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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region
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    Argostemma cordatum Nuraliev


    Abstract

    Argostemma cordatum, a new species of Rubiaceae, is described and illustrated. The species was discovered in 2014 during a botanical survey of the Chu Yang Sin National Park (Dak Lak province, Southern Vietnam). Argostemma cordatum possesses a solitary large leaf per plant (along with one very small leaf). The new species differs from morphologically similar species mainly by the small size of the enlarged leaf and cordate base of the enlarged leaf. It is also characterized by the following features: plant completely glabrous, stipules minute and reduced to papillate warts, inflorescence with all axes elongated, anthers coherent into anther cone and dehiscent by longitudinal slits, style slightly exserted. An extended description of the vegetation in the area inhabited by A. cordatum is provided.

    Keywords: Argostemma, taxonomy, Southern Vietnam, Chu Yang Sin National Park, flora, biodiversity, Eudicots

      
    FIGURE 2. Argostemma cordatum at type locality.
    A. General view of population. B. Flowering individual. D. Dichasium with flower buds. E. Flower, apical and oblique view.
    Nuraliev, Kuznetsov, Kuznetsova 960. All photos by M. Nuraliev.  

    Argostemma cordatum Nuraliev, sp. nov.

    Etymology:— The specific epithet “cordatum” refers to the prominently cordate base of large leaf which distinguishes the new species from its relatives.  


    Maxim S. Nuraliev, Anton S. Beer, Andrey N. Kuznetsov and Svetlana P. Kuznetsova. 2017. 
    Argostemma cordatum (Rubiaceae), A New Species from Vietnam.
     Phytotaxa. 317(1); 42–52. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.317.1.4


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    Anatoliadelphys maasae  Maga & Beck, 2017


    Abstract

    We describe a near-complete, three-dimensionally preserved skeleton of a metatherian (relative of modern marsupials) from the middle Eocene (Lutetian: 44–43 million years ago) Lülük member of the Uzunçarşıdere Formation, central Turkey. With an estimated body mass of 3–4 kg, about the size of a domestic cat (Felis catus) or spotted quoll (Dasyurus maculatus), it is an order of magnitude larger than the largest fossil metatherians previously known from the Cenozoic of the northern hemisphere. This new taxon is characterised by large, broad third premolars that probably represent adaptations for hard object feeding (durophagy), and its craniodental morphology suggests the capacity to generate high bite forces. Qualitative and quantitative functional analyses of its postcranial skeleton indicate that it was probably scansorial and relatively agile, perhaps broadly similar in locomotor mode to the spotted quoll, but with a greater capacity for climbing and grasping. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of a total evidence dataset comprising 259 morphological characters and 9kb of DNA sequence data from five nuclear protein-coding genes, using both undated and “tip-and-node dating” approaches, place the new taxon outside the marsupial crown-clade, but within the clade Marsupialiformes. It demonstrates that at least one metatherian lineage evolved to occupy the small-medium, meso- or hypo-carnivore niche in the northern hemisphere during the early Cenozoic, at a time when there were numerous eutherians (placentals and their fossil relatives) filling similar niches. However, the known mammal fauna from Uzunçarşıdere Formation appears highly endemic, and geological evidence suggests that this region of Turkey was an island for at least part of the early Cenozoic, and so the new taxon may have evolved in isolation from potential eutherian competitors. Nevertheless, the new taxon reveals previously unsuspected ecomorphological disparity among northern hemisphere metatherians during the first half of the Cenozoic.


    Systematic palaeontology

    Mammalia; Theria
    Metatheria; Marsupialiformes

    Anatoliadelphys gen. nov.  
    Anatoliadelphys maasae sp. nov.  

    Etymology: Anatolia (Greek): the geographic name for the Asian part of Turkey; delphys (Greek): uterus, a common suffix for marsupials and their fossil relatives; maasae: in honour of Dr. Mary Maas and her contributions to Paleogene mammalian palaeontology, particularly in Turkey.

    Holotype: Ankara Üniversitesi Jeoloji Müzesi (AÜJM) specimen 2002–25, which comprises a fragmented partial cranium, both dentaries, and associated postcranial elements, including most of the vertebral column, partial pectoral and pelvic girdles, all of the long limb bones, both calcanei, two metapodials, and a few phalanges.

    Locality and age: AÜJM 2002–25 was collected from the Lülük member of the Uzunçarşıdere Formation (UCF), which is part of the small Orhaniye-Güvenç sedimentary basin located at the northwestern edge of the city of Ankara, approximately 5 km southwest of the town of Kazan, in central Turkey. The Lülük member is the lowest of the three members currently recognised within the UCF (together with the Gökdere [middle], and Sarıbeyler [upper] members), and is the source of all fossil mammals known from the UCF to date. AÜJM 2002–25 is from locality AK33, which is approximately 90m above the base of the UCF, at Memlik village. Until recently, the age of the UCF was poorly constrained, but a combination of U-Pb dating of zircons and magnetostratigraphy now support a date of 44–42 MYA (= Lutetian) for the formation as a whole, and 44–43 MYA for the Lülük member.

    Diagnosis: Anatoliadelphys maasae differs from all other metatherians in the following combination of features: comparatively large size (estimated body mass 3–4 kg); premolars increase markedly in size posteriorly (occlusal area of p1 less than one sixth that of p3); P3 and p3 very large (similar in occlusal area to M2 and m2 respectively) and also broad (labiolingual width:mesiodistal length ratio is 0.89 for P3 and 0.7 for p3); modified tribosphenic molar dentition, in which M1-3 and m1-4 increase markedly in size posteriorly (occlusal area of M1 approximately one third that of M3; occlusal area of m1 approximately one seventh that of m4); upper molars with cingula extending along the anterior and posterior margins; protocone large but conules indistinct or absent; metacone taller than the paracone on M3 but smaller than the paracone on M4; centrocrista v-shaped on M3, with the premetacrista extending labially to stylar cusp D; centrocrista straight on M4; parastylar lobe very large on M4; anterior cingulid weakly developed on m3-4; m4 trigonid dominated by enormous protoconid, with paraconid and metaconid both greatly reduced; preentocristid and cristid obliqua of m3-4 both with carnassial notch; posterior cingulid present but very faint on m3-4; strongly curved radius and tibia; femur with prominent third trochanter, well-marked trochlea and distal condyles of approximately equal width; calcaneus with medially-inflected tuber, large peroneal process with prominent groove for peroneus longus tendon, concave calcaneocuboid facet, and prominent pit (probably for plantar calcaneocuboid ligament) on ventral surface.

    .....

    Fig 1. Holotype skeleton of Anatoliadelphys maasae (AÜJM 2002–25). Scale bar = 5 cm. 

    Reconstruction of the Anatoliadelphys maasae.
    Illustration: Peter Schouten 


    A. Murat Maga and Robin M. D. Beck. 2017. Skeleton of An Unusual, Cat-sized Marsupial Relative (Metatheria: Marsupialiformes) from the middle Eocene (Lutetian: 44-43 million years ago) of Turkey.  PLoS ONE. 12(8); e0181712.  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0181712


    Cenozoic carnivore from Turkey may have evolved without placental competitors  phy.so/422094230 via @physorg_com
    Ancient Carnivorous Dread-Possum Is Upending The History Of Mammals | Gizmodo Australia (via @GizmodoAU)  www.gizmodo.com.au/2017/08/ancient-carnivorous-dread-possum-is-upending-the-history-of-mammals/


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     Schistura thavonei  Kottelat, 2017

    RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY. 65


      Abstract
     Schistura thavonei, new species, is described from the Nam Ma, Mekong drainage, in Louang Namtha Province, northwestern Laos. It is distinguished from all other Nemacheilidae by its unique colour pattern made of two broad dark brown stripes (one middorsal, one midlateral) and between them a pale yellowish-brown stripe (iridescent in life); a row of 12–24 short black bars are located increasingly lower on the flank from head to tail, posterior-most ones restricted to the lower half of the body or forming blotches along the ventral midline of the caudal peduncle. Besides, it has an elongate body with a hump immediately behind the head, 8+7 branched caudalfin rays; and 9–10 total pectoral-fin rays. It was found in riffles, over gravel to stone bottom. 

    Key words. Cobitoidei, Schistura, Laos, Mekong basin, stone loach



    Diagnosis. Schistura thavonei is distinguished from the other species of the genus by its unique colour pattern made of two broad dark brown stripes (one middorsal, one midlateral) and between them a pale yellowish-brown stripe (iridescent copper to orange in life) from the upper extremity of the gill opening to the upper half of the base of the caudal fin; overimposed to the midlateral stripe, a row of 12–24 short black bars, located increasingly lower on the flank from head to tail, posterior-most ones restricted to the lower half of the body or forming blotches along the ventral midline of the caudal peduncle. Additional characters useful for identification but not unique to the species are: body very elongate (depth 6.2–7.2 times in SL), with a marked hump behind the head; male without suborbital flap; 8+7 branched caudal-fin rays; 7½ branched dorsal fin rays; 9–10 pectoral-fin rays.



    Notes on biology. A dissected female (CMK 25066, 46.6 mm SL) had unripe ovaries with white, irregular, not mature, ova about 1.0 mm diameter. The stomach of a 42.4 mm SL specimen was filled with insect larvae about 2–5 mm long. Schistura thavonei was observed in clear water [as expected for a benthic fish with bright coloration and contrasted pattern]. At all sites, S. thavonei has been collected in stretches of streams with riffles (in the sheltered parts with somewhat quieter current), over gravel to stone bottom (Fig. 7).

    Distribution. Schistura thavonei is presently known only from the watershed of the Nam Ma in Louang Namtha Province, a tributary of the Mekong, in northeastern Laos (not to be confused with the Nam Ma in Houa Phan Province, which flows to Vietnam and enters the Gulf of Tonkin).

    Etymology. The species is named for Mr. Thavone Phommavong, in appreciation for his help and companionship during several, and sometimes difficult, fish surveys in Laos. A noun in genitive.



