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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region
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    Tempuractis rinkai  Izumi, Ise & Yanagi, 2018

    in Izumi, Ise, Yanagi, Shibata & Ueshima, 2018.  
     DOI:  10.2108/zs170042 

    A new species in a new genus of sea anemone, Tempuractis rinkai gen. et sp. nov., was discovered at several localities along the temperate rocky shores of Japan. The new species is approximately 4 mm in length and has been assigned to family Edwardsiidae, because it has eight macrocnemes, lacks sphincter and basal muscles, and possesses rounded aboral end. The sea anemone, however, also has a peculiar body shape unlike that of any other known taxa. This new species resembles some genera, especially Drillactis and Nematostella, in smooth column surface without nemathybomes or tenaculi, but is distinguishable from them by several morphological features: the presence of holotrichs and absence of nematosomes. Furthermore, this edwardsiid species exhibits a peculiar symbiotic ecology with sponges. Therefore, a new genus, Tempuractis, is proposed for this species. In the field, T. rinkai sp. nov. was always found living inside homosclerophorid sponge of the genus Oscarella, which suggests a possible obligate symbiosis between Porifera and Actiniaria. The benefit of this symbiosis is discussed on the basis of observations of live specimens, both in the aquarium and field. This is the first report of symbiosis between a sea anemone and a homoscleromorph sponge.

    KEYWORDSJapan; edwardsiid; intertidal; marine invertebrates; overhang; species description; symbiotic relationship; taxonomy; transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

    External view of Tempuractis rinkai gen. et sp. nov. and its host sponge Oscarella sp. collected from Misaki, Kanagawa,
    including a holotype (NSMT-Co 1573) and four paratypes (CMNH-ZG 08969 to 08972).

    Order ACTINIARIA Hertwig, 1882 
    Family Edwardsiidae Andres, 1881 

    Tempuractis gen. nov. 
    Izumi, Ise and Yanagi
    (Japanese name: tempura-isoginchaku-zoku)

    Etymology. Tempura is a deep-fried, batter-coated nugget of seafood and/or vegetables in Japanese cuisine. This word comprises the first half of the Japanese name of the type species of this genus, as the shape of the actiniarian when embedded in a sponge tissue resembles shrimp tempura. The siffix -actis is commonly used in actiniarian genus names, meaning radiation of sunshine in Greek. The new genus name is feminine in gender.

    Tempuractis rinkai sp. nov. 
    Izumi, Ise and Yanagi, 2018
    (New Japanese name: tempura-isoginchaku)

    Etymology. The species epithet is dedicated to marine biological stations around Japan. The first specimens of this species were collected from a rocky shore in front of the Misaki Marine Biological Station (the University of Tokyo). This station is called “Misaki rinkai jikkenjo” in Japanese (“rinkai” means seaside and “jikkennjo” means research facility). Other specimens were collected during a subsequent faunistic survey in collaboration with other marine biological stations: Sugashima Marine Biological Laboratory (Nagoya University) and Sado Marine Biological Station (Niigata University).

    図1.今回の記載に用いられたテンプライソギンチャクTempuractis rinkai gen. et sp. nov.(三崎新井浜海岸産)。 a:ノリカイメン科の1種Oscarella sp.(中央のベージュ色のかたまり。全体で1個体)の中に群生している本種。生時は、触手のみをカイメンから出している。 b:テンプライソギンチャク1個体が、カイメンの鞘状構造の中に棲息している。刺激を与えないように観察すると、図の矢印が示す通り徐々に触手を出す

    Takato Izumi, Yuji Ise, Kensuke Yanagi, Daisuke Shibata and Rei Ueshima. 2018. First Detailed Record of Symbiosis Between a Sea Anemone and Homoscleromorph Sponge, With a Description of Tempuractis rinkai gen. et sp. nov. (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Edwardsiidae). Zoological Science. 35(2); 188-198. DOI:  10.2108/zs170042

    カイメンと共生する新属新種のイソギンチャク - 東京大学 大学院理学系研究科・理学部


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    Fig. 1. Examples of the habitat and fishes (C) characteristic of the Middle Xingu River.

    Species shown are: a) 
    Leporinus maculatus (Anostomidae), b) Baryancistrus xanthellus (Loricariidae), c) Ossubtus xinguense (Serrasalmidae), d) Crenicichla sp. (Cichlidae), e) Ancistrus ranunculus (Loricariidae), f) Cichla melaniae (Cichlidae), g) Tometes kranponhah (Serrasalmidae), h) Hypancistrus sp. (Loricariidae), i) Leporinus fasciatus (Anostomidae), j) Rhinodoras sp. (Doradidae) and k) Hypancistrus zebra (Loricariidae).

    in Fitzgerald, Sabaj Perez, Sousa, et al. 2018. 

    • 193 rapids-dwelling fish species were sampled prior to flow alteration.
    • Fish community structure differed significantly between river segments.
    • Rapids specialists and threatened species were concentrated in the Volta Grande.
    • The Volta Grande rapids are now flooded and dewatered due to a hydropower facility.
    • Maintaining rapids in the dewatered section will be critical for aquatic diversity.

    A recent boom in hydroelectric development in the world's most diverse tropical river basins is currently threatening aquatic biodiversity on an unprecedented scale. Among the most controversial of these projects is the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Complex (BMHC) on the Xingu River, the Amazon's largest clear-water tributary. The design of the BMHC creates three distinctly altered segments: a flooded section upstream of the main dam, a middle section between the dam and the main powerhouse that will be dewatered, and a downstream section subject to flow alteration from powerhouse discharge. This region of the Xingu is notable for an extensive series of rapids known as the Volta Grande that hosts exceptional levels of endemic aquatic biodiversity; yet, patterns of temporal and spatial variation in community composition within this highly threatened habitat are not well documented. We surveyed fish assemblages within rapids in the three segments impacted by the BMHC prior to hydrologic alteration, and tested for differences in assemblage structure between segments and seasons. Fish species richness varied only slightly between segments, but there were significant differences in assemblage structure between segments and seasons. Most of the species thought to be highly dependent on rapids habitat, including several species listed as threatened in Brazil, were either restricted to or much more abundant within the upstream and middle segments. Our analysis identified the middle section of the Volta Grande as critically important for the conservation of this diverse, endemic fish fauna. Additional research is urgently needed to determine dam operations that may optimize energy production with an environmental flow regime that conserves the river's unique habitat and biodiversity.

