloration yellowish, tiny rounded black points covering the venter, and thirteen molecular autapomorphies in the 16S RNA gene. Its distribution varies from 215 to 708 m a.s.l. This discovery highlights the importance of the remnant forest in preserving the biodiversity in Peru, and increase in seven the species formally described in the genus Amazophrynella.

    Keywords: Amphibian, Tree Toad, conservation, Southern Peru, integrative taxonomy


    Figure 6. Dorsal and ventral morphological comparison between the Amazophrynella spp. (Unvoucher specimens):
     A A. javierbustamantei sp. n. B A. minuta C A. bokermanni D A. vote E A. manaosF A. matses G A. amazonicola.


    Rommel R. Rojas, Juan Carlos Chaparro, Vinicius Tadeu Carvalho, Robson Avila, Izeni P. Farias, Tomas Hrbek and Marcelo Gordo. 2016. Uncovering the Diversity in the Amazophrynella minuta Complex: Integrative Taxonomy reveals A New Species of Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) from southern Peru.  ZooKeys. 563: 43-71.  DOI 10.3897/zookeys.563.6084




    Resumen

    Describimos una nueva especie del género Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) del Perú de los Departamentos de Madre de Dios, Cusco y Junin de Peru. Utilizamos un método de taxonomía integrativa. Obtuvimos la diagnosis morfológica, comparaciones morfométricas, descripción del canto de reproducción y las relaciones filogenéticas de la nueva especie. A. javierbustamantei sp. n. difiere de las otras Amazophrynella spp. por poseer tamaño medio (Hocico-cloaca en machos 16.9 mm, n = 26 y en hembras 19.6 mm, n = 20); textura de la piel tuberculada; tamaños de las manos mayores (3.6 mm en machos, n = 26 y 4.6 mm en hembras, n = 20); coloración ventral amarillento-pálida, pequeños puntos redondos de color negro en el vientre y por trece autopomorfias moleculares en el gen 16S RNA. Su distribución varía desde 215 m hasta 708 m a.s.n.m. Este descubrimiento resalta la importancia de los remanentes de la selva Peruana en términos de conservación, e incrementa en siete las especies formalmente descritas en del género Amazophrynella.

    Resumo

    Descrevemos uma nova espécie do gênero Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) dos departamentos de Madre de Dios, Cusco e Junin do Peru. Utilizamos um método de taxonomia integrativa. Apresentamos a diagnose morfológica, comparações morfométricas, descrevemos o canto de anúncio e geramos uma hipótese filogenética da nova espécie. Amazophrynella javierbustamantei sp. n. difere das outras Amazophrynella spp. por possuir tamanho médio (Comprimento rostro-cloacal 16.9 mm em machos, n = 26 e 19.6 mm em fêmeas, n=20); textura da pele tuberculada; tamanhos das mãos maiores (3.6 mm em machos, n = 26 e 4.6 mm em fêmeas, n = 20); coloração ventral amarelo-clara, coberta por pequenos pontos redondos pretos e por treze autapomorfias moleculares no gene 16S RNA. Sua distribuição varia entre os 215 m até os 708 m a.n.m. Nossa descoberta aumenta a importância dos remanescentes da floresta Peruana em termos de conservação e incrementa em sete as espécies formalmente descritas no gênero Amazophrynella.


    Palabras claves: Anfibios, Sapo del árbol, conservación, Sur del Perú, taxonomía integrativa

    Palavras chaves: Anfíbios, Sapo do arvore, conservação, Sul do Peru, taxonomia integrativa


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    Brachycephalus sulfuratus 
     Condez, de Carli Monteiro, Comitti, de Anchieta Garcia, Amaral & Haddad, 2016 

    Abstract

    We describe a new species of Brachycephalus that is morphologically similar to the flea-toads B. didactylus, B. hermogenesi, and B. pulex. The new species occurs from the sea level up to 1000 m and it is widely distributed throughout southern Atlantic Forest. Brachycephalus sulfuratus sp. nov. is distinguished from all of its congeners by the combination of the following characters: (1) small body size (SVL of adults: 7.4–8.5 mm for males and 9.0–10.8 mm for females); (2) “leptodactyliform” body; (3) pectoral girdle arciferal and less robust compared to the Brachycephalus species with “bufoniform” body; (4) procoracoid and epicoracoid fused with coracoid but separated from the clavicle by a large fenestrae; (5) toe I externally absent; toes II, III, IV, and V distinct; phalanges of toes II and V reduced; (6) skin smooth with no dermal ossifications; (7) in life, general background color brown with small dark-brown spots; skin of throat, chest, arms, and forearms with irregular yellow blotches; in ventral view, cloacal region of alive and preserved specimens surrounded by a dark-brown inverted v-shaped mark outlined with white; (8) advertisement call long, composed of a set of 4–7 high-frequency notes (6.2–7.2 kHz) repeated regularly.