    Maurice Kottelat. 2017. Schistura thavonei, A New Species of Loach from northwestern Laos (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae). RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY. 65: 395–403


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    Grallenia rubrilineata  Allen & Erdmann, 2017

    Abstract

    Five new species belonging to the gobiid fish genus Grallenia of the tropical western Pacific Ocean are described from sand-bottom habitats. Grallenia compta n. sp. (11 specimens, 14.9–17.3 mm SL) from Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea and Grallenia rubrilineata n. sp. (81 specimens, 8.8–15.8 mm SL) from Luzon, Philippines share a suite of features that comprises an absence of cephalic sensory-canal pores, a rectangular first dorsal fin without a filamentous extension of the first spine, and the anterior and posterior scales separated by a scaleless gap, with 15–22 longitudinal scales in the posterior series. The two species differ from each other in dorsal- and anal fin-ray counts (8–9 for G. compta n. sp. vs. 9–11, usually 10, for G. rubrilineata n. sp.), scalation patterns, and coloration. A third new species, Grallenia dimorpha n. sp. (34 specimens, 9.8–16.7 mm SL) from Papua New Guinea is similar, except it has a continuous series of longitudinal scales without a gap, and females possess a triangular first dorsal fin featuring a filamentous extension of the first spine. The last two species, Grallenia lauensis n. sp. (two females, 11.1–11.4 mm SL) and Grallenia solomonensis n. sp. (three females, 11.4–12.5 mm SL), are described from Fiji and the Solomon Islands, respectively. They exhibit similar diagnostic features including the presence of cephalic sensory-canal pores, usually 7 segmented dorsal- and anal-fin rays, and most body scales restricted to the caudal peduncle. Grallenia solomonensis n. sp. differs from G. lauensis n. sp. in having several mid-lateral scales immediately behind the pectoral-fin base (vs. none), 16 (vs. 15) pectoral-fin rays, pelvic-fin rays with 2–3 branch points (vs. a single point), and a truncate (vs. slightly emarginate) caudal fin. An additional 33 non-type specimens, 7.0–15.6 mm SL, from Australia (southern Great Barrier Reef and northwestern Coral Sea) are provisionally identified as G. lauensis n. sp. However, at least some Australian specimens differ slightly in possessing branched segmented dorsal-fin rays and pelvic-fin rays with more than one branch point. Although fins are damaged in most specimens, two Australian males exhibit a long, filamentous first dorsal-fin spine.

    Key words: taxonomy, systematics, ichthyology, coral-reef fishes, Indo-Pacific Ocean, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Fiji, Australia, sand habitat




    Grallenia compta, n. sp.
     Ornamented Goby

    Etymology. The species is named compta (Latin: ornamented), with reference to the orange markings on the head, body, and fins. It is treated as a feminine singular adjective.

    Distribution and habitat. The new species is currently known only from Sideia Island in Milne Bay Province of Papua New Guinea (Fig. 6), but is no doubt more widespread in this large marine province. The habitat consists of large (5–10 m2 ), flat, sandy areas surrounded by live coral, in depths of about 14–15 m.



    Figure 5: Adult males of species of Grallenia: A) G. compta; B) G. dimorpha; C) G. rubrilineata (G.R. Allen & M.V. Erdmann).



    Figure 10. Grallenia dimorpha, male (upper) and female (lower), approx. 15 mm SL, underwater photographs in 16 m, White Island, West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea (G.R. Allen). 

    Grallenia dimorpha, n. sp.
     Dimorphic Goby

    Etymology. The species is named dimorpha (Latin: two shapes) with reference to the sexual dimorphism in relation to dorsal-fin shape. It is treated as a feminine singular adjective. 

    Distribution and habitat. The new species is currently known only from Papua New Guinea (Fig. 6). The type series was collected off the southern coast of New Britain Island and the non-type specimens from the vicinity of Madang and near Port Moresby. The habitat consists of sandy substrate in about 8–18 m.

    Figure 14. Grallenia lauensis, female, approx. 11 mm SL, underwater photographs in 30–35 m, Lau Archipelago, Fiji (M.V. Erdmann). 

    Grallenia lauensis, n. sp. 
    Lau Goby

    Etymology. The species is named lauensis with reference to the Lau Archipelago type locality. 

    Distribution and habitat. The new species is currently known from the southern Lau Archipelago of southeastern Fiji and 33 non-type specimens from the Great Barrier Reef and northwestern Coral Sea. The Lau habitat consists of extensive gradual slopes of clean white sand in 30–35m depth. Both Lau sites were located in channel passes from the outer reef to extensive inner lagoons, and were hence subject to frequent strong currents and high rates of water exchange.


    Figure 18. Grallenia rubrilineata, male (right), female (center), and juvenile (left) approx. 8–15 mm SL, underwater photograph in 15 m, Ligpo Island near Anilao, Batangas Province, Philippines (G.R. Allen).

    Grallenia rubrilineata, n. sp. 
    Redstripe Goby

    Etymology. The species is named rubrilineata (Latin: “red-lined” or “red-striped”), with reference to the characteristic marking on the dorsal fin of adult males. It is treated as a feminine compound adjective.

     Distribution and habitat. The new species is currently known from the Philippines, including the type locality near Anilao in Batangas Province, Luzon, and on the basis of a photograph from Dauin, Negros in the Central Visayas Group. A female specimen examined at WAM (P.30410-015), 18 mm SL, from Bohaydulong Island, Sabah State, Malaysia is probably G. rubrilineata, judging from fin-ray counts, scale pattern, and lack of head pores; however, additional specimens, including males, would be required to verify this identification. The habitat at Anilao consists of extensive areas of sand/silt substrate in about 12–15 m. The new species was very abundant in some areas, including the type locality, with an estimated abundance of 10–15 individuals per square meter. It was typically seen in small groups.



    Grallenia solomonensis, n. sp. 
    Solomons Goby

    Etymology. The species is named solomonensis with reference to the Solomon Islands type locality.


    Gerald R. Allen and Mark V. Erdmann. 2017. Description of Five New Species of Marine Gobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae) of the Genus Grallenia from the tropical western Pacific Ocean. Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation. 27; 20–47.  http://www.oceansciencefoundation.org/josf27c.html


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    DOI: 10.1111/mec.14296 

    Abstract

    Accurately delimiting species boundaries is a non-trivial undertaking that can have significant effects on downstream inferences. We compared the efficacy of commonly-used species delimitation methods (SDMs) and a population genomics approach based on genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to assess lineage separation in the Malaysian Torrent Frog Complex currently recognized as a single species (Amolops larutensis). First, we used morphological, mitochondrial DNA and genome-wide SNPs to identify putative species boundaries by implementing non-coalescent and coalescent-based SDMs (mPTP, iBPP, BFD*). We then tested the validity of putative boundaries by estimating spatiotemporal gene flow (fastsimcoal2, ABBA-BABA) to assess the extent of genetic isolation among putative species. Our results show that the A. larutensis complex runs the gamut of the speciation continuum from highly divergent, genetically isolated lineages (mean Fst = 0.9) to differentiating populations involving recent gene flow (mean Fst = 0.05; Nm > 5). As expected, SDMs were effective at delimiting divergent lineages in the absence of gene flow but overestimated species in the presence of marked population structure and gene flow. However, using a population genomics approach and the concept of species as separately evolving metapopulation lineages as the only necessary property of a species, we were able to objectively elucidate cryptic species boundaries in the presence of past and present gene flow. This study does not discount the utility of SDMs but highlights the danger of violating model assumptions and the importance of carefully considering methods that appropriately fit the diversification history of a particular system.

    Keywords: Amolops, migration rate, fastsimcoal2, site frequency spectrum, gene flow, single-nucleotide polymorphism 




    Kin Onn Chan, Alana M. Alexander, Lee L. Grismer, Yong-Chao Su, Jesse L. Grismer, Evan S. H. Quah and Rafe M. Brown. 2017. Species Delimitation with Gene Flow: A Methodological Comparison and Population Genomics Approach to Elucidate Cryptic Species Boundaries in Malaysian Torrent Frogs.  Molecular Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/mec.14296 


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    Leucocarbo septentrionalis
    Rawlence, Till, Easton, Spencer, Schuckard, Melville, Scofield, Tennyson, Rayner & Waters, 2017

    Kohatu Shag || DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2017.07.011 

    Highlights
    • New Zealand King Shag occupied a ‘relict’ distribution for at least the past 240 years.
    • Ancient DNA indicates drop in genetic variability and range shortly after human arrival.
    • Leucocarbo from northern New Zealand represent new extinct species, Kohatu Shag.
    • New Zealand biodiversity hotspot for Phalacrocoracidae.

    Abstract
    New Zealand’s endemic King Shag (Leucocarbo carunculatus) has occupied only a narrow portion of the northeastern South Island for at least the past 240 years. However, pre-human Holocene fossil and archaeological remains have suggested a far more widespread distribution of the three Leucocarbo species (King, Otago, Foveaux) on mainland New Zealand at the time of Polynesian settlement in the late 13th Century CE. We use modern and ancient DNA, and morphometric and osteological analyses, of modern King Shags and Holocene fossil Leucocarbo remains to assess the pre-human distribution and taxonomic status of the King Shag on mainland New Zealand, and the resultant conservation implications. Our analyses show that the King Shag was formerly widespread around southern coasts of the North Island and the northern parts of the South Island but experienced population and lineage extinctions, and range contraction, probably after Polynesian arrival. This history parallels range contractions of other New Zealand seabirds. Conservation management of the King Shag should take into account this species narrow distribution and probable reduced genetic diversity. Moreover, combined genetic, morphometric and osteological analyses of prehistoric material from mainland New Zealand suggest that the now extinct northern New Zealand Leucocarbo populations comprised a unique lineage. Although these distinctive populations were previously assigned to the King Shag (based on morphological similarities and geographic proximity to modern Leucocarbo populations), we herein describe them as a new species, the Kohatu Shag (Leucocarbo septentrionalis). The extinction of this species further highlights the dramatic impacts Polynesians and introduced predators had on New Zealand’s coastal and marine biodiversity. The prehistoric presence of at least four species of Leucocarbo shag on mainland NZ further highlights its status as a biodiversity hotspot for Phalacrocoracidae.