    Keywords: Anostomidae; Assemblage structure; Belo Monte; Brazil; Cichlidae; Hydrologic connectivity; Loricariidae; Rheophilic

    Fig. 1. Examples of the habitat (A, B) and fishes (C) characteristic of the Middle Xingu River. Species shown are: a) Leporinus maculatus (Anostomidae), b) Baryancistrus xanthellus (Loricariidae), c) Ossubtus xinguense (Serrasalmidae), d) Crenicichla sp. (Cichlidae), e) Ancistrus ranunculus (Loricariidae), f) Cichla melaniae (Cichlidae), g) Tometes kranponhah (Serrasalmidae), h) Hypancistrus sp. (Loricariidae), i) Leporinus fasciatus (Anostomidae), j) Rhinodoras sp. (Doradidae) and k) Hypancistrus zebra (Loricariidae).

    Daniel B. Fitzgerald, Mark H. Sabaj Perez, Leandro M. Sousa, Alany P. Gonçalves, Lucia Rapp Py-Daniel, Nathan K. Lujan, Jansen Zuanon, Kirk O. Winemiller and John G. Lundberg. 2018. Diversity and Community Structure of Rapids-dwelling Fishes of the Xingu River: Implications for Conservation Amid Large-scale Hydroelectric Development. Biological Conservation. 222; 104–112.  DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2018.04.002

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    Leptolalax macrops 
    Duong, Do, Ngo, Nguyen & Poyarkov, 2018


     We describe a new species of megophryid frog from Phu Yen Province in southern Vietnam. Leptolalax macrops sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following morphological attributes: (1) body size medium (SVL 28.0–29.3 mm in three adult males, 30.3 mm in single adult female); (2) supra-axillary glands present, creamy white; ventrolateral glands indistinct; (3) tympanum externally distinct; (4) dorsal skin roughly granular with larger tubercles, dermal ridges on dorsum absent; (5) rudimentary webbing present between fingers I–II and II–III; rudimentary webbing between all toes; fingers and toes without dermal fringes; (6) in life ventral surface greyish-violet with white speckling; (7) supratympanic fold distinct, dark brown in life; (8) iris bicolored, typically golden in upper half, fading to golden green in lower half; (9) tibia short (TbL/SVL 0.44–0.45 in males); and (10) eyes large and protuberant (ED/SVL 0.15–0.16 in males). From all congeners for which comparable sequences are available, the new species differs markedly in the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene sequence (P-distance>5.7%). The new species is currently known only from montane evergreen tropical forests of Song Hinh District, Phu Yen Province, and M’Drak District of Dak Lak Province at elevations of 470–630 m a.s.l. We suggest the new species should be considered as Data Deficient following the IUCN’s Red List categories. We also report a previously unknown Leptolalax mtDNA lineage from an evergreen tropical forest in the Hoa Thinh District of Phu Yen Province, which may also represent an undescribed species.

    Keywords: Leptolalax macrops sp. nov.; Phu Yen Province; Dak Lak Province; Southern coastal region of Vietnam

    Figure 5: Male paratype of Leptolalax macrops sp. nov. (IEBR A.2017.9) in life (Photo taken in situ. Photo by Dang Trong Do)

    Leptolalax macrops sp. nov.
     Chresonymy: Leptolalax sp. [molecular lineage 7] — Rowley et al., 2015a: 10, 12.

    Etymology: Specific epithet “macrops” is a noun in the nominative case, derived from Greek “macros” for “large” and “ops” for “eye”, in reference to its comparatively large eye size. 

    Recommended vernacular names: We recommend “Big-eyed Litter Frog” as the common English name of the new species and the common name in Vietnamese as “Cóc mày mắt to”

    Figure 5: Male paratype of Leptolalax macrops sp. nov. (IEBR A.2017.9) in life.
    Figure 6: Typical habitat (A) and microhabitat (B) of Leptolalax macrops sp. nov. in type locality: Suoi Khi Stream, Hon Den Mt., Ea Ly and Ea Trol commune border, Song Hinh District, Phu Yen Province, Vietnam
     (Photos by Dang Trong Do)

    Tang Van Duong, Dang Trong Do, Chung Dac Ngo, Truong Quang Nguyen and Nikolay A. Poyarkov, Jr. 2018. A New Species of the Genus Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from southern Vietnam. ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH. 38(3); 1-16. DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2018.009

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    Syracosphaera azureaplaneta
     Young, Bown, Cros, Hagino & Jordan, 2018

    Here we show that the extant coccolithophore Syracosphaera corolla Lecal, 1966 comprises two consistently different non-intergrading morphotypes characterised respectively by exothecal coccoliths with wide and narrow central-areas. These are interpreted as separate species and so a new species is described, Syracosphaera azureaplaneta, and a revised description is given for S. corolla.

    Keywords Coccolithophores, Syracosphaera, extent

    Syracosphaera azureaplaneta sp. nov.

    Synonymy: Syracosphaera corolla (Lecal, 1966); Okada & McIntyre, 1977, pl. 6, figs 1-2; Nishida, 1979, pl.6, fig. 4; Winter & Siesser, 1994, fig. 107; Young et al., 2003, pl. 19, figs 14-15; Malinverno et al., 2008, fig. 76.
    Umbellosphaera corolla (Lecal, 1966) Gaarder in Heimdal & Gaarder, 1981, pl. 6, figs 53, 57.
    Gaarderia corolla (Lecal, 1966) Kleijne, 1993, pl.6, fig. 3-5; Cros & Fortuño, 2002 fig. 29 A. 

    Derivation of name: From Latin azureusblue (adjective, feminine form azurea), and planetaplanet (noun, feminine). Named for the BBC documentary series Blue Planet in recognition of its work and that of its presenter, Sir David Attenborough, in promoting understanding of the marine realm. 