    Keywords: Amphibia, Brachycephalus, Psyllophryne, taxonomy


    Thais Helena Condez, Juliane Petry de Carli Monteiro, Estevão Jasper Comitti, Paulo Christiano de Anchieta Garcia, Ivan Borel Amaral and Célio Fernando Baptista Haddad. 2016. A New Species of Flea-Toad (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil. Zootaxa. 4083(1)



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     Venusichthys comptus 
    Xu & Zhao, 2016

    Abstract
    Secondary sexual characteristics are features that appear at sexual maturity and distinguish the two sexes of a species. They are readily observed and studied in living animals, but the phenomenon is rather more difficult to identify in fossil taxa. Here we report a new sexually dimorphic stem-neopterygian fish, Venusichthys comptus gen. et sp. nov., based on 30 exceptionally well-preserved specimens from the Middle Triassic (Pelsonian, Anisian) Luoping Lagerstätte of eastern Yunnan, China. The discovery represents the oldest known secondary sexual characteristics in Neopterygii. These characteristics, including pointed tubercles on cranial bones, scales and fins, and hook-like contact organ anterior to the anal fin, have three inferred primary functions: maintenance of body contact between the sexes during prespawning behavior or spawning; stimulation of the females during breeding; and defense of nests and territories. Lacking a specialized anal fin in the presumed males, Venusichthys would likely have a different reproductive strategy from peltopleurids and other potentially viviparous stem-neopterygians. Moreover, Venusichthys shows a unique character combination distinguished from any other stem-neopterygian families and consequently represents a new family of this clade. As such, the new finding provides an important addition for understanding the behavior, reproduction, and early diversification of Neopterygii.

    Keywords: Sexual dimorphism; Breeding tubercles; Venusichthyidae; Neopterygii; Actinopterygii


    Systematic paleontology

    Neopterygii Regan, 1923

    Venusichthyidae fam. nov.

        Venusichthys comptus gen. et sp. nov.

    Etymology: The genus epithet is from Latin venus, meaning goddess of love, and ichthys, meaning fish. The species epithet is from Latin comptus, meaning ornamental.

    Holotype: A nearly complete skeleton of presumed female deposited at the collection of the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP), Chinese Academy of Sciences. V20010. Standard length is 31 mm.
    Referred specimens: IVPP V20011–20034, 20055–20058; ZMNH (Zhejiang Museum of Natural History, Hangzhou, China) M1695.

    Type locality and horizon: Luoping, Yunnan, China; second (upper) member of Guanling Formation, Pelsonian, Anisian, Middle Triassic.

    Diagnosis: A new stem-neopterygian diagnosed by the following combination of features: presence of pointed anterior process of rostral; absence of supraorbitals; quadratomandibular articulation slightly anterior to middle line of orbit; maxilla notably longer than lower jaw; presence of tubercles and contact organ in presumed males; two preopercular elements on each side; two pairs of branchiostegal rays; anterior lateral line scales six times deeper than wide; dorsal fin larger than anal fin; 24 principal caudal fin rays; and squamation formula of D14/P7, A13, C31/T37.



    Guang-Hui Xu and Li-Jun Zhao. 2016. A Middle Triassic Stem-Neopterygian Fish from China shows
    Remarkable Secondary Sexual Characteristics. Science Bulletin. 61(4); 338-344. DOI: 10.1007/s11434-016-1007-0

    摘要: 第二性征是动物在性成熟所表现的、可以用来分辨物种性别的特征。第二性征比较容易在现生物种中观察到,但是它们很难在化石中识别。根据采集于云南罗平中三叠世安尼期海相地层的三十块鱼化石,本文报道了基干新鳍鱼的一个新属种:多饰维纳斯鱼 (Venusichthys comptus)。维纳斯鱼具有明显的性双型:成年雄鱼具有第二性征,包括雄鱼头部、鳞片和鳍条上的尖突,以及臀鳍前面钩状的接触器。这些第二性征可能用于增进雌、雄鱼体产卵前或产卵中的身体接触,刺激雌鱼排卵,以及保护巢穴和领地。维纳斯鱼不具有肋鳞鱼类或其它卵胎生鱼类那样特化的臀鳍,它的生殖方式可能不是卵胎生的。维纳斯鱼代表了新鳍鱼类第二性征的最早记录,它的发现为了解新鳍鱼类的行为、繁殖方式和早期分异提供了重要信息。