    Keywords: Ancient DNA; Extinct; Holocene fossil; King Shag; Kohatu Shag; Leucocarbo carunculatusLeucocarbo septentrionalis; New species; New Zealand


    Fig. 8. Cranial skeletal elements of the holotype of Kohatu Shag (Leucocarbo septentrionalis; NMNZ S.34434). (a) Lateral view; (b) Dorsal view; (c) Ventral view. 



     Systematic palaeontology

    PELECANIFORMES Sharpe, 1891
    PHALACROCORACIDAE Reichenbach, 1849

    LEUCOCARBO Bonaparte, 1857
     [type species (by subsequent designation, Ogilvie-Grant, 1898) Carbo bougainvillii Lesson, 1837]

    LEUCOCARBO SEPTENTRIONALIS  SP. NOV.

    English name: Kohatu Shag; Maori name: Kawau Kohatu

    Type locality: Tokerau Beach, Doubtless Bay, Northland, New Zealand.

    Etymology: septentrionalis from the medieval Latin for northern. This specific name recognises that this was the northernmost New Zealand member of the genus Leucocarbo. The name Kawau Kohatu in Maori is derived from the phrase ‘Te Ao Kohatu’ and means ‘shag [Kawau] from the stone age before our time [Te Ao Kohatu]’. The name recognises the species was found in Holocene fossil deposits of the iwi Ngati Kuri’s tribal area.

    Distribution: Formerly of Northland, New Zealand.



    Nicolas J. Rawlence, Charlotte E. Till, Luke J. Easton, Hamish G. Spencer, Rob Schuckard, David S. Melville, R. Paul Scofield, Alan J.D. Tennyson, Matt J. Rayner and Jonathan M. Waters. 2017. Speciation, Range Contraction and Extinction in the Endemic New Zealand King Shag Complex.  Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. in press. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2017.07.011

    Another extinct bird: Northland’s unique shag  blog.tepapa.govt.nz/2017/08/14/another-extinct-bird-northlands-unique-shag via @te_papa
    Hiding in plain sight: how we found New Zealand’s newest seabird, the Kōhatu Shag" sciblogs.co.nz/guestwork/2017/08/14/kohatu-shag   @sciblogsnz 

      


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    Potamotrygon scobina Garman, 1913


    Abstract

    Potamotrygon scobina Garman, 1913, described from Cametá, rio Tocantins, lower Amazon basin, is taxonomically reviewed through an extensive morphological study of internal and external features. Specimens identified as P. scobina from different locations of the Amazon basin were also studied. The identity of P. scobina, its morphology, and distribution are redefined. In addition, three new species closely related to P. scobina are described from Brazil: Potamotrygon adamastor, sp. nov., from rio Uraricoera, rio Branco system, upper Amazon basin;Potamotrygon amazona, sp. nov., from rio Juruá, upper Amazon basin; and Potamotrygon garmani, sp. nov., from the mid to upper rio Tocantins. These three new species do not occur sympatrically with P. scobina, as far as known. Together with P. scobina and P. limai Fontenelle, Silva & Carvalho, 2014, the new species have three angular cartilages of different sizes, a condition not seen in any other potamotrygonin (which have either one or two angulars). Diagnostic characters in combination are primarily morphometric proportions, especially tail length and width, dermal denticles and tail thorns (their relative size, number, morphology, and distribution), tooth size and number of rows, and color pattern.

    Keywords: Pisces, taxonomy, Neotropics, angular cartilages, Potamotrygongarmani sp. nov., Potamotrygonamazona sp. nov., Potamotrygonadamastor sp. nov.


    Potamotrygon scobina Garman, 1913 


    João Pedro Fontenelle and Marcelo R. de Carvalho. 2017.  Systematic Revision of the Potamotrygon scobina Garman, 1913 Species-complex (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes: Potamotrygonidae), with the Description of Three New Freshwater Stingray Species from Brazil and Comments on Their Distribution and Biogeography. Zootaxa.  4310(1); 1–63. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4310.1.1


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    Bittacomorphella sp.

    Fasbender & Courtney. 2017. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4309.1.1

    Abstract

    The phylogenetic relationship between the two extant subfamilies of Ptychopteridae is examined using morphological characters. Bittacomorphinae is supported as a monophyletic group with several synapomorphies. Monophyly of the Ptychopterinae is less certain. Descriptions are provided for the family and subfamilies. The genera and species of Bittacomorphinae are reviewed, and phylogenetic relationships within the subfamily are discussed. While Bittacomorpha is a monophyletic group, Bittacomorphella is probably paraphyletic. Redescriptions of the species of Bittacomorpha and most of Bittacomorphella are presented. Bittacomorphellafurcata sp. nov., is described from the central Coast Range of Oregon and Olympic Peninsula of Washington, USA. The range of Bittacomorphinae is found to extend into the Neotropical region with a record of Bittacomorphaclavipes from Costa Rica. A key to the world species of Bittacomorphinae is provided.

    Keywords: Diptera, Bittacomorpha, Bittacomorphella, phylogeny, morphology, natural history




     Andrew Fasbender and Gregory W. Courtney. 2017. A Revision of Bittacomorphinae with A Review of the Monophyly of Extant Subfamilies of Ptychopteridae (Diptera).   Zootaxa. 4309(1); 1–69. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4309.1.1


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    Channa pseudomarulius (Günther, 1861)
     subadult, 164 mm SL, Kerala, Pamba River, not preserved.


    Abstract

    An investigation integrating morphological and molecular data to address the taxonomic status of Indian Channa marulius-like fishes reveals the presence of two species within Indian Rivers. As a consequence, Channa pseudomarulius is resurrected as a valid species and removed from the synonymy of C. marulius. Channa pseudomarulius appears to be restricted to the southern Western Ghats region of peninsular India and can be distinguished from the more widespread C. marulius by fewer lateral-line scales, fewer dorsal- and anal-fin rays, fewer vertebrae, and by a difference of about 8% in mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene sequences. Channa marulius and C. pseudomarulius both possess low levels of genetic diversity across their range suggestive of small historical population sizes. This is especially interesting in the case of C. marulius, which is shown to have a large natural geographical range spanning at least the Indian subcontinent and parts of the Indo-Burman ranges in westernmost Myanmar. The synonymy of Channa marulius with Ophicephalus grandinosusO. theophrasti, and O. leucopunctatus is confirmed based on examination of type specimens. A lectotype is designated for O. grandinosus.

    Keywords: Pisces, CO1, DNA barcoding, Integrative taxonomy, Kerala, Morphometry


     

    FIGURE 3. Channa pseudomarulius, colouration in life.
    Juvenile (A), KUFOS 2017. KUT. 15, ca. 55 mm SL, Kerala, Kuttiyadi river; juvenile (B) ca. 80 mm SL, Kerala, Irrity, not preserved; subadult (C), 164 mm SL, Kerala, Pamba River, not preserved. 

    FIGURE 3. Channa pseudomarulius, colouration in life.  Juvenile (A), KUFOS 2017. KUT. 15, ca. 55 mm SL, Kerala, Kuttiyadi river; juvenile (B) ca. 80 mm SL, Kerala, Irrity, not preserved; subadult (C), 164 mm SL, Kerala, Pamba River, not preserved. 

    FIGURE 6. Original illustration (A) of Ophicephalus grandinosus reproduced from Cuvier & Valenciennes (1831) and lateral view (B) of lectotype (MNHN A 1959, 564 mm SL). Original illustration (C) of O. theophrasti reproduced from Jacquemont (1839) and lateral view (D) of holotype (MNHN A- 668, 330 mm SL). Reproduction of Sykes' (1841) original illustration of O. leucopunctatus (E). 



    Ralf Britz, Eleanor Adamson, Rajeev Raghavan, Anvar Ali and Neelesh Dahanukar. 2017. Channa pseudomarulius, A Valid Species of Snakehead from the Western Ghats region of Peninsular India (Teleostei: Channidae), with Comments on Ophicephalus grandinosusO. theophrasti and O. leucopunctatusZootaxa. 4299(4); 529–545. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4299.4.4

         


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    Capoeta ferdowsii,  C. pyragyi C. shajariani
    Jouladeh-Roudbar, Eagderi, Murillo-Ramos, Ghanavi & Doadrio, 2017


    Abstract
    Traditionally small-scale populations of Capoeta in the Tigris River drainage are identified as Capoeta damascina. The recent finding revealed that some populations of small-scaled C. damascina species group are not identified as any described species. We examined these populations and the results showed that there are pronounced differences between them in morphological and molecular characters. Therefore based on differences found, here we describe three new small-scaled Capoeta species from Zohreh, Tireh and Gamasiab Rivers, Tigris River drainage, Iran.

    Keywords: Biodiversity, Cyprinid, Freshwater fish species, Iran, Taxonomy.


    Figure 4. Capoeta ferdowsii, IMNRF-UT-1111 67, 138 mm SL; Iran: Fars Prov.: Bekr sofla village, Tang-e Shiv River, Tigris River drainage.
    Figure 10. Capoeta pyragyi, IMNRF-UT-1109 134, 155.8 mm SL; Iran: Lorestan Prov.: Tire River, Sezar River drainage, Tigris river drainage.
    Figure 15. Capoeta shajariani, IMNRF-UT-1106 49, 149 mm SL; Iran: Hamedan Prov.: Gamasiab River, Saad-e Vaghas Village, Tigris River drainage.