    Distribution. Sazureaplaneta has a very broad distribution occurring from the tropics to the sub-arctic and in all the major oceans.

    Jeremy R. Young, Paul R. Bown, Lluisa Cros, Kyoko Hagino and Richard W. Jordan. 2018. Syracosphaera azureaplaneta sp. nov. and Revision of Syracosphaera corolla Lecal, 1966. J. Nannoplankton Res. 38(1),  

    New ocean plankton species named after BBC's Blue Planet series via @uclnews

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    Begonia droseroides  C.I Peng, Rubite & C.W. Lin
     B. gabaldonensis, and B. madulidii Rubite, C.I Peng & C.W. Lin 

    in Rubite, Peng, Chung, et al., 2018.


    Luzon is the largest island of the Philippines, and because of its isolation from other landmasses it has developed a unique diversity of flora and fauna. Included in this rich biodiversity of flora are members of genus Begonia of the family Begoniaceae. In a joint expedition to the island, botanists from Taiwan and the Philippines found three unknown Begonia species and compared them with potentially allied species. The three species are clearly members of Begonia section Baryandra. Studies of literature, herbarium specimens, and living plants support the recognition of the three new speciesBegonia droseroidesB. gabaldonensis, and B. madulidii. This brings the total of Begonia species in section Baryandra to sixty-eight, of which 85.3% are endemic to the Philippines.

    Keywords: sect. Baryandra, endemic, Luzon, Eudicots

     Rosario R. Rubite, Ching-I Peng, Kuo-Fang Chung, Che-Wei Lin, Luisito T. Evangelista, Danilo N. Tandang, John Rey C. Callado and Mark Hughes. 2018. Three New Species of Begonia (section Baryandra, Begoniaceae) from Luzon Island, the Philippines. Phytotaxa. 347(3); 201-212. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.347.3.1

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    Bucculatrix brunnella Tokár & Laštůvka, 2018

    [upper] male, holotype, Francavilla di Sicilia,, wingspan 7.5 mm. 
    [lower] female, paratype, Mount Etna, Nicolosi,, wingspan 6.5 mm.

    Bucculatrix brunnella sp. n. is described from Sicily and Sardinia. The male of the new species is characterized by the almost monochrome ochreous brown forewing. It may resemble the monochrome form of B. cristatella (Zeller, 1839), but the colour of the forewing of the latter species is pale ochreous grey. The female of the new species is slightly smaller, paler and with more conspicuous pattern on the forewing than those of the male. B. brunnella sp. n. differs markedly in the male genitalia from other known Bucculatrix species. The immature stages are unknown. The male and female adults, and genitalia of both sexes, are figured and a distribution map is provided.

    Figure 1. Bucculatrix brunnella sp. n., male, holotype, Francavilla di Sicilia,, wingspan 7.5 mm. 

    Figure 2. Bucculatrix brunnella sp. n., female, paratype, Mount Etna, Nicolosi,, wingspan 6.5 mm.

    Bucculatrix brunnella sp. n. 

    The male of Bucculatrix brunnella sp. n. is externally characterized by the almost monochrome ochreous to brown forewing with only an inconspicuous scattered pattern. It can resemble a monochrome form of B. cristatella (Zeller, 1839), but the colour of forewing of the latter species is pale ochreous grey.
    In the male genitalia the new species significantly differs from any known species, in particular in the shape of the valva and socii lobes.
    In the female genitalia the new species closely resembles those of B. mehadiensis Rebel, 1903 but both species differ significantly externally. The forewing of B. mehadiensis is creamy white with a striking blackish pattern, whilst the forewing ground colour of B. brunnella is ochreous to brown and a darker brown pattern is inconspicuous.

    Biology: The early stages of the new species are unknown. Most of the adults were collected in light-traps between 8th and 23rd June and one specimen was taken on 21st September. The species probably has (at least) two generations a year.

    Distribution and habitat: (Fig. 6). Bucculatrix brunnella sp. n. is known from the islands of Sicily and Sardinia. In Sicily it was found in the north and north-eastern parts, mainly near Mount Etna. In Sardinia, it is so far only known from the Gennargentu Mountains. The species was collected from about 300 to 1100 m altitude.

    Etymology: The specific name brunnella is derived from the forewing colour of the new species.

     Zdenko Tokár and Aleš Laštůvka. 2018. Bucculatrix brunnella sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Bucculatricidae) from Sicily and Sardinia. Nota Lepidopterologica. 41(1); 113-117. DOI: 10.3897/nl.41.22840

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     Colobopsis explodens  Laciny & Zettel, 2018

    in Laciny, Zettel, Kopchinskiy, Pretzer, Pal, et al., 2018. 
    photos: Alexey Kopchinskiy

    A taxonomic description of all castes of Colobopsis explodens Laciny & Zettel, sp. n. from Borneo, Thailand, and Malaysia is provided, which serves as a model species for biological studies on “exploding ants” in Southeast Asia. The new species is a member of the Colobopsis cylindrica (COCY) group and falls into a species complex that has been repeatedly summarized under the name Colobopsis saundersi (Emery, 1889) (formerly Camponotus saundersi). The COCY species group is known under its vernacular name “exploding ants” for a unique behaviour: during territorial combat, workers of some species sacrifice themselves by rupturing their gaster and releasing sticky and irritant contents of their hypertrophied mandibular gland reservoirs to kill or repel rivals. This study includes first illustrations and morphometric characterizations of males of the COCY group: Colobopsis explodens Laciny & Zettel, sp. n. and Colobopsis badia (Smith, 1857). Characters of male genitalia and external morphology are compared with other selected taxa of Camponotini. Preliminary notes on the biology of C. explodens Laciny & Zettel, sp. n. are provided. To fix the species identity of the closely related C. badia, a lectotype from Singapore is designated. The following taxonomic changes within the C. saundersi complex are proposed: Colobopsis solenobia (Menozzi, 1926), syn. n. and Colobopsis trieterica (Menozzi, 1926), syn. n. are synonymized with Colobopsis corallina Roger, 1863, a common endemic species of the Philippines.Colobopsis saginata Stitz, 1925, stat. n., hitherto a subspecies of C. badia, is raised to species level.