    Neopterygian Fish with Secondary Sexual Characteristics Found from Middle Triassic of China


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    Figure 2. Photographs of the species and the study sites showing the main landscape elements and ash deposition in the southern–central steppe of Rio Negro Province, Argentina.
    Abi-Saad farm (A, C) where Phymaturus sinervoi occurs and Ojo de Agua (B, D) where P. excelsus occurs.
      DOI:  10.1111/bij.12778 

    Abstract
    The Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption of 4 June 2011 dispersed about 100 million tonnes of pyroclastic materials resulting in ash accumulations of 30 cm depth on the Patagonian steppe, an area occupied by several lizard species. Herein we analysed, by experimental trials, the effects of ash and slope on running performance of two endemic and vulnerable species, Phymaturus excelsus and Phymaturus sinervoi, restricted to volcanic rock outcrops in Patagonia. We also determined the effect of ash fall on body condition by comparing the same populations before and after the volcanic eruption. Locomotion of P. excelsus, adapted to rocky and steep outcrops, was more affected in a negative way by ash. In contrast, P. sinervoi, which lives in mixed habitats with flat rocks and sandy substrates, ran more slowly on the inclined surface but was unaffected by ash, suggesting the two species are well adapted to the habitats they occupy. In spite of impacts of ash deposition on locomotion and potentially the feeding, reproduction and dispersal activity of P. excelsus, lizards captured 18 months after ash deposition showed improved body condition. Our study site for P. sinervoi received less ash deposition and hence body condition was similar before and after ash fall. We hypothesize that negative effects of ash on lizards were counteracted by competitive release; ash deposition caused an acute and significant increase in mortality of herbivorous competitors such as hares and sheep that feed upon the same flowers and fruits included in the Phymaturus diet.

    Keywords: body condition; disturbance; maximum running speed; Phymaturus excelsus; Phymaturus sinervoi




    Nora R. Ibargüengoytía, Facundo Cabezas-Cartes, Jorgelina M. Boretto, Carla Piantoni, Erika L. Kubisch, Mariela S. Fernández, Rafael A. Lara-Resendiz, Fausto R. Méndez-de la Cruz, Alejandro Scolaro and Barry Sinervo. 2016. Volcanic Ash from Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Eruptions affects Running Performance and Body Condition of Phymaturus Lizards in Patagonia, Argentina. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. DOI:  10.1111/bij.12778 



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    An Otago shag Leucocarbo chalconotus breeding colony, showing (from left) juvenile, pied and dark bronze variations. 
    watercolor painting by Derek ONLEY  DOI: 10.1111/zoj.12376

      Leucocarbo stewarti Foveaux shag (top), Leucocarbo chalconotus Otago shag (middle) and Leucocarbo onslowi Chatham Island shag
    watercolor painting by Derek ONLEY   

    Leucocarbo shags are a species-rich seabird clade exhibiting a southern circumpolar distribution. New Zealand's endemic Stewart Island shag, Leucocarbo chalconotus (G. R. Gray, 1845), comprises two regional groups (Otago and Foveaux Strait) that show consistent differences in relative frequencies between pied (black and white) and bronze (wholly dark) plumages, the extent and colour of facial carunculation, body size (based on postcranial morphometrics), and breeding season. Moreover, previous genetic research on modern and historical specimens utilizing mitochondrial DNA control-region sequences has also shown that the Otago and Foveaux lineages may not be sister taxa; instead, in several analyses the Otago lineage is sister to the endemic Chatham Island shag, Leucocarbo onslowi (Forbes, 1893). We present new ancient DNA analyses of the type specimens for the Otago and Foveaux Strait lineages of L. chalconotus, including a phylogenetic reanalysis of the available ancient, historical, and modern control-region sequence data for these lineages (including L. onslowi), and additional statistical analyses incorporating new morphometric characters. These analyses indicate that under the diagnosable species concept the two lineages of Stewart Island shag represent two separate species, which we now recognize as the Otago shag, Leucocarbo chalconotus(G. R. Gray, 1845), and the Foveaux shag, Leucocarbo stewarti (Ogilvie-Grant, 1898).