    Capoeta ferdowsii, new species

    Distribution: Capoeta ferdowsii is known from the Zohreh and Fahlian Rivers in Tigris river drainage (Fig. 7).
    Etymology: The species is named to honor of Abu Al-Qasim Ferdowsi Tusi (Persian: وسمس ابوالقاسمفردوسیسمسر (a Persian poet and the author of Shahnameh book which is the world's longest epic poem created by a single poet, and the national epic of Greater Iran.


    Capoeta pyragyi, new species

    Distribution: Capoeta pyragyi is known from the Tireh and Sezar Rivers (Fig. 13).
    Etymology: The species is named to honor of Magtymguly Pyragy (Persian: دواغس مختومقلس (a Turkmen spiritual leader and philosophical poet.


    Capoeta shajariani, new species

    Distribution: Capoeta shajariani is known from the Gamasiab (Fig. 20), Dinevar, Qarasu, Khoram (Khoram Abad), Aran and Sarab-e Maran Rivers in the Tigris River drainage.
    Etymology: The species is named to honor of Mohammad-Reza Shajarian, an acclaimed Iranian classical singer, composer and master of Persian traditional music.


     Arash Jouladeh-Roudbar, Soheil Eagderi, Leidys Murillo-Ramos, Hamid Reza Ghanavi and Ignacio Doadrio. 2017. Three New Species of Algae-scraping Cyprinid from Tigris River Drainage in Iran (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). FishTaxa. 2(3); 134-155.  FishTaxa.com/index.php/ft/article/view/2-3-4
      


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    Cambarus (Puncticambarusguenteri
     Loughman, Henkanaththegedara, Fetzner & Thoma, 2017
      

    Abstract

    The amazing levels of freshwater biodiversity found in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States are among the highest recorded globally. Localized endemics make up much of this diversity, with numerous fish, freshwater mussels, salamanders and crayfish often being restricted to a single watershed, and in some instances, subwatersheds. Much of this diversity is the product of the processes of vicariance and historical stream drainage patterns. Herein, we describe three new crayfish species, all previously members of the Cambarus robustus complex, which occur in the Appalachian portion of the Kentucky and Licking river basins in Kentucky, USA. All three species differ from each other morphologically, genetically, and zoogeographically, fulfilling the requirements of the integrated species concept. Cambarus guenteri occurs in the southern tributaries of the Kentucky River mainstem as well as throughout the South Fork Kentucky River. Cambarus taylori is a narrow endemic, which only occurs in the Middle Fork Kentucky River. Cambarus hazardi, which has the widest distribution of the three new species, occurs in the North Fork Kentucky River, Red River, and upper reaches of the Licking River basin. Stream piracy events between the Cumberland and South Fork Kentucky River, as well as the Licking, Red and North Fork Kentucky rivers, are theorized to be important in the evolution of this complex. Cambarus guenteri is proposed as currently stable, though both C. taylori and C. hazardi are considered imperiled at this time due to habitat destruction throughout both of their respective ranges.

    Keywords: Cambarus, endemicity, Kentucky, new species, systematics, taxonomy, Crustacea


    Cambarus (Puncticambarusguenteri, new species

    Etymology. It is with great pleasure that we name this species in honor of Dr. Guenter A. SchusterProfessor Emeritus, Eastern Kentucky University. Dr. Schuster dedicated his professional career to teaching undergraduates, graduate students and professional biologists about the diversity, biology, and conservation of freshwater invertebrates, with a particular influence on biologists from the bluegrass state, and he is a coauthor of the definitive work on the crayfishes of Kentucky. He instilled in those he educated a sense of wonder and appreciation for these organisms, which has undoubtedly led to the conservation of more than one freshwater mussel or crayfish. The common name for C. guenteri is the Redbird Crayfish in reference to the Redbird River drainage where large populations of C. guenteri occur.

    Common name. Redbird Crayfish.



    Cambarus (Puncticambarushazardi, new species

    Etymology. Cambarus hazardi is named after Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, noted American Naval Commander, and the name sake of Perry County Kentucky and the County Seat, Hazard Kentucky. The common name Brawny Crayfish is in reference to the powerfully built stature of C. hazardi.

    Common name. Brawny Crayfish



    Cambarus (Puncticambarustaylorinew species

    Etymology. It is our honor and privilege to name this crayfish after Dr. Christopher A. Taylor from the Illinois Natural History Survey. Dr. Taylor has been one of the most active crayfish researchers in the United States for the past two decades and a leader in crayfish conservation, co-authored the seminal work on Kentucky’s crayfishes, Crayfishes of Kentucky, and has been instrumental in bringing the conservation concerns of North America’s crayfishes to light with his many publications. The common name Cutshin Crayfish is in reference to Cutshin Creek watershed, which harbors the species.

    Common name. Cutshin Crayfish


    Zachary J. Loughman, Sujan M. Henkanaththegedara, James W. Fetzner, Jr. and Roger F. Thoma. 2017. A Case of Appalachian Endemism: Revision of the Cambarus robustus complex (Decapoda: Cambaridae) in the Kentucky and Licking River Basins of Kentucky, USA, with the Description of Three New Species.  Zootaxa. 4269(4); 460-494.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4269.4.4



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     Eupolybothrus liburnicus
    Akkari, Komerički, Weigand, Edgecombe & Stoev, 2017 


    Abstract
    A new species of Eupolybothrus Verhoeff, 1907 discovered in caves of Velebit Mountain in Croatia is described.Eupolybothrus liburnicus sp. n. exhibits a few morphological differences from its most similar congeners, all of which are attributed to the subgenus Schizopolybothrus Verhoeff, 1934, and two approaches to species delimitation using the COI barcode region identify it as distinct from the closely allied E. cavernicolus Stoev & Komerički, 2013.
    E. spiniger (Latzel, 1888) is redescribed and a lectotype is designated for it as well as E. caesar (Verhoeff, 1899) to stabilize their respective taxonomic status. The subspecies E. acherontis wardaranus Verhoeff, 1937, previously suspected to be a synonym of E. caesar (Verhoeff, 1899), is redescribed and its taxonomy revised after the study of type material whereas the identity of E. acherontis (Verhoeff, 1900) described from a female from southwest Trebinje (Bosnia and Herzegovina) remains unknown. Type material of E. stygis (Folkmanova, 1940) is confirmed to be lost and future designation of neotypes from topotypic specimens is necessary to stabilize its taxonomy. The importance of setal arrangement on the intermediate and 14th tergites and the sexual modifications on the male 15th prefemur for species identification is discussed in the light of present findings, and a review of the species of E. (Schizopolybothrus) that display these traits is also provided.

    Keywords:  Biospeleology, COI barcoding, Eupolybothrus, new species, SEM, Velebit Mountain


    Order Lithobiomorpha Pocock, 1895
    Family Lithobiidae Newport, 1844
    Subfamily Ethopolyinae Chamberlin, 1915

    Genus Eupolybothrus Verhoeff, 1907

    Eupolybothrus liburnicus sp. n.


    Diagnosis: A species morphologically similar to Eupolybothrus cavernicolus, genetically differing from it by 11% interspecific distance based on COI, and morphologically differing by the slightly convex posterior margin of T14, presence of 15CxVp and 15PDp spines, and by the leg 15 to body length ratio of ca. 64% in the adult male.



    Figure 1: Eupolybothrus liburnicus sp. n. habitus, cephalic plate+T1 and ocelli.
      A Habitus, holotype B Cephalic plate and T1, holotype, dorsal view COcelli, paratype ZMUC 00040237.

    Etymology: Liburnicus denotes „of Liburnia“, a district in the coastal region of the northeastern Adriatic; adjective.

    Habitat: Eupolybothrus liburnicus sp. n. is here recorded from five caves of the Velebit Mountain, Croatia. Four of these (Plitka peć, Skorupuša, Rašljekovac and Bundalova pećina) are situated in the area where the southern slopes of the Crnopac Massif meet the Krupa River canyon while one of them, Markova špilja, is a small anchialine cave situated a few hundred meters from the Adriatic coast near the village of Seline.


     Nesrine Akkari, Ana Komerički, Alexander M. Weigand, Gregory D. Edgecombe and Pavel Stoev. 2017. A New Cave Centipede from Croatia, Eupolybothrus liburnicus sp. n., with Notes on the Subgenus Schizopolybothrus Verhoeff, 1934 (Chilopoda, Lithobiomorpha, Lithobiidae). 
    ZooKeys. 687; 11-43.  DOI:  10.3897/zookeys.687.13844

      


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     Pyrophleps ellawi Skowron Volponi, 2017

    Figure 1. Pyrophleps ellawi has a strong blue sheen in sunlight. Representatives of this species vary in the number of orange scales on the thorax. The scales form two longitudinal stripes, either dashed or solid.

    Abstract
    A new species of clearwing moth, Pyrophleps ellawi Skowron Volponi, sp. n., is described from Peninsular Malaysia. Information on the habitat, time and conditions of occurrence, flight and mud-puddling behaviour, functional morphology, and DNA barcode are also provided. Photographs and a supplementary video from the wild demonstrate the postures and behaviour of this species of Pyrophleps, whose remaining members were described only on the basis of pinned specimens. This is the first record of this genus in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Keywords: Sesiidae, clearwing moth, Pyrophleps ellawi, mimicry, mud-puddling, behaviour, Malaysia


    Figure 3. Male holotype of Pyrophleps ellawi.

    Diagnosis: The new species is superficially most similar to Pyrophleps vitripennis, from which it can easily be distinguished by the configuration of male genitalia (compare Fig. 4 herein with Arita and Gorbunov 2000, fig. 6), presence of hair-like scales on labial palpi (smoothly scaled in species compared), presence of orange hair-like scales on fore- and mid tibiae and lack of orange scales on wings, broader external transparent area of forewing. Apart from morphological features, P. ellawi shows 8% COI sequence divergence from P. vitripennis (Table 1). Based on genitalia configuration, this species is most similar to P. nigripennis. However, it differs in the shape of the valva and gnathos. Besides that, it can immediately be distinguished by the well-developed transparent areas of forewing (compare Fig. 3 herein with Arita and Gorbunov 2000, fig. 8), narrow discal spot on hindwing and by the colouration of the hind leg tuft (extensive red both externally, on tibia, and internally, on tibiae and tarsi, in P. nigripennis). From P. ruficrista it differs in more developed forewing ATA and PTA and less developed ETA and in the hind leg tuft (cinnabar red with two black spots and patches of blue scales in P. ruficrista). From P. cruentata, P. haematochrodes , P. cucphuonganae and P. bicella, it can be distinguished by the entirely transparent hindwings and absence of red scales on wings and abdomen.