    Keywords: autothysis, behavioural ecology, Camponotini, Colobopsis, Formicidae, integrative taxonomy, male morphology, molecular biology, morphometry, new species, new status, new synonymy, phylogeny, Southeast Asia, taxonomy

     Minor worker of Colobopsis explodens with posterior body raised in a defensive pose.
    photo: Alexey Kopchinskiy  

    Exploding behavior of Colobopsis explodens in experimental setting with a weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina.
    photo: Alexey Kopchinskiy 

    Major worker of Colobopsis explodens with characteristically enlarged head.
    photo: Heinz Wiesbauer

    Colobopsis explodens Laciny & Zettel, sp. n.

    Camponotus (Colobopsis) sp. Yellow Goo: Davidson et al. 2007: 470.
    Camponotus (Colobopsis) sp. YG: Cook 2008. Davidson et al. 2012: 488.
    Colobopsis sp. YG: Davidson et al. 2016: 518. Laciny et al. 2017: 95.

    Etymology: Present participle of Latin explodere, referring to the “exploding”-like autothysis behaviour.


     Alice Laciny, Herbert Zettel, Alexey Kopchinskiy, Carina Pretzer, Anna Pal, Kamariah Abu Salim, Mohammad Javad Rahimi, Michaela Hoenigsberger, Linda Lim, Weeyawat Jaitrong and Irina S. Druzhinina. 2018. Colobopsis explodens sp. n., Model Species for Studies On “Exploding Ants” (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), with Biological Notes and First Illustrations of Males of the Colobopsis cylindrica group.  ZooKeys. 751: 1-40.  DOI:  10.3897/zookeys.751.22661

    New ant species from Borneo explodes to defend its colony via @Pensoft @EurekAlert @physorg_com
    'Exploding Ant' Rips Itself Apart To Protect Its Own via @NatGeo

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    Coenoptychus pulcher Simon, 1885

    in Paul, Sankaran, Sebastian & Joseph, 2018.


    The monotypic velvet ant-mimicking spider genus Coenoptychus Simon, 1885 is revised. The paper provides the first detailed morphological and genitalic description, with the first description and illustrations of the male of the type species, Coenoptychus pulcher Simon, 1885, and a redescription of its female. Two new combinations are proposed: Coenoptychus mutillicus (Haddad, 2004) comb. nov. and Coenoptychus tropicalis (Haddad, 2004) comb. nov.; both species were previously included in Graptartia Simon, 1896. The distribution records of the genus are updated.

    Keywords: Araneae, mimicry, Parambikulam Tiger Reserve, redescription, taxonomy, transfer, wasp mimicking

    Jimmy Paul, Pradeep M. Sankaran, Pothalil A. Sebastian and Mathew M Joseph. 2018. A Review of the Wasp Mimicking Spider Genus Coenoptychus Simon, 1885 (Araneae: Corinnidae: Castianeirinae).  Zootaxa. 4413(1); 163–172. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4413.1.6

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    Pristimantis erythros  
    Sánchez-Nivicela, Celi-Piedra, Posse-Sarmiento, Urgilés, Yánez-Muñoz & Cisneros-Heredia, 2018

    A new species of Pristimantis is described from the highland paramos on the eastern slopes of the Cajas Massif, southern Andes of Ecuador, at 3400 m. This new species is characterized by having a distinctive reddish color, cutaneous macroglands in suprascapular region and surfaces of arm and legs, and by lacking dentigerous processes of vomers. The cutaneous macroglands are similar to those exhibited by several species of the Pristimantis orcesi group, and may suggest a close phylogenetic relationship. The new species could be a latitudinal substitution of Pristimantisorcesi in the southern Andes of Ecuador.

    Keywords: Andes, glandular frog, paramo, Pristimantis erythros sp. n., taxonomy, Terrarana

    Pristimantis erythros sp. n. 
    Common name: English: Blood Rain Frog.
    Spanish: Cutín de Sangre

    Figure 4. Lateral, dorsal and ventral views of living specimens of Pristimantis erythros.
     Left: Male paratype (DHMECN 12102, SVL: 37.1 mm); right: Female holotype (DHMECN 12103, SVL: 39.1 mm).

    Diagnosis: Pristimantis erythros differs from other species of the genus by the combination of the following characters: (1) Skin on head and dorsum granular, flanks and venter areolate with low warts; dorsolateral folds absent; discoidal fold weakly defined; (2) tympanic membrane and annulus present and visible, rounded, ca. 50% of eye diameter, upper half covered by parotoid macrogland; (3) snout short, rounded in dorsal and lateral views; (4) upper eyelid without tubercles, interorbital distance wider than width of upper eyelid (40%); cranial crests absent; (5) dentigerous process of vomers absent; (6) vocal slits and sacs present in males, nuptial pads absent; (7) Finger I shorter than II; discs laterally expanded with dilated pads and narrow fringes, (8) fingers with coarse lateral cutaneous fringes; (9) low ulnar warts in ventral view; radioulnar macroglands covering the upper surfaces of forearm; (10) heel and tarsus lacking tubercles; paracnemid macroglands on upper surfaces of legs, tarsi, and Toes IV and V; (11) inner metatarsal tubercle oval, not prominent, twice as large as outer metatarsal tubercle, outer metatarsal tubercle rounded and low, supernumerary tubercles low and indistinct; Toe V longer than III, disc of Toe III reaches distal border of penultimate subarticular tubercle on Toe IV, disc on Toe V reaches distal border of distal subarticular tubercle on Toe IV; (12) toes with conspicuous lateral fringes, extend to base of fingers, webbing absent; toe pads as large as or slight larger than those on fingers; (13) in life, dorsum uniformly burgundy, red to orange-red (reddish brown to burgundy in preserved) ; flanks, posterior surfaces of legs, groin, throat and venter crimson (dark reddish brown in preserved); iris dark brown with thin golden reticulations; ventral surfaces of hands and feet pinkish cream; (14) SVL in adult females 38.8–42.6 mm (x̄ = 40.3, n = 4), in adult males 36.8–37.1 mm (x̄ = 36.7, n = 2).