    Keywords: ancient DNA; Chatham Island shag; Foveaux shag; Leucocarbo chalconotus; Leucocarbo onslowi; Leucocarbo stewarti; morphometrics; osteology; Otago shag; Stewart Island shag


    Figure 1. Distributional and morphological data for Otago, Foveaux, and Chatham Island shags.
    A, map of New Zealand showing the location of the Chatham Islands and Otago/Foveaux Strait study sites. Blue circles represent the prehistoric distribution of Otago shag outside the study area. B, distribution of Chatham Island shag breeding colonies and roosting sites (green circles). The Chatham Island shag exhibits pied plumage only (white pie chart) with pronounced bright orange caruncles in breeding plumage (orange pie chart). C, distribution of Otago (blue circles) and Foveaux (red circles) shag breeding colonies and roosting sites. Otago shag populations have 20–30% pied morphs (pie charts; black: dark-bronze; white: pied) and 50:50% small bright orange caruncles : dark orange scattered papillae in prenuptial breeding plumage (pie charts; yellow: small bright orange caruncles; grey: dark orange scattered papillae) compared with 50–60% pied morph and dark orange scattered papillae in prenuptial breeding plumage in the Foveaux shag.
    In (C), multiple breeding colonies and roosting sites are represented at the following locations (from north to south): Otago Peninsula including Long Beach, Aramoana, Otago Harbour, Taiaroa Head, Boulder Beach, Papanui Beach, Allans Beach, Wharekakahu Island, and Gull Rocks; Seal Rocks and Ruapuke Island; Easy Harbour and Shag Rock. In (C), the Leucocarbo shag species illustrating plumage characters are: pied morph (Otago shag), bronze morph (Foveaux shag), small caruncles (Otago shag), and scattered papillae (Foveaux shag). Figure adapted from Rawlence et al. (2014).DOI: 10.1111/zoj.12376 


    Pelecaniformes
    Phalacrocoracidae Reichenbach, 1760

    Leucocarbo Bonaparte, 1857
    [type species (by subsequent designation, Ogilvie-Grant, 1898)
    Carbo bougainvillii Lesson, 1837]

    Leucocarbo chalconotus otago shag || Gracalus chalconotus G. R. Gray, 1845
    Diagnosis. A species of Leucocarbo most closely related to L. stewarti and L. onslowi but distinguished from these species by the plumage characters and allometries outlined in Table 1.

    Distribution. Formerly the eastern South Island, NZ. Leucocarbo chalconotus bones have been recorded from Late Quaternary and archaeological deposits along the entire eastern coastline of South Island (e.g., Worthy, 1998a; Smith, 2011). Now restricted to Otago from Lake Ki-Wainono to The Sisters (based on historical museum skins and modern specimens), with modern vagrants north to Banks Peninsula (see Fig. 1). Rare modern beach wrecks on Stewart Island (Rawlence et al., 2015).


      Leucocarbo stewarti Foveaux shag (top), Leucocarbo chalconotus Otago shag (middle) and Leucocarbo onslowi Chatham Island shag
    watercolor painting by Derek ONLEY   


    Leucocarbo stewarti foveaux shag || Phalacrocorax stewarti Ogilvie-Grant, 1898
    Diagnosis. A species of Leucocarbo most closely related to L. chalconotus and L. onslowi but distinguished from these species by the plumage characters and allometries outlined in Table 1.

    Distribution. Restricted to Foveaux Strait and Stewart Island (based on historical museum skins and modern specimens). Leucocarbo stewarti bones have been recorded from Late Quaternary and archaeological deposits from this region (e.g., Worthy, 1998b). Rare archaeological and modern beach wrecks in Otago (Rawlence et al., 2014, 2015).