    Figure 1. Pyrophleps ellawihas a strong blue sheen in sunlight. Representatives of this species vary in the number of orange scales on the thorax. The scales form two longitudinal stripes, either dashed or solid. 

    Figure 2. Pyrophleps ellawi puddling on a river bank. Note the curled-up hind leg tarsi.

    Etymology: The species is named after our dear friend El Law, a dedicated conservation activist with sincere sensibility for Malaysian nature who, over the years of our studies on Malaysian Sesiidae, offered us his help in countless aspects.

    Distribution and habitat: In addition to the type locality, the species is known also from the Taman Negara National Park, Malaysia, where it was observed and filmed in two locations approx. 50 km from each other. All observations were done on sandy and pebble river banks exposed to sunlight, in a lowland dipterocarp forest (Fig. 5)

    Figure 5. Habitat of Pyrophleps ellawi: sandy/pebble river banks in a lowland dipterocarp forest, Malaysia.

    Conclusion: 
    The new wasp-mimicking species of Sesiidae, Pyrophleps ellawi, represents the first record of the genus Pyrophleps in Peninsular Malaysia and the first filmed in the wild. The video realized in its habitat provided valuable information on its authentic habitus, functional morphology, and behaviour.


     Marta Skowron Volponi and Paolo Volponi. 2017. A New Species of Wasp-mimicking Clearwing Moth from Peninsular Malaysia with DNA Barcode and Behavioural Notes (Lepidoptera, Sesiidae). ZooKeys. 692: 129-139.  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.692.13587



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    Theloderma pyaukkya Dever, 2017

    DOI: 10.1670/17-026  || @JADever

    Abstract
    I describe a new species of Theloderma from two regions in Myanmar (Chin State in western Myanmar and Kachin State in northern Myanmar). Highly similar in appearance and size to Theloderma albopunctatum and Theloderma asperum, the new species differs by the presence of small, bilateral vocal sac openings absent in T. albopunctatum and T. asperum. Molecular phylogenetic analysis from two mitochondrial and four nuclear gene fragments infers that individuals are members of a unique genetic lineage within the T. asperum Complex.

    FIG. 6. Theloderma pyaukkya sp. nov., paratype CAS 234869, adult male, dorsolateral view. 

    Theloderma pyaukkya sp. nov. 
    Burmese Camouflaged Tree Frog

    Etymology.— Specific epithet pyaukkya (pronounced pee-ew-cha) is Burmese for camouflaged, which reflects the frog’s cryptic coloration.


    Jennifer A. Dever. 2017. A New Cryptic Species of the Theloderma asperum Complex (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Myanmar. Journal of Herpetology. 51(3); 425–436.  DOI: 10.1670/17-026

        


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    Shringasaurus indicus 
    Sengupta, Ezcurra & Bandyopadhyay, 2017

    Illustration: Gabriel Lio
      DOI: s41598-017-08658-8 

    Abstract
    The early evolution of archosauromorphs (bird- and crocodile-line archosaurs and stem-archosaurs) represents an important case of adaptive radiation that occurred in the aftermath of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction. Here we enrich the early archosauromorph record with the description of a moderately large (3–4 m in total length), herbivorous new allokotosaurian, Shringasaurus indicus, from the early Middle Triassic of India. The most striking feature of Shringasaurus indicus is the presence of a pair of large supraorbital horns that resemble those of some ceratopsid dinosaurs. The presence of horns in the new species is dimorphic and, as occurs in horned extant bovid mammals, these structures were probably sexually selected and used as weapons in intraspecific combats. The relatively large size and unusual anatomy of Shringasaurus indicus broadens the morphological diversity of Early–Middle Triassic tetrapods and complements the understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms involved in the early archosauromorph diversification.


    Figure 3: Skeletal anatomy of Shringasaurus indicus gen. et sp. nov. (a) Left premaxilla (ISIR 793) in lateral view. (b) Left maxilla (ISIR 795) in lateral view. (c) Left quadrate (ISIR 797) in lateral view. (d) Axis (ISIR 803) in left lateral view. (e) Posterior cervical vertebra (ISIR 820) in left lateral view. (f,g) Anterior dorsal vertebra (ISIR 825) in left lateral view in (f), and anterior view in (g). (h) Two anterior caudal vertebrae (ISIR 875) in right lateral view (mirrored). (i) Posterior caudal vertebra (ISIR 892) in left lateral view. (j) Right femur (ISIR 1016) in ventral view. (k) Left ilium (ISIR 991) in lateral view. (l), (m) Right astragalus and fused lateral centrale (ISIR 1059) in proximal view in (l), and dorsal view in (m). (n) Interclavicle (ISIR 950) in ventral view. (o) Left clavicle (ISIR 948) in medial view. (p) Left humerus (ISIR 951) in ventral view. (q) Left scapula (ISIR 929) and coracoid (ISIR 941) in lateral view. (r) Tooth crown (ISIR 801A) in labial view.

    Scales = 1 cm for (a–c,i,m,l), 2 cm for (d–h,j,k,n–q), and 1 mm for (r), and skeleton = 25 cm. a. articulates with; ac, acetabulum; ain, axial intercentrum; ap, anterior process; ca, calcaneum; ce, lateral centrale; de, denticles; dpc, deltopectoral crest; fi, fibula; gf, glenoid fossa; gr, groove; hqh, hooked quadrate head; icl, interclavicle; itr, internal trochanter; la, lacrimal; lp, lateral process; mp, mammillary process; nag, non-articular gap; pcdl, posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; pgp, postglenoid process; pnp, postnasal process; pof, popliteal fossa; pop, postacetabular process; pp, parapophysis; ppr, posterior process; ppdl, paradiapophyseal lamina; prdl, prezygodiapophyseal lamina; prp, preacetabular process; prz, prezygapophysis; qj, quadratojugal; sac, supraacetabular crest; sc, scapula; sgl, subglenoid lip; spdl, spinodiapophyseal lamina; sprdl, spinoprezygapophyseal lamina; ti, tibia.


    Figure 2: Cranial anatomy of Shringasaurus indicus gen. et sp. nov. and comparison with the skull of a ceratopsid dinosaur that possesses convergent supraorbital horns. (a) Reconstruction of the skull of Shringasaurus indicus in left lateral view. (b) Drawing of the skull of Arrhinoceratops brachyops in left lateral view (based on ROM 79648). (c) Reconstruction of the skull of Shringasaurus indicus in dorsal view. (d–g) Partial skull tables of Shringasaurus indicus in dorsal views (ISIR 781, 780, 786, 789, 790 from left to right), one side has been digitally mirrored in (d–f). (h–k) Partial skull tables of Shringasaurus indicus in left lateral views (ISIR 781, 780, 786, 790 from left to right). Specimens (d–f) and (h–j) possesses horns and specimen/s (g) and (k) lacks horns.
    Scales = 4 cm for (a) and ( c–k), and 20 cm for (b). en, external naris; ho, horn; or, orbit; stf, supratemporal fenestra.

    Figure 4: Phylogenetic relationships of Shringasaurus indicus gen. et sp. nov. and evolution of body size among early archosauromorphs. (a) Time calibrated strict consensus tree found in the data set analysed here (Supplementary Information). Diapsids more basal than Protorosaurus are not shown and all clades except Allokotosauria have been collapsed for clarity. Numbers at the nodes are Bremer support values higher than 1. (b) Evolution of femoral length (as proxy of body size) optimized as a continuous character using maximum parsimony among non-archosauriform archosauromorphs (Supplementary Information). The horizontal axis represents phylogenetic distance. Green circles represent non-allokotosaurian species, red circles represent allokotosaurians, light blue circles represent non-allokotosaurian ancestral femoral lengths, and violet circles represent allokotosaurian ancestral femoral lengths. The dotted line represents a branch not included in the phylogenetic analysis of this study and the horizontal bar with dotted vertical lines on the right side of the graphic represents the median and standard deviation of Permian to Middle Triassic non-allokotosaurian, non-archosauriform archosauromorph femoral length. a, Crocopoda; b, Allokotosauria; c, Trilophosauridae; d, Azendohsauridae; e, Azendohsaurus.

    Systematic Palaeontology

    Diapsida Osborn, 1903
    Archosauromorpha Huene, 1946 sensu Dilkes19

    Allokotosauria Nesbitt et al., 2015
    Azendohsauridae Nesbitt et al., 2015

    Shringasaurus indicus gen. et sp. nov.

    Etymology: Śṛṅga’ (Shringa), horn (ancient Sanskrit), and ‘sauros’ (σαῦρος), lizard (ancient Greek), referring to the horned skull; ‘indicus’, Indian (Latin English), refers to the country where such species was discovered.

    Holotype: ISIR (Indian Statistical Institute, Reptile, India) 780: partial skull roof (prefrontal, frontal, postfrontal, and parietal) with a pair of large supraorbital horns (Fig. 2e,i).

    Locality and horizon: Near Tekapar village, Hoshangabad district, Madhya Pradesh, India (Fig. 1); Denwa Formation, Anisian, early Middle Triassic18, Satpura Gondwana Basin.