    Etymology: The specific epithet erythros is derived from the Greek word for red, in allusion to the distinctive coloration of this species.

    Figure 5. Comparison of Pristimantis erythros (top right) with Pristimantis orcesi (top left), Pristimantis pycnodermis (below left), and Pristimantis loujosti (below right).

    Figure 6. Habitat of Pristimantis erythros in type locality.

    Distribution, natural history, and extinction risk: Pristimantis erythros is only known from its type locality in the Cajas Massif. The area is covered by paramos dominated by grassland and shrubs, between 3450 and 3500 m (Fig. 6). Specimens were collected mainly in terrestrial bromeliads (Puya hamata) and grasses (Neurolepis villosa), near to small streams. Vocalizations were heard (but unrecorded) during daytime hours from 08h00 to 11h00 and from 17h00 to 19h00. Active individuals were observed from dusk until approximately 21h00, afterwards activity decreased. The new species was recorded in sympatry with Pristimantis aff. cryophilius, P. aff. orestes and P. aff. riveti.

    The Paramos on the Cajas Massif (221000 h. approx.) appear well preserved. Part of its extension includes the Cajas National Park (28544 h). However, the continued changes on land cover and land use occurring in several areas over the massif on the buffer area of the national park and not protected nearest regions are leading to habitat loss (Hofstede et al. 2002). During a period of four (4) years (2014–2017), twenty six (26) localities in suitable regions (2500–3500 m) on the Cajas Massif were surveyed, no additional records of this new Pristimantis were added during these excursions mentioned above. It is probable that P. erythros inhabit only a single locality in an area of less than 1 km2. Finally, based on the small area of occupancy that might be restricted to the type locality which it is not under conservation in a protected area, we suggest that, it should be classified as Critically Endangered (CR) under the UICN criteria B1,B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv) (IUCN 2001).

     Juan C. Sánchez-Nivicela, Elvis Celi-Piedra, Valentina Posse-Sarmiento, Verónica L. Urgilés, Mario Yánez-Muñoz, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia. 2018. A New Species of Pristimantis (Anura, Craugastoridae) from the Cajas Massif, southern Ecuador. ZooKeys. 751: 113-128.  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.751.20541

    Resúmen: Describimos una nueva especie de Pristimantis desde las laderas orientales del macizo El Cajas en los páramos andinos del sur de Ecuador a 3400 m.s.n.m. Esta nueva especie tiene un color rojizo distintivo y se caracteriza por tener macroglándulas cutáneas en varias regiones del cuerpo, de la siguiente manera: la región supraescapular, las superficies del antebrazo, parte superior del brazo, las manos y el borde de las piernas. Además, carece de procesos dentígeros en los vomerinos. Las macroglándulas cutáneas son similares a las presentes en el grupo de Pristimantis orcesi, y podrían representar una posición filogenética cercana. La nueva especie puede constituir una sustitución latitudinal de Pristimantis orcesi en los Andes sur de Ecuador.

    Palabras clave: Andes, rana glandular, páramo, Pristimantis erythros sp. n., taxonomía, Terrarana

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    Anchoviella hernanni

    Loeb, Varella & Menezes, 2018
       DOI: 10.1111/jfb.13601 

    Anchoviella hernanni sp. nov. is described from the upper Amazon River basin, in tributaries of the Marañon, Ucayali and Madre de Dios river drainages that drain the Peruvian Andes. The new taxon can be distinguished from all congeners except Anchoviella jamesi, Anchoviella manamensis and Anchoviella perezi, by having 12–15 gill rakers in the lower branch of the first gill arch (v·16–35) and from those species by the distance between verticals through the posterior margin of the orbit to the posterior margin of the upper jaw 9·5–14·8% head length; LH (v. up to 6·0% LH). An updated identification key of all freshwater species of Anchoviella and morphological comparisons between all species of the genus occurring in Peru are provided.

    Key words: Amazon basin; anchovies; manjuba; Neotropical fish fauna; systematics.

    Fig. 1. Anchoviella hernanni sp. nov., holotype (MUSM 59521, 26·4 mm LS).

    Anchoviella hernanni 

    Etymology: Anchoviella hernanni is named in honour of Peruvian ichthyologist Hernan Ortega, in recognition of his contribution to knowledge about the diversity of fishes of Peru and his support for many researchers, either by making material available or by guiding students.

    M. V. Loeb, H. R. Varella and N. A. Menezes. 2018. A New Species of Anchoviella (Clupeiformes: Engraulidae) from the western Amazon River in Peru, with Comments on Congeners in the Peruvian Amazon River. Journal of Fish Biology.  DOI: 10.1111/jfb.13601

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    Gymnotus eyra & G. riberalta 
    Craig, Correa-Roldán, Ortega, Crampton & Albert, 2018

     DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4413.1.3 


    Banded Knifefishes (Gymnotus, Gymnotidae) comprise the most species-rich genus of Neotropical electric fishes, with 41 species currently described from throughout the humid Neotropics, from Mexico to Argentina. Despite substantial alpha-taxonomic work in recent years, the diversity of Gymnotus in some regions remains poorly understood. Here we describe the Gymnotus fauna of the Upper Madeira basin of Bolivia and Peru from examination of more than 240 adult specimens. Species are delimited and described using body proportions (traditional morphometrics), fin-ray, squamation and laterosensory-pore counts (meristics), quantitative shape differences (geometric morphometrics), osteological traits, and color patterns. Comparisons of standardized linear measures as well as multivariate statistical methods validate the presence in the Upper Madeira basin of three previously described species, two with wide-spread geographic distributions throughout Greater Amazonia (G. carapo and G. coropinae), and one (G. chaviro) endemic to southwestern Amazonia. We also diagnose and describe two new species that are endemic to the Upper Madeira basin: G. eyra n. sp., morphologically most similar to G. mamiraua from lowland Amazonia, and G. riberalta n. sp., morphologically most similar to G. pantanal from the Paraguay-Paraná basin. The five Gymnotus species from the Upper Madeira basin are not monophyletic, each species being more closely related to a different species from another region; i.e. the Gymnotus species from the Upper Madeira represents a polyphyletic assemblage. These descriptions to 43 the number of valid Gymnotus species.