    Type Localities: The type locality of Gracalus chalconotus G. R. Gray, 1845 is currently considered to be Otago Province. However, the Otago Province included Southland and Foveaux Strait until 1861. We consider that the likely type locality is in fact Karitane, where the type specimen was likely collected by Percy Earl in 1843 (Scofield et al., 2012). Although Earl spent the majority of his time at Karitane, Earl only travelled as far south as the Clutha River, which is still within the range of the Otago lineage, but may have had Māori collect for him elsewhere (Scofield et al., 2012).
    The type locality of Phalacrocorax stewarti Ogilvie-Grant, 1898 is Bluff (a town in Southland), where specimens were collected by Baron A. von Hugel on 13 February 1875 (Ogilvie-Grant, 1898 contra Stewart Island, Gill et al., 2010). Ogilvie-Grant (1898) designated three syntypes (NHMUK 1880.5.3.1, 1880.5.3.2, and 1880.5.3.6), all pied morphs. Warren (1966) only segregated and listed the syntype 1880.5.3.6 for inclusion in the NHMUK type collection, but this action does not affect the status of the remaining unselected syntypes. NHMUK 1880.5.3.1 and 1880.5.3.2 are currently labelled as Phalacrocorax campbelli huttoni (reflecting a previous taxonomic treatment) and we did not attempt to obtain DNA from them. As all three syntypes were collected from the same locality at the same time, and 1880.5.3.6 clusters with individuals from Foveaux Strait (Figs. 4, 6, Appendix 1), we refer 1880.5.3.1 and 1880.5.3.2 to L. stewarti.


    Nicolas J. Rawlence, R. Paul Scofield, Hamish G. Spencer, Chris Lalas, Luke J. Easton, Alan J. D. Tennyson, Mark Adams, Eric Pasquet, Cody Fraser, Jonathan M. Waters and Martyn Kennedy. 2016. Genetic and Morphological Evidence for Two Species of Leucocarbo Shag (Aves, Pelecaniformes, Phalacrocoracidae) from southern South Island of New Zealand. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. DOI: 10.1111/zoj.12376 





    Otago shag new species | Otago Daily Times: New Zealandhttps://shar.es/14U32I 
    Meet our 'newest' endangered bird species http://nzh.tw/11591270 via @nzherald


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    Mabuya parviterrae   
      Hedges, Lorvelec, Barré, Berchel, Combot, Vidal& Pavis, 2016 

    Petite Terre Skink | Scinque de la Petite Terre

    Abstract
    A new species of lizard of the genus Mabuya is described from a small island in the Guadeloupe Archipelago: Terre de Bas, Îles de la Petite Terre.Mabuya parviterrae sp. nov. is allied with the other four species of Mabuya from Gua-deloupe. However, it differs in scalation, coloration, and (where available) DNA sequence. Of the nine named spe-cies in the genus, only M. dominicana (from Dominica), M. desiradae (from La Désirade), and M. parviterrae sp. nov. have escaped decimation and possible extinction by the Small Indian Mongoose, Urva auropunctata. The latter two species of skinks are critically endangered, being threatened by the Black Rat (Rattus rattus) and degraded habitat that has not recovered from early land use. The Petite Terre Skink probably has one of the smallest distributions of a vertebrate species. The species consists of approximately 50 individuals living primarily in a dry stone wall of less than 500 square meters in extent. 

    Keywords: Caribbean, island, lizard, phylogeny, Reptilia, Scincomorpha, systematics.  

    Mabuya parviterrae sp. nov.
    Petite Terre Skink (Scinque de la Petite Terre, French)
    (Figs. 3A–F, 4A–C, 5, 6B–D)
    Mabuya mabouya mabouya—Lorvelec et al. 2000: 37 (part, Îles de la Petite Terre).
    Mabuya mabouya—Breuil 2002: 267 (part, Îles de la Petite Terre).
    Mabuya mabouya—Lorvelec et al. 2007: 141 (part, Îles de la Petite Terre).
    Mabuya mabouya—Lorvelec 2011: 1 (part, Îles de la Petite Terre).
    Mabuya desiradae—Hedges & Conn 2012: 97 (part, Îles de la Petite Terre).
    Mabuya cf. desiradae—Lorvelec et al. 2012: 11 (part, Îles de la Petite Terre)
    Mabuya desiradae—Hedges 2014: 327 (part, Îles de la Petite Terre).
    Mabuya desiradae—Angin & Gomès 2015: 1 (part, Îles de la Petite Terre).

    Holotype. MNHN-RA-2015.0059, an adult female, collected by Nicolas Barré on a dry stone wall near the middle of Terre de Bas, Îles de la Petite Terre, Guadeloupe (16.1714, -61.1207, 5 m), on 22 April 2015. Additional specimen tag SBH 274765. 


       Distribution. The Îles de la Petite Terre (Fig. 1B) is a micro-archipelago composed of two islets: Terre de Bas (1.17 km²; 1.11 km² without its four lagoons) and Terre de Haut (0.32 km²). The species is known only from Terre de Bas. Despite searches, it has not yet been found on nearby Terre de Haut. 