    Diagnosis: Relatively large (3–4 m total body length; Fig. S1) allokotosaurian archosauromorph that differs from other stem-archosaurs in the following combination of character-states: confluent external nares; pair of anterodorsally oriented supraorbital horns; similar sized and leaf-shaped marginal and palatal teeth with large denticles; middle-posterior cervical, dorsal, and at least the first two caudal vertebrae with mammillary processes on the neural spines; middle-posterior cervical, dorsal, and sacral vertebrae with hyposphene-hypantrum accessory articulations; cervical vertebrae 2–5 with epipophyses (unknown in Cv6); dorsal vertebrae with spinoprezygapophyseal and spinopostzygapophyseal laminae; dorsal vertebrae 1–12 with spinodiapophyseal laminae; anterior dorsal vertebrae with neural spines two times taller than its respective centrum (see Supplementary Information for differential diagnosis).


    Shringasaurus indicus Sengupta, Ezcurra & Bandyopadhyay, 2017
    Illustration: Gabriel Lio 




    Saradee Sengupta, Martín D. Ezcurra and Saswati Bandyopadhyay. 2017. A New Horned and Long-necked Herbivorous Stem-Archosaur from the Middle Triassic of India.  Scientific Reports. 7, Article number: 8366.  DOI: s41598-017-08658-8

     Cómo era el mundo cuando vivía el Shringasaurus indicus 
    lanacion.com.ar/2055099 via @LANACION
    Encuentran en India un reptil con cuernos de 240 millones de años  conicet.gov.ar/encuentran-en-india-un-reptil-con-cuernos-de-240-millones-de-anos/


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    Nasikabatrachus bhupathi 
    Janani, Vasudevan, Prendini, Dutta & Aggarwal, 2017

    We describe a new species of the endemic frog genus Nasikabatrachus, from the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats, in India. The new species is morphologically, acoustically and genetically distinct from N. sahyadrensis. Computed tomography scans of both species revealed diagnostic osteological differences, particularly in the vertebral column. Male advertisement call analysis also showed the two species to be distinct. A phenological difference in breeding season exists between the new species (which breeds during the northeast monsoon season; October to December), and its sister species (which breeds during the southwest monsoon; May to August). The new species shows 6 % genetic divergence (K2P) at mitochondrial 16S rRNA (1330 bp) partial gene from its congener, indicating clear differentiation within Nasikabatrachus. Speciation within this fossorial lineage is hypothesized to have been caused by phenological shift in breeding during different monsoon seasons—the northeast monsoon in the new species versus southwest monsoon in N. sahyadrensis. It is postulated that proximate triggers of breeding behavior and highly stenotopic adaptation of Nasikabatrachus tadpoles to inhabit cascades during monsoonal stream flows, have led to allopatry on the eastern and western slopes of the Western Ghats, thereby promoting speciation in this ancient genus.

    Figure 3. Holotype of Nasikabatrachus bhupathi. (a) dorsolateral view; (b) anterior view of head showing fleshy protuberance on the snout; (c) underside of foot, showing hypertrophied shovel-shaped inner metatarsal tubercle; (d) underside of hand showing palmar tubercles.

    Nasikabatrachus bhupathi sp. nov.

    Etymology: The species epithet commemorates Dr. S. Bhupathy, a noted scientist and a field herpetologist, who passed away due to an ill-fated accident while conducting herpetological surveys in Agasthyamalai, Western Ghats on April 28, 2014.



       

    S. Jegath Janani, Karthikeyan Vasudevan, Elizabeth Prendini, Sushil Kumar Dutta and Ramesh K. Aggarwal. 2017. A New Species of the Genus Nasikabatrachus (Anura, Nasikabatrachidae) from the eastern Slopes of the Western Ghats, India. Alytes. 34: 1-19.

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    Dendrobia amaniensis  
    Hemp, Ingrisch & Heller, 2017


    Abstract

    The genus Dendrobia n. gen. is erected to include Dendrobia amaniensis n. sp. from the East Usambara Mountains as type species. A second species in this genus, Dendrobia octopuncata n. sp., is described from the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania. Dendrobia n. gen. is a canopy dweller found only high up on trees in closed submontane and montane forest. The peak frequency of its song is lower than in all other known African Agraeciini, correlating with the large resonant areas in the tegmina. Two new Afroanthracites species, Afroanthracites ngologolo n. sp. and Afroanthracites nguru n. sp. are described from the Eastern Arc Mountains in Tanzania. These species are dwellers of understory vegetation in closed forest in the Udzungwa and Nguru Mountains respectively.

    Keywords: Orthoptera, new genus, new species, Eastern Arc Mountains, East Africa, bioacoustics




    Claudia Hemp, Sigfrid Ingrisch and Klaus-Gerhard Heller. 2017. A New Genus and other New Species of Agraeciini from the Eastern Arc Mountains, East Africa (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae; Conocephalinae; Agraeciini). Zootaxa. 4311(1); 1–22. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4311.1.1


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    AMunida limula Macpherson & Baba, 1993, ♂, 3.4 mm, Madagascar.
     B. Munida mesembria sp. nov., paratype, ♀, 6.5 mm, Mozambique. 
    C. Munida micra sp. nov., holotype, ♂, 3.7 mm, Mozambique. 
    DMunida muscae Macpherson & de Saint Laurent, 2002, ♂, 3.2 mm, Madagascar. 

    Macpherson, Rodríguez-Flores & Machordom, 2017   

    Abstract

    Numerous specimens of squat lobsters belonging to the families Munididae, Munidopsidae and Eumunididae were collected during several cruises along the eastern coasts of Africa. The study of these specimens revealed the presence of 10 new species (one Eumunida Smith, 1883, eight MunidaLeach, 1820 and one Munidopsis Whiteaves, 1874). We describe and illustrate these new species, providing some new data on occurrences and colour patterns for previously described taxa. We have also included molecular data from two mitochondrial markers (16S rRNA and COI) to support the taxonomic status of different species. Some deep-sea species show a clear increase in their geographic range distribution. Finally, a key to known species of the genus Munida from the western and central Indian Ocean is also presented.

    Keywords: Eumunididae; Munididae; Munidopsidae; COI; 16S


    Fig. 12. Dorsal view. Colours in life. AMunida limula Macpherson & Baba, 1993, ♂, 3.4 mm, Madagascar, ATIMO VATAE, Stn TP12. B. Munida mesembria sp. nov., paratype, ♀, 6.5 mm, Mozambique, MAINBAZA, Stn CP3130. C. Munida micra sp. nov., holotype, ♂, 3.7 mm, Mozambique, MAINBAZA, Stn CC3165. DMunida muscae Macpherson & de Saint Laurent, 2002, ♂, 3.2 mm, Madagascar, MIRIKY, Stn DW3179. 

    Enrique Macpherson, Paula C. Rodríguez-Flores and Annie Machordom. 2017.   New Sibling Species and New Occurrences of Squat Lobsters (Crustacea, Decapoda) from the western Indian Ocean.  European Journal of Taxonomy.   1–61.  DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2017.343


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     Alycaeus alticola sp. n., BOR/MOL 8398 Alycaeus charasensis sp. n., BOR/MOL 8399 Alycaeus clementsi sp. n., BOR/MOL 8364 Alycaeus costacrassa sp. n., BOR/MOL 6811 Alycaeus expansus sp. n., BOR/MOL 6367Alycaeus kurauensis sp. n., BOR/MOL 6851  T Alycaeus regalis sp. n., BOR/MOL 6881 V Alycaeus senyumensis sp. n., BOR/MOL 6249.
    All photographs by Junn Kitt Foon.

    Foon & Liew, 2017

    Abstract
    A total of 11 species and 1 subspecies of Alycaeus were recognised in Peninsular Malaysia prior to this study. However, these taxonomic descriptions of Alycaeus taxa were based on limited numbers of examined materials, where a whole spectrum of morphological variations were not accounted for and diagnoses were often provided without sufficient comparison between congeners from across the peninsula. We reviewed Peninsular Malaysian Alycaeus through the examination of 5137 specimens in 522 collection lots from all major museum collections and literature sources. Based on these examined materials, we utilised a more comprehensive revised set of 39 shell and operculum characters, as well as living animal colour to describe all Alycaeus species in this paper. We also noted their habitat and ecology, as well as updated the distribution of each species. Of the 12 previously described taxa, 10 are reconfirmed as present on Peninsular Malaysia (Alycaeus balingensis, Alycaeus carinata, Alycaeus conformis, Alycaeus gibbosulus, Alycaeus kapayanensis, Alycaeus kelantanensis, Alycaeus liratulus, Alycaeus perakensis perakensis, Alycaeus perakensis altispirus and Alycaeus thieroti) and 2 are confirmed as absent from the peninsula (Alycaeus jagori and Alycaeus pyramidalis). A new record of Alycaeus robeleni is reported for Peninsular Malaysia. One species, Chamalycaeus jousseaumei is confirmed as present on the peninsula and is reassigned to Alycaeus. The subspecies Alycaeus perakensis altispirus Möllendorff, 1902, is elevated to species. Examined Peninsular Malaysian materials that do not fit previously recognised species are described as new species. A total of 11 new species are proposed (Alycaeus selangoriensis sp. n., Alycaeus costacrassa sp. n., Alycaeus ikanensis sp. n., Alycaeus alticola sp. n., Alycaeus charasensis sp. n., Alycaeus kurauensis sp. n., Alycaeus regalis sp. n., Alycaeus virgogravida sp. n., Alycaeus senyumensis sp. n., Alycaeus expansus sp. n., Alycaeus clementsi sp. n.). Overall, 23 species of Alycaeus are now recognised in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Keywords: land snail, shell morphology, operculum, Alycaeinae, limestone karsts, Southeast Asia


    Figure 7. Photographs of 18 living Alycaeus species. 
    AAlycaeus balingensis Tomlin, 1948, BOR/MOL 8356 Alycaeus liratulus (Preston, 1907), BOR/MOL 8334 Alycaeus thieroti Morgan, 1885b, BOR/MOL 6835 Alycaeus conformis Fulton, 1902, BOR/MOL 6809 Alycaeus gibbosulus Stoliczka, 1872, BOR/MOL 6850 Alycaeus gibbosulus Stoliczka, 1872, BOR/MOL 8526 Alycaeus jousseaumei Morgan, 1885a, BOR/MOL 8341 Alycaeus jousseaumei Morgan, 1885a, BOR/MOL 8336 J Alycaeus alticola sp. n., BOR/MOL 8398 K Alycaeus charasensis sp. n., BOR/MOL 8399 L Alycaeus clementsi sp. n., BOR/MOL 8364 
    All photographs by Junn Kitt Foon.