    Keywords: Pisces, Alpha taxonomy, biodiversity assessment, neotropical, species delimitation

    Jack M. Craig, Vanessa Correa-Roldán, Hernán Ortega, William G. R. Crampton and James S. Albert. 2018.  Revision of Gymnotus (Gymnotiformes: Gymnotidae) from the Upper Madeira Basin of Bolivia and Peru, with Descriptions of Two New Species.  Zootaxa. 4413(1); 111–132. 

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    Cairnsichthys bitaeniatus 
    Hammer, Allen, Martin, Adams, Ebner, Raadik & Unmack, 2018


    The freshwater melanotaeniid genus Cairnsichthys is endemic to a relatively small area of specialised habitat within the Wet Tropics bioregion of north-eastern Queensland, Australia. It was previously considered as monotypic, including only a single species, C. rhombosomoides (Nichols & Raven, 1928). The recent discovery of an apparently-isolated population in the Daintree rainforest, approximately 120 km north of the known range extent, prompted a detailed investigation of its taxonomic status using a combined lines of evidence approach. We provide compelling evidence from multiple nuclear genetic markers (52 allozyme loci), mitochondrial DNA sequence data (1141 bp cytochrome b) and morphology (examination of a suite of 38 morphometric and meristic characters) that supports north-south splitting of C. rhombosomoides. Accordingly, we describe the northern population as a distinct speciesCairnsichthys bitaeniatus sp. nov., on the basis of 25 specimens, 34.7–65.6 mm SL. The new species differs morphologically primarily by having a more slender and narrow shape, featuring a flatter, straighter predorsal profile and shorter second dorsal fin base; possession of slightly smaller scales, reflected in higher counts of lateral scales and predorsal scales; typically more vertebrae; and colour differences including a more robust, short black stripe across the upper operculum, a pronounced yellow patch on the anteroventral body and usually a more conspicuous second dark stripe on the lower body, with adult males generally having yellowish compared to reddish fins. We also provide a generic diagnosis for Cairnsichthys and a redescription of C. rhombosomoides. Information on the known distribution, habitats and conservation status of species in the genus is summarised, the new species being of particular concern as a narrow range endemic with specific environmental requirements.

    Keywords: Pisces, fishes, freshwater biodiversity, conservation, taxonomy, molecular systematics, northern Australia

    Michael P. Hammer, Gerald R. Allen, KeithC. Martin, Mark Adams, Brendan C. Ebner, Tarmo A. Raadik and Peter J. Unmack. 2018. Revision of the Australian Wet Tropics Endemic Rainbowfish Genus Cairnsichthys (Atheriniformes: Melanotaeniidae), with Description of A New Species. Zootaxa. 4413(2); 271–294. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4413.2.3

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    Shirerpeton isajii
    Matsumoto & Evans, 2018

    llustration: Takumi Yamamoto

    Albanerpetontids are an enigmatic fossil amphibian group known from deposits of Middle Jurassic to Pliocene age. The oldest and youngest records are from Europe, but the group appeared in North America in the late Early Cretaceous and radiated there during the Late Cretaceous. Until now, the Asian record has been limited to fragmentary specimens from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan. This led to speculation that albanerpetontids migrated into eastern Asia from North America in the Albian to Cenomanian interval via the Beringian land bridge. However, here we describe albanerpetontid specimens from the Lower Cretaceous Kuwajima Formation of Japan, a record that predates their first known occurrence in North America. One specimen, an association of skull and postcranial bones from a single small individual, permits the diagnosis of a new taxon. High Resolution X-ray Computed Microtomography has revealed previously unrecorded features of albanerpetontid skull morphology in three dimensions, including the presence of a supraoccipital and epipterygoids, neither of which occurs in any known lissamphibian. The placement of this new taxon within the current phylogenetic framework for Albanerpetontidae is complicated by a limited overlap of comparable elements, most notably the non-preservation of the premaxillae in the Japanese taxon. Nonetheless, phylogenetic analysis places the new taxon closer to Albanerpeton than to Anoualerpeton, Celtedens, or Wesserpeton, although Bootstrap support values are weak. The results also question the monophyly of Albanerpeton as currently defined.

    Fig 2. Shirerpeton isajii gen. et sp. nov., SBEI 2459, holotype block.
    A, digital photograph showing surface view of the specimen after manual preparation; B, rendered view of the surface from μCT data showing identifications of exposed elements.

    Abbreviations: Br, braincase elements; Fr, frontal; L.La, left lacrimal; L.Mx, left maxilla; L.N, left nasal; L.Pa, left parietal; LPf, left prefrontal; L.Sm, left septomaxilla; L.Sq, left squamosal; R.La, right lacrimal; R.Pa, right parietal; R.Pf, right prefrontal; R.Sq, right squamosal;?, unidentified element. Scale bars = 5 mm.

    Fig 3. Shirerpeton isajii gen. et sp. nov., skull reconstruction.
    A-D, Model construction. 3-D models constructed using printouts of the individually segmented elements from the μCT data (mirrored as needed: nasal, parietal, possible supratemporal) and fitted into modelling clay. A, dorsal; B, right lateral; C, left lateral; D, left anterolateral showing the relations of the nasal, lacrimal, and maxilla in the narial margin. The tip of the rostrum is roughly reconstructed in modelling clay. E, outline reconstruction of the skull in dorsal view, based on the 3-D model in A-D. Note that the suspensorial elements are omitted as their positions are uncertain.
    Abbreviations: Fr, frontal; J, jugal; La, lacrimal; Mx, maxilla; N, nasal; Pa, parietal; Pf, prefrontal; S.O, supraoccipital;? St, possible supratemporal.

     Systematic palaeontology

    Shirerpeton gen. nov.

    Etymology: From the Japanese Shiro, white, partly for Shiramine, the type locality, but also because the family name, Albanerpetontidae, derives from the original French locality of La Grive-Saint-Alban, with Alba/Alban (Latin) meaning white.