         Etymology. The species name (parviterrae) means ‘small land’ in Latin and is a feminine genitive singular noun, referring to the distribution of the species onÎles de la Petite Terre


    S. Blair Hedges, Olivier Lorvelec, Nicolas Barré, Joël Berchel, Marion Diard Combot, Nicolas Vidal and Claudie Pavis. 2016. A New Species of Skink from the Guadeloupe Archipelago (Squamata, Mabuyidae, Mabuya). Caribbean Herpetology. 53:1–14.


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    Fig . 1. Habitat and habit photographs of the three new Impatiens species.
    A. and BImpatiens aconitoides ( Y. M. Shui and W. H. Chen 32393 ). C. and D. Ipurpureifolia ( Y. M. Shui, W. H. Chen and J. S. Sheng 30583 ). E. and F. Irugata (E. from C. I Peng et al. 17528 , F. from Z. G. Yang 2009–01 ).
     F. was photographed by Z. G. Yang, and all the others photographed by Y. M. Shui  DOI: 10.1600/036364411X569615

    Abstract
    The genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) is one of the most difficult genera for making effective herbarium specimens because of its tender and complicated flowers. The preparation of flowers is always one of the most important steps in the collections of Impatiens. The present paper demonstrates a method to prepare flowering specimens of Impatiens in the field. Examples include three new species collected from the Sino-Vietnamese border, viz. Impatiens aconitoides, I. purpureifolia, and I. rugata . The related species I. laojunshanensis, I. apalophylla, and I. clavigera are also sampled using the same preparation method. As to the three new species, their pollen grains and seeds were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Impatiens aconitoides has 4-colpate pollen grains and ovoid seeds with protrusivetype of seed coat, whereas I. purpureifolia and I. rugata have 3-colpate grains and ellipsoidal seeds with reticulate-typed seed coat. Such an integrated approach to include detailed floral characters as well as pollen and seed characters is proposed when new taxa of Impatiens are described.

    Keywords: Flower structure, Impatiens aconitoides, I. purpureifolia, I. rugata, pollen, seed


     Yu-Min Shui, Steven Janssens, Su-Hua Huang, Wen-Hong Chen and Zhi-Guo Yang. 2011. Three New Species of Impatiens L. from China and Vietnam: Preparation of Flowers and Morphology of Pollen and Seeds. Systematic Botany. 36(2):428-439. DOI: 10.1600/036364411X569615



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    Impatiens tianlinensis 
    S. X. Yu & L. J. Zhang

    Abstract

    Impatiens tianlinensis S. X. Yu & L. J. Zhang, a new species of the Balsaminaceae from Cenwang Laoshan Mountain, Tianlin County, Guangxi Region, is described and illustrated. This species closely resembles I. apalophylla and I. clavigera var. auriculata in having racemose inflorescences, 4 lateral sepals, hammer-shaped capsules and ellipsoid seeds, but differs in having sessile glanduliferous petioles, few-flowered inflorescences, incurved spur, yellow lower sepal without reddish patches, yellowish petals and lower sepal, and acuminate dorsal petal apex. The molecular data, from nuclear ribosomal and plastid genes, as well as pollen characters also support that the species is new to science.

    Keywords: Balsaminaceae, molecular data, new species, phylogeny, pollen character, China, Eudicots


    Taxonomy

    Impatiens tianlinensis S. X. Yu & L. J. Zhang, sp. nov. (Figs. 1–2)
    This species is similar to I. apalophylla Hook. f. (1908: 243) and I. clavigera var. auriculata in having racemose inflorescences, 4 lateral sepals, hammer-shaped capsules and ellipsoid seeds, but differs in sessile glanduliferous petioles, few-flowered inflorescences, incurved spur, yellow lower sepal without reddish patches, yellowish petals and lower sepal, and acuminate dorsal petal apex.

    Type:— CHINA . Guangxi: Tianlin county, Cenwang Laoshan Mountain, in a valley near the river, 24°24’04.7” N, 106°23’09.5” E, ca. 1260 m, 9 Oct 2007, S. X. Yu 3731 (holotype PE!, isotype IBK!).

     Phenology:— Flowering and fruiting from September to November.

    Ecology:— This new species grows in a valley at an elevation of 1100–1300 m. s. m., in a disturbed forest. The population is apparently small.