    Figure 7. Photographs of 18 living Alycaeus species.  
    Alycaeus costacrassa sp. n., BOR/MOL 6811 N Alycaeus expansus sp. n., BOR/MOL 6367 O Alycaeus kapayanensis Morgan, 1885b, BOR/MOL 13005 P Alycaeus kelantanensis Sykes, 1902, BOR/MOL 8325 Q Alycaeus kelantanensis Sykes, 1902, BOR/MOL 6200 R Alycaeus kurauensis sp. n., BOR/MOL 6851 S Alycaeus perakensis Crosse, 1879a, BOR/MOL 6852 T Alycaeus regalis sp. n., BOR/MOL 6881 U Alycaeus selangoriensis sp. n., BOR/MOL 6371 VW Alycaeus senyumensis sp. n., BOR/MOL 6249.
     All photographs by Junn Kitt Foon.



     Junn Kitt Foon and Thor-Seng Liew. 2017. A Review of the Land Snail Genus Alycaeus (Gastropoda, Alycaeidae) in Peninsular Malaysia. 
     ZooKeys. 692; 1-81. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.692.14706



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    Pseudosesarma glabrum Ng, Rani & Nandan, 2017


    Abstract

    A new species of mangrove sesarmid crab of the genus Pseudosesarma Serène & Soh, 1970, is described from Cochin, southwest India. The species superficially resembles P. edwardsii (De Man, 1887), known from Myanmar and many parts of India; the proportions of the carapace and male pleon also ally it with P. crassimanum (De Man, 1887) from Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Pseudosesarma glabrum n. sp., however, is easily separated from P. edwardsii and P. crassimanum primarily by the almost glabrous dorsal surface of the carapace and the distinctive form of its male first gonopod.

    Keywords: Kerala, India, taxonomy, Sesarmidae, mangroves



    Peter K. L. Ng, Varghese Rani and S. Bijoy Nandan. 2017. A New Species of Pseudosesarma Serène & Soh, 1970 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Sesarmidae) from Cochin in southwestern India.
      Zootaxa.  4311(2); 263–270. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4311.2.7


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    Serikornis sungei
    Lefèvre, Cau, Cincotta, Hu, Chinsamy, Escuillié & Godefroit, 2017

     Illustration: E. Willoughby EmilyWilloughby.com
      
    Abstract
    Genuine fossils with exquisitely preserved plumage from the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous of northeastern China have recently revealed that bird-like theropod dinosaurs had long pennaceous feathers along their hindlimbs and may have used their four wings to glide or fly. Thus, it has been postulated that early bird flight might initially have involved four wings (Xu et al. Nature 421:335–340, 2003; Hu et al. Nature 461:640–643, 2009; Han et al. Nat Commun 5:4382, 2014). Here, we describe Serikornis sungei gen. et sp. nov., a new feathered theropod from the Tiaojishan Fm (Late Jurassic) of Liaoning Province, China. Its skeletal morphology suggests a ground-dwelling ecology with no flying adaptations. Our phylogenetic analysis places Serikornis, together with other Late Jurassic paravians from China, as a basal paravians, outside the Eumaniraptora clade. The tail of Serikornis is covered proximally by filaments and distally by slender rectrices. Thin symmetrical remiges lacking barbules are attached along its forelimbs and elongate hindlimb feathers extend up to its toes, suggesting that hindlimb remiges evolved in ground-dwelling maniraptorans before being co-opted to an arboreal lifestyle or flight.

    Keywords: Paraves, Birds, Feathers, Barbules, Jurassic, Flight evolution 


     the basal bird Serikornis sungei sp. nov. [PMOL-AB00200] from the Middle-Late Jurassic of north-eastern China. 

    Fig. 1 Photograph and drawing of the basal bird Serikornis sungei sp. nov. from the Middle-Late Jurassic of north-eastern China.
     a PMOL-AB00200 photograph. b Line drawing.

     Abbreviations: cev cervical vertebrae, co coracoids, cv caudal vertebrae, fu furcula, il ilium, is ischium, lf left femur, lfi left fibula, lh left humerus, lma left manus, lpes left pes, lr left radius, ls left scapula, lt left tibia, lu left ulna, pu pubis, ra radiale, rf right femur, rh right humerus, rma right manus, rpes right pes, rr right radius, rt right tibia, ru right ulna, sk skull

    Systematic palaeontology

    Theropoda Marsh, 1881
    Maniraptora Gauthier, 1986
    Paraves Sereno, 1997; Avialae Gauthier, 1986

    Serikornis sungei gen. et sp. nov.

    Etymology: Serikos, ancient Greek for silk, because the body is almost covered with plumulaceous-like feathers; Ornis, ancient Greek for bird; named in honour of Sun Ge, for his contribution to our knowledge of Jurassic and Cretaceous ecosystems in Asia.

    Holotype: PMOL-AB00200 is a single complete articulated skeleton with associated integumentary structures preserved on a slab. The counterpart is missing, but most of the skeleton is preserved on the main slab.

    Locality and horizon: PMOL-AB00200 was collected in the Tiaojishan Formation (Oxfordian, Upper Jurassic; Chu et al. 2016) from Daxishan village, Linglongta (Jianchang County, Liaoning Province, China).

    Diagnosis: Serikornis is characterized by the following combination of characters (autapomorphies are marked with an asterisk): four anterior maxillary teeth twice as long as the others regarding the crown height*; coracoid tuber well-developed and laterally projected from the lateral margin of the coracoid and forming a subglenoid shelf along the caudoventral margin of the bone; the distal end of the lateral process of the coracoid is thicker than the proximal part and forms a ventral rounded bump; ventrodistal process of ischium narrow, hook-like, strongly deflected caudodorsally and set at the distal end of the ischium*; smooth ventral side of coracoid devoid of small pits.

    ....


    Illustration: Emily Willoughby EmilyWilloughby.com


    Ulysse Lefèvre, Andrea Cau, Aude Cincotta, Dongyu Hu, Anusuya Chinsamy, François Escuillié and Pascal Godefroit. 2017. A New Jurassic Theropod from China Documents A Transitional Step in the Macrostructure of Feathers. The Science of Nature. 104:74. DOI: 10.1007/s00114-017-1496-y 

        


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     Terrapotamon thungwa
    Promdam, Yeesin & Ng. 2017

    ปูเขาหินปูนแดงทุ่งหว้า || RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY. 65 

     Abstract
     A new species of potamid crab of the genus Terrapotamon Ng, 1986, is described from karst forests in Satun, Peninsular Thailand. Terrapotamon thungwa n. sp. has very long ambulatory legs and superficially resembles T. longitarsus, the only other long-legged species in the genus. They can easily be distinguished by life colouration, carapace features, as well as structures of the epistome, male thoracic sternum, cheliped and male first gonopod. 

    Key words: Freshwater crab, new species, Potamidae, Peninsular Thailand, karst, caves, taxonomy

    TAXONOMY
    Family Potamidae Ortmann, 1896
    Subfamily Potamiscinae Bott, 1970, sensu Yeo & Ng, 2004
    Genus Terrapotamon Ng, 1986

    Terrapotamon thungwa n. sp.

    Fig. 1. Terrapotamon thungwa n. sp., colour in life from Satun, Thailand.
    A–C, holotype male (44.6 × 35.0 mm) (ZRC 2016.0595).

    Fig. 8. Terrapotamon thungwa n. sp., observed in the cave at Ban Namtok Than Plio, Amphoe Thung Wa, Satun, Thailand. A, paratype male (41.1 × 33.3 mm) (PSUZC-CRU-0072).

    Fig. 8. Terrapotamon thungwa n. sp., observed in the cave at Ban Namtok Than Plio, Amphoe Thung Wa, Satun, Thailand.  B, C, paratype female (29.4 × 23.8 mm) (PSUZC-CRU-0073).

    Fig. 9B, Terrapotamon thungwa n. sp., specimen observed in cave in Ban Namtok Than Plio, Amphoe Thung Wa, Satun, Thailand.

    Fig. 6. Terrapotamon longitarsus  Lheknim & Ng, 2016 paratype male (40.8 × 32.5 mm) (PSUZC 20150726-01.01), Satun, Thailand.

    Etymology. The name is derived from the type locality at Amphoe Thung Wa. The name is used as a noun in apposition. 

    Remarks. The long ambulatory legs of T. thungwa n. sp. is a character shared only by one other species of Terrapotamon,T. longitarsus Lheknim & Ng, 2016, also from the Satun area in Peninsular Thailand. It is surprising to find two similar species occurring in the same area, but the differences between the two species are very marked and leave no doubt they are separate taxa. Terrapotamon thungwa can most easily be separated in its bright red overall coloration in life (Figs. 1, 8A) (purple in T. longitarsus; Fig. 6); ....

    Habitat. All the specimens of Terrapotamon thungwa were obtained from the karst landscape of Satun. From the material collected, it would appear that the area and habitat where T. thungwa occurs overlaps with T. longitarsus. Both species were found inside and outside the caves as well as in the karst forest. In the dark zone inside the cave, adults of T. thungwa were observed climbing on the cave walls (Fig. 8B, C), with a small specimen observed in a pool on the cave floor (Fig. 9A, B). Up to five specimens have been observed on the cave floor. Adult males of both two species were observed in rock pools at the bottom of deep crevices in the karst forest, while a small specimen of T. longitarsus were seen at a sheltered rock pool near the cave entrance (Fig. 9C, D). The crabs use these collected pools to replenish their gill chambers.