    Shirerpeton isajii sp. nov.

    Holotype: Shiramine Board of Education Ishikawa Prefecture, SBEI 2459, a small block bearing most of a disarticulated but associated skull with some postcranial elements (Fig 2A). The specimen is housed in the Shiramine Institute of Paleontology, Hakusan Board of Education, Hakusan City, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan.

    Etymology: Species name honours Dr Shinji Isaji, Chiba Prefecture Museum, Japan, for his longstanding work on the fossils, geology, and palaeoenvironment of the Kuwajima Formation.



    Fig 41. Skull roofing bones in albanerpetontids (not to scale).
    A, Shirerpeton isajii; B, Celtedens ibericus; C, Albanerpeton inexpectatum; D, Albanerpeton pannonicum.

    The recovery of the new Japanese specimens sheds new light on albanerpetontid morphology and biogeography, but raises as many questions as it resolves. There is clearly much more to discover about these enigmatic little tetrapods, in terms of their morphology, relationships, and evolutionary history. Recent discoveries have demonstrated that the group had a more extensive temporal and geographical distribution in Asia than previously understood. Awareness of this among researchers may lead to further discoveries.

    Ryoko Matsumoto and Susan E. Evans. 2018.  The First Record of Albanerpetontid Amphibians (Amphibia: Albanerpetontidae) from East Asia. PLoS ONE. 13(1); e0189767. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189767

    化石:1.3億年前、新種の両生類 石川で3個体分 - 毎日新聞
    Amphibian fossil in Ishikawa recognized as new species: The Asahi Shimbun

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    Kindia gangan Cheek

    in Cheek, Magassouba, Howes, Doré, Doumbouya, et al​., 2018.
     DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4666 
    Photos: Martin Cheek.


    A new genus Kindia(Pavetteae, Rubiaceae) is described with a single species, Kindia gangan, based on collections made in 2016 during botanical exploration of Mt Gangan, Kindia, Republic of Guinea in West Africa. The Mt Gangan area is known for its many endemic species including the only native non-neotropical Bromeliaceae Pitcairnia feliciana. Kindia is the fourth endemic vascular plant genus to be described from Guinea. Based on chloroplast sequence data, the genus is part of Clade II of tribe Pavetteae. In this clade, it is sister to Leptactina sensu lato (including Coleactina and Dictyandra). K. gangan is distinguished from Leptactina s.l. by the combination of the following characters: its epilithic habit; several-flowered axillary inflorescences; distinct calyx tube as long as the lobes; a infundibular-campanulate corolla tube with narrow proximal section widening abruptly to the broad distal section; presence of a dense hair band near base of the corolla tube; anthers and style deeply included, reaching about mid-height of the corolla tube; anthers lacking connective appendages and with sub-basal insertion; pollen type 1; pollen presenter (style head) winged and glabrous (smooth and usually hairy in Leptactina); orange colleters producing a vivid red exudate, which encircle the hypanthium, and occur inside the calyx and stipules. Kindia is a subshrub that appears restricted to bare, vertical rock faces of sandstone. Fruit dispersal and pollination by bats is postulated. Here, it is assessed as Endangered EN D1 using the 2012 IUCN standard. High resolution LC-MS/MS analysis revealed over 40 triterpenoid compounds in the colleter exudate, including those assigned to the cycloartane class. Triterpenoids are of interest for their diverse chemical structures, varied biological activities, and potential therapeutic value.

    Taxonomic Treatment

    KindiaCheek, gen nov.

    Type: Kindia gangan Cheek

    Diagnosis: differs from Leptactina s.l. in a corolla tube with a slender proximal part and an abruptly much wider, longer distal part (not more or less cylindrical, or gradually widening); a glabrous, winged pollen-presenter (not hairy, non-winged); an epilithic habit (not terrestrial, growing in soil); a conspicuous opaque red colleter exudate (not translucent and colourless or slightly yellow); and type 1 pollen (not type 2) (De Block & Robbrecht, 1998).

    Figure 1: Photographs showing the cliff-dwelling habitat and the habit of Kindia gangan at Mt Gangan, Kindia, Guinea. (A) plants scattered on high sandstone cliff (Cheek 18345); (B) plant habit on cliff face (Cheek 18541A); (C) frontal view of flower (Cheek 18541A); (D) side view of inflorescence showing cupular bract (Cheek 18541A); (E) opened fruit showing ripe seeds (Cheek 18345). Photos taken by Martin Cheek.

    Figure 1: Photographs showing the cliff-dwelling habitat and the habit of Kindia gangan at Mt Gangan, Kindia, Guinea.
    (A) plants scattered on high sandstone cliff (Cheek 18345); (B) plant habit on cliff face (Cheek 18541A).
    Photos taken by Martin Cheek.

    Figure 1: Photographs showing the cliff-dwelling habitat and the habit of Kindia gangan at Mt Gangan, Kindia, Guinea.
     (C) frontal view of flower (Cheek 18541A); (D) side view of inflorescence showing cupular bract (Cheek 18541A); (E) opened fruit showing ripe seeds (Cheek 18345). Photos taken by Martin Cheek.

    Local names and uses: None are known. The local communities in the area when interviewed in November 2017, stated that they had no uses nor names for the plant (D Molmou & T Doré, pers. obs., 2017).

    Etymology: The genus is named for the town and prefecture of Kindia, Guinea’s fourth city, and the species is named for Mt Gangan to its north, which holds the only known location for the species. Both names are derived as nouns in apposition.

    Distribution République de Guinée, Kindia Prefecture, northeastern boundary of Mt Gangan area, west of Kindia-Telimélé Rd (Fig. 5).