    Distribution:— Except the type locality, I. tianlinensis is also known from Lingyun, Fengshan, Leye and Nandan of Guangxi.

    Etymology:— The specific epithet ‘tianlinensis’ refers to the type locality



    Lei Zeng, Yan-nan Liu, Rajib Gogoi, Lin-jing Zhang and Sheng-xiang Yu. 2015. Impatiens tianlinensis (Balsaminaceae), A New Species from Guangxi, China. Phytotaxa. 227(3): 253–260. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.227.3.4



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    Fig 4: 'Tien Nang Si' Impatiens nuraeSouvann. & Suksathan, 
    A. habit; B. show purple on lower surface leave; C. flower top view; D. flower lateral view. E. flower front view;
    Photos by K. Souvannakhoummane; 

    Abstract
        Impatiens gadellae Souvann. & Suksathan, Impatiens nuraeSouvann. & Suksathan, two new species from North Lao PDR, are described and illustrated with conservation statuses propose.

     Keyword:  Impatiens, Balsaminaceae, Taxonomical, Limestone flora, Lao PDR.


    Fig 2: 'Tien Hin Pha' Impatiens gadellaeSouvann. & Suksathan,  A. plant; B. Capsule fruits;
    C. flower front view; D. flower lateral view; 
    E-F: Impatiens parishii Hook.f, E. flower front view; F. flower lateral view;
    G-H: Impatiens kerriae Craib, G. flower front view & H. flower lateral view.
    Photos by K. Souvannakhoummane, A-F, Photos by K. Phoutthavong, G & H.


    Keooudone Souvannakhoummane and Piyakaset Suksathan. 2015. Two New Species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) from North of Lao PDR. Taiwania. 60(4): 175 - 180. DOI: 10.6165/tai.2015.60.175


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     FIGURE 1. Rhododendron xiaoxueshanense R.l. Liao and Y.P. Ma (A, B, C, D) and R. trichostomum Franch(E, F, G, H ).
    A. & E. Habitat.— B. & F. Inflorescences and leaves.— C. & G. Flowers.

    Abstract

    Rhododendron Linnaeus (1753: 392) exhibits great diversity and roughly 1,025 species are prized in the temperate parts of the world for their horticultural value (Chamberlain et al. 1996). There are approximately 680 species in six subgenera in China, of which more than 400 are endemic (Fang & Min 1995). However, the number of Rhododendron species known is increasing, with many new species being described after the publishing of Flora of China (Fang et al. 2005, Chen et al. 2012, Mao et al. 2013, Ma et al. 2015, Mao & Bhaumik 2015).

    Xiaoxueshan Mountain lies in the Northeast of Shangri-la, NW Yunnan, China. In 1995, one of our co-authors Mr. Jens Neilsen visited Xiaoxueshan Mountain and noticed an unknown Rhododendron species growing on steep cliff close to the main road. This species is similar to R. trichostomum Franchet (1895: 396), but differs in leaf, inflorescence and fruit characters (Fig. 1). However, no detailed observation was carried out and no specimens were collected at that time. In June 2013, a field investigation was conducted, aiming to examine and fully describe this new species during its flowering period, and its status as a distinct new species was confirmed.

    ......


    FIGURE 1. Rhododendron xiaoxueshanense (A, B, C, D) and R. trichostomum (E, F, G, H ). — A. & E. Habitat.— B. & F. Inflorescences and leaves.— C. & G. Flowers.— D. & H. Fruits.

    Taxonomic treatment

    Rhododendron xiaoxueshanense R.l. Liao and Y.P. Ma, sp. nov. ( Fig. 2)

    Rhododendron xiaoxueshanense resembles R. trichostomum, but differs from the latter in having elliptic leaves in maturity, much longer pedicels  (4.57±0.16  mm  vs.  1.77±0.07  mm)  but  a  shorter  calyx  (2.67±0.08  mm  vs.  5.76±0.08  mm),  a  white  corolla  and  a  2–6 flowered inflorescence (Table 1).

    Type:— CHINA. Yunnan: Xiaoxuehsan Mountain, Shangri-La county. ca. 3500 m, 99°45′09.44′′E, 28°22′10.95′′N, June 2013, R.L. Liao& Y.P. Ma, SL1306002 (holotype: KUN!; isotype: KUN!)