      

    Rueangrit Promdam, Pun Yeesin and Peter K. L. Ng. 2017. A Second New Species of Terrestrial Long-legged TerrapotamonNg, 1986 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Potamidae) from Karst Forests in Peninsular Thailand. RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY. 65; 404–415.

    Vachira Lheknim and Peter K.L. Ng. 2016. A New Species of Long-legged Terrestrial Terrapotamon Ng, 1986 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Potamidae) from Limestone Formations in Satun, southern Thailand.  Zootaxa. 4200(1); 143–152. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4200.1.6  ResearchGate.net/publication/311004094_A_new_species_of_Terrapotamon_from_Satun_southern_Thailand


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     Anisogomphus yingsaki  Makbun‎, 2017

    แมลงปอเสือต่างลายขาว | DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4306.3.10 

    Abstract

    Anisogomphus yingsaki sp. nov. (holotype male: Ban Na Kha, Ban Muang, Sakon Nakhon province, Thailand, altitude 170–175 m, 22-vi-2016) is described and illustrated. The new species is most similar to A. bivittatus from India and Nepal, and also A. flavifacies, and A. resortus from China in the shape of anal appendages. However, it can be separated from all of these by a combination of the following characters: shape of antehumeral stripes, abdominal pattern, shape of vesica spermalis and female valvula vulvae. The behavior of the new species, including crepuscular activity, is briefly discussed.

    Keywords: Odonata, dragonfly, Odonata, Anisoptera, Gomphidae, Anisogomphus, new species, Thailand




    Noppadon Makbun‎. 2017. Anisogomphus yingsaki (Odonata: Gomphidae) sp. nov., A New Gomphid Species from Thailand. Zootaxa. 4306(3); 437–443. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4306.3.10


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    Bulbophyllum physometrum J.J.Vermeulen, Suksathan & Watthana

    สิงโตต่างหู  || DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.302.2.7 

    In 2010, the second author found a possible new species of Bulbophyllum in Mae Hong Son Province, northern Thailand. Three years later, Pitak Panyachan (Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden) found the same species on a fallen tree some six km from the first locality. Living plants were collected and brought back to QSBG in Chiang Mai for further investigation. A year later, the plants flowered and proved to be a species of Bulbophyllum new to science.

    Keywords: Orchidaceae, Bulbophyllum, Thailand, Monocots


    FIGURE 2. Bulbophyllum physometrum; flowering inflorescense.
    (origin: Thailand, Suksathan 4243). Photo by P. Suksathan.

    Bulbophyllum sect. Physometra J.J.Vermeulen, Suksathan & Watthana, sect. nov. 

    Bulbophyllum physometrum J.J.Vermeulen, Suksathan & Watthana, sp. nov.  

    Etymology:— Physos (Gr.) = blister, metra (Gr.) = womb.

    Vernacular name:— “Sing to tang hoo (สิงโตต่างหู)”, meaning “Dangle Earings ู Bulbophyllum”. 




    Jaap J. Vermeulen, Piyakaset Suksathan and Santi Watthana. 2017. A New Species and New Section in Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae; Epidendroideae; Malaxideae). 
    Phytotaxa. 302(2); 174–180. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.302.2.7


    อ.ส.พ. พบกล้วยไม้ไทยชนิดใหม่ของโลก 
    หวั่นสูญพันธุ์ในไม่ช้าหลังมีประกาศขายในเว็บชื่อดัง

    ดร.ปิยเกษตร สุขสถาน รักษาการรองผู้อำนวยการองค์การสวนพฤกษศาสตร์ เปิดเผยว่า ทางองค์การสวนพฤกษศาสตร์ (อ.ส.พ.) ได้แถลงถึงการค้นพบกล้วยไม้ไทยหายาก สายพันธุ์ใหม่ของโลก “สิงโตต่างหู” ที่มีชื่อวิทยาศาสตร์ว่า Bulbophyllum physometrum J.J. Vermeulen, Suksathan, & Watthana ซึ่งค้นพบโดย ดร. ปิยเกษตร สุขสถาน นักพฤกษศาสตร์ขององค์การฯ และได้ตีพิมพ์ลงในวารสารสากล Phytotaxa ฉบับที่ 302(2) เดือนมีนาคม 2560 นี้ ร่วมกับผู้เชี่ยวชาญกล้วยไม้จากเนเธอร์แลนด์ Dr. Jaap Vermeulen และ ดร. สันติ วัฒฐานะ จากมหาวิทยาลัยเทคโนโลยีสุรนารี
    กล้วยไม้ดังกล่าวเป็นกลุ่มกล้วยไม้สิงโตกลอกตา (Bulbophyllum) ขนาดเล็กที่เรียกกันว่า “มินิเอเจอร์ ออร์คิด” มีลำลูกกล้วยรูปร่างกลมแบนและเป็นร่องคล้ายซาลาเปาขนาดเพียง 1.2 – 1.4 เซนติเมตรเท่านั้น มีใบ 2 ใบ ช่อดอกผอมบางแทงออกจากใต้ลำลูกกล้วย ตอนปลายมีดอกเป็นกลุ่ม 5 – 9 ดอก ตัวดอกมีขนาดเล็กมาก มีเส้นผ่านศูนย์กลางราว 2 – 3 มิลลิเมตร ลักษณะพิเศษของสิงโตชนิดนี้คือ ส่วนรังไข่ของดอกปลายยอดที่เป็นหมันนั้นได้พัฒนาขยายตัวบวมพองออกจนมีขนาดใหญ่คล้ายโคมจีนหรือลูกบอลลูน เมื่อประกอบกับดอกปกติอื่นๆ โดยรอบจึงดูเหมือนตู้มหูหรือต่างหูที่มีตุ้มตรงปลายและแกว่งไกวไปมาได้เป็นอิสระ จึงเป็นที่มาของชื่อ “สิงโตต่างหู” ซึ่งมีการวิวัฒนาการของดอกเพื่อล่อแมลงในรูปแบบใหม่ที่ไม่เคยมีรายงานมาก่อนเลยในกล้วยไม้
    กล้วยไม้ชนิดนี้เป็นพืชหายากถิ่นเดียวของไทย ซึ่งมีรายงานพบได้เฉพาะในจังหวัดแม่ฮ่องสอนเท่านั้น สถานภาพในธรรมชาติมีจำนวนน้อยมาก เนื่องจากถิ่นที่อยู่ในป่าดิบเขาของมันถูกทำลายจากกิจกรรมต่างๆ ของมนุษย์ รวมถึงการเปลี่ยนแปลงของสภาพภูมิอากาศโลก และเนื่องจากความแปลกประหลาดและหายากนี้เอง ทำให้มีความต้องการจากนักสะสมทั่วโลก กระทั่งมีการประกาศขายแล้วในเว็บไซต์ดังอย่าง eBay ซึ่งถือว่าผิดกฎหมายไซเตสอย่างแน่นอน จากปัจจัยร่วมดังกล่าวจึงน่าเป็นห่วงอย่างยิ่งว่า “สิงโตต่างหู” อาจลดจำนวนลงและสูญพันธุ์ไปจากธรรมชาติในไม่ช้า ทั้งนี้ทาง อ.ส.พ. กำลังทำการศึกษาวิจัยหาทางขยายพันธุ์อย่างเร่งด่วน แข่งกับการลดลงของสายพันธุ์ และกระแสความต้องการเพื่อเป็นหลักประกันความอยู่รอดในอนาคตของกล้วยไม้สุดพิเศษชนิดนี้

    น่ายินดี! พบกล้วยไม้ไทยพันธุ์ใหม่ของโลก 'สิงโตต่างหู'มีแค่แม่ฮ่องสอน


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    Inermorostrum xenops
    Boessenecker, Fraser, Churchill & Geisler, 2017


    Abstract

    Toothed whales (Odontoceti) are adapted for catching prey underwater and possess some of the most derived feeding specializations of all mammals, including the loss of milk teeth (monophyodonty), high tooth count (polydonty), and the loss of discrete tooth classes (homodonty). Many extant odontocetes possess some combination of short, broad rostra, reduced tooth counts, fleshy lips, and enlarged hyoid bones—all adaptations for suction feeding upon fishes and squid. We report a new fossil odontocete from the Oligocene (approx. 30 Ma) of South Carolina (Inermorostrum xenops, gen. et sp. nov.) that possesses adaptations for suction feeding: toothlessness and a shortened rostrum (brevirostry). Enlarged foramina on the rostrum suggest the presence of enlarged lips or perhaps vibrissae. Phylogenetic analysis firmly places Inermorostrum within the Xenorophidae, an early diverging odontocete clade typified by long-snouted, heterodont dolphins. Inermorostrum is the earliest obligate suction feeder within the Odontoceti, a feeding mode that independently evolved several times within the clade. Analysis of macroevolutionary trends in rostral shape indicate stabilizing selection around an optimum rostral shape over the course of odontocete evolution, and a post-Eocene explosion in feeding morphology, heralding the diversity of feeding behaviour among modern Odontoceti.

    KEYWORDS: Xenorophidae, Odontoceti, Neoceti, suction feeding, Oligocene




    Etymology. The generic name is from the Latin inermus, meaning weapon-less or defenceless, and rostrum, meaning snout, referring to the absence of teeth in the rostrum. The species name derives from Greek for strangexeno, and faceops, referring to the highly derived facial morphology of the holotype.


    Robert W. Boessenecker, Danielle Fraser, Morgan Churchill and Jonathan H. Geisler. 2017. A Toothless Dwarf Dolphin (Odontoceti: Xenorophidae) Points to Explosive Feeding Diversification of Modern Whales (Neoceti). Proceedings of the Royal Society B. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2017.0531

    This ancient dwarf dolphin may have slurped its food like a walrus  sciencemag.org/news/2017/08/ancient-dwarf-dolphin-may-have-slurped-its-food-walrus