    Distribution  and  ecology:— To  date, Rhododendron  xiaoxueshanense  is  known  only  from  the  type  locality  at Xiaoxueshan Mountain (99°45′09.44′′E, 28°22′10.95′′N), in Shangri-La county, NW Yunnan, China (Fig. 3). The plants have been found on rocks and cliff ledges at elevation of ca. 3500m (Fig. 1a).

    Etymology:— The specific epithet refers to the site (Xiaoxueshan Mountain) where the new species was discovered and collected.




    Rongli Liao, Dan Xue, Jens Neilsen, Jihua Wang and Yongpeng Ma. 2015. A New Species of Rhododendron (Ericaceae) from Shangri-La, NW Yunnan, China.  Phytotaxa. 238(3): 293–297. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.238.3.10





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    Eutropis grandis
    Howard, Gillespie, Riyanto & Iskandar, 2007 
     DOI:  10.1670/233-05.1 
    Abstract
    A new species of Eutropis (Sauria: Scincidae) is described from the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia, distinguished from all congeneric species, with the exception of Eutropis longicaudis, by its large size and low number of midbody scale rows. It has two primary temporal scales, whereas E. longicaudis from Borneo has only one. This new species is diurnal, partially arboreal, and inhabits rain forest from below 100 m to at least 600 m elevation.

      


    S. D. Howard, G. R. Gillespie, A. Riyanto and D. T. Iskandar. 2007. A New Species of Large Eutropis (Scincidae) from Sulawesi, Indonesia.
    Journal of Herpetology. 41(4):604-610.  DOI:  10.1670/233-05.1


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    Eutropis tammanna
      Das, De Silva & Austin, 2008 

    Abstract

    A new species of lygosomine scincid lizard of the genus Eutropis is described from the dry and intermediate zones of the lowlands (0–190 m asl) of Sri Lanka. Eutropis tammanna sp. nov. is compared with congeners from Sri Lanka and those from southern Peninsular India, and is diagnosable by molecular data and by the following combination of morphological characters: body size small, up to 52.3 mm; transparent window-like disk absent on lower eyelids; prefrontals in broad contact; a single pair of nuchals; postnasal absent; ear opening larger than adjacent scales; dorsal scales with 6–7 keels; midbody scale rows 28–29; paravertebral scale rows 37–40; ventral scales 41–48; lamellae under fourth toe 15– 16; dark labial bars present in both sexes, which are more distinct in males; dark postocular stripe absent; males brown on dorsum, with dark flanks speckled with cream; females similar to males, the pattern less contrasting, lacking paired series of black markings, pale vertebral stripes or dark longitudinal stripes on dorsum. In addition, the rostral, labials, and gular region of presumed breeding males are bright flame scarlet.

     Key words: Eutropis tammanna sp. n., Scincidae, systematics, morphology, Sri Lanka, Bayesian, ND2, DNA, SH test




    Indraneil Das, Anslem De Silva and Christopher C. Austin. 2008. A New Species of Eutropis (Squamata: Scincidae) from Sri Lanka. Zootaxa. 1700: 35–52.



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    Allobates bacurau 
     Simões, 2016 || zootaxa.4083.4.3 

    Abstract

    I describe the seventh species of nurse-frog (Allobates) from the Madeira River basin in Brazilian Amazonia. The new species is distinguished from similar congeneric species by its small body size (snout-to-vent length ranging between 14.0–14.7 mm in adult males and between 14.7–14.9 mm in adult females), by the absence of dark brown regular shapes (e.g. hourglass, “X” or polygon-like marks) on the dorsum, by the absence of transverse dark bars on the dorsal surface of the thigh, and by the light gray to white ventral surfaces, light to dark gray only on throat in live male and female specimens. Males have a distinctive advertisement call characterized by the emission of long (7–11 s) trills of short notes (0.04 s in average) with dominant frequency at 5.9–6.3 kHz and emission rate ranging between 6.7–8.7 notes/s. DNA barcode analyses based on a fragment of the 16S rDNA mitochondrial gene provides additional support to the recognition of the new taxon, which is probably distributed on the east riverbank of the Madeira River, in the interfluve between the Aripuanã and Ji-Paraná rivers.

    Keywords: Amphibia, Advertisement calls, Amazonia, Dendrobatoidea, endemism, mtDNA



    Pedro Ivo Simões. 2016. A New Species of Nurse-Frog (Aromobatidae, Allobates) from the Madeira River Basin with A Small Geographic Range. Zootaxa. 4083(4);  


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