    The area of the Mt Gangan complex in which we found plants of Kindia consists of two parallel ranges of small sandstone table mountains separated by a narrow N–S valley that appears to be a geological fault. Bedding of the sandstone is horizontal. Uneven erosion on some slopes has resulted in the formation of frequent rock ledges, overhangs and caves. In contrast, other flanks of the mountains are sheer cliffs extending 100 m or more high and wide. It is on the cliff areas at 230–540 m a.s.l that K. gangan occurs as the only plant species present, usually as scattered individuals in colonies of (1–3–)7–15 plants, on the bare expanses of rock that are shaded for part of the day due to the orientation of the cliffs or to overhangs or due to a partial screen of trees in front of the rockfaces. Pitcairnia feliciana (Bromeliaceae), in contrast is found in fully exposed sites where there is, due to the rock bedding, a horizontal sill in which to root. These two species can grow within metres of each other if their cliff microhabitats occur in proximity. The rock formations create a variety of other microhabitats, including vertical fissures, caves, shaded, seasonally wet ledges, and are inhabited by sparse small trees, shrubs, subshrubs, perennial and annual herbs, many of which are narrow endemic rock specialists. We speculate that the seed of this species might be bat-dispersed because of the greenish yellow-white colour of the berries (less attractive to birds than fruits which are e.g., red or black) and the position of the plants high on cliff faces, where nothing but winged creatures could reach them, apart from those few plants at the base of the cliffs. However, fruit dispersal is not always effected since we found numerous old dried intact fruits holding live seeds on the plants at the type locality in February 2016. It is possible that the robust, large white flowers are pollinated by a small species of bat since in June and September we saw signs of damage to the inner surface of the corolla inconsistent with visits by small insects. The damage takes the form of brown spots on the inner surface of the corolla tube. Freshly opened flowers do not have these spots, nor do all flowers, only those few which show slight damage. The very broad, short corolla is not consistent with pollination by sphingid moths (which prefer long, slender-tubed flowers), but this cannot be ruled out.

    Kindia, an endangered subshrub, restricted to bare, vertical rock faces of sandstone is described and placed in Clade II of tribe Pavetteae as sister to Leptactina s.l. based on chloroplast sequence data. The only known species, K. gangan, is distinguished from the species of Leptactina s.l. by a combination of characters: an epilithic habit; several-flowered axillary inflorescences; distinct calyx tube as long as the lobes; a infundibular-campanulate corolla tube with narrow proximal section widening abruptly to the distal section; presence of a dense hair band near base of the corolla tube; anthers and style deeply included, reaching about mid-height of the corolla tube; anthers lacking connective appendages and with sub-basal insertion; pollen type 1; pollen presenter winged and glabrous; orange colleters, which encircle the calyx-hypanthium, occur at base and inside the calyx and stipules and produce vivid red exudate. High resolution LC-MS/MS analysis revealed over 40 triterpenoid compounds in the colleter exudate, including those assigned to the cycloartane class. Triterpenoids are of interest for their diverse chemical structures, varied biological activities, and potential therapeutic value.

    Martin Cheek, Sékou Magassouba, Melanie-Jayne R. Howes, Tokpa Doré, Saïdou Doumbouya, Denise Molmou, Aurélie Grall, Charlotte Couch and Isabel Larridon​. 2018. Kindia (Pavetteae, Rubiaceae), A New Cliff-dwelling Genus with Chemically Profiled Colleter Exudate from Mt Gangan, Republic of Guinea.  PeerJ. 6:e4666. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4666

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    Rhinolophus lepidus Blyth, 1844

    in Chua & Aziz, 2018

    Diurnal flight and foraging activity in insectivorous bats are atypical behaviours that have been recorded from islands with few avian predators and from locations with extended daylight hours. We present the first known observations of diurnal activity of Rhinolophus lepidus in forests on Tioman Island, Malaysia, recorded using visual surveys and acoustic monitoring. The bats were flying during the day and at night, and feeding buzzes detected suggest that they were actively foraging during the day. This appears to be a regular phenomenon on Tioman Island. The absence of resident diurnal avian predators that hunt below the forest canopy may account for the diurnal activity of R. lepidus in forests there.

    Keywords: acoustic monitoring; daylight; foraging behaviour; tropical forest

    Figure 2: In situ image and characteristic features of the day-flying bats of Tioman Island, Malaysia.
    (A) Day-flying insectivorous bat flying a low circuit in Paya, Tioman Island, Malaysia. (B and C) Frontal and lateral views of diurnal Rhinolophus lepidus displaying characteristic features of the species, i.e. pointed lancelet with concave sides, triangular connecting process and hair with light tips.

    Marcus A.H. Chua and Sheema Abdul Aziz. 2018. Into the Light: Atypical Diurnal Foraging Activity of Blyth’s Horseshoe Bat, Rhinolophus lepidus (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) on Tioman Island, Malaysia. Mammalia. DOI: 10.1515/mammalia-2017-0128

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    Peritresius martini  Gentry, Parham, Ehret & Ebersole, 2018

    Late Cretaceous members of Peritresius belong to a diverse clade of marine adapted turtles currently thought to be some of the earliest representatives of the lineage leading to modern hard-shelled sea turtles (Pan-Cheloniidae). Prior studies have suggested that Peritresius was monospecific, with a distribution restricted to Maastrichtian deposits in North America. However, new Peritresius specimens identified from Alabama and Mississippi, USA, show that the genus contains two taxa, Peritresius ornatus, and a new species Peritresius martini sp. nov. These two taxa are characterized by the presence of a generally cordiform carapace with moderately serrated peripherals, well-developed ventral flanges beginning at the third peripheral, squarish umbilical and lateral plastral fontanelles, and a narrow bridge formed by the contact between the hyoplastron and hypoplastron. Peritresius martini sp. nov. can be distinguished by its lack of dermal ornamentation and the presence of a ‘rib-free’ 10th peripheral. These new specimens represent the first occurrences of Peritresius from the Late Cretaceous Mississippi Embayment and extend the temporal range of this genus back to the early Campanian. When tested within a global phylogenetic context, Peritresius is placed on the stem of Cheloniidae (Pan-Cheloniidae) along with Ctenochelys and Allopleuron hofmanni. The heavily vascularized and uniquely sculptured dermal elements of P. ornatus are interpreted here as potentially relating to thermoregulation and therefore may have been one of the key factors contributing to the survival of Peritresius into the Maastrichtian, a period of cooling when other lineages of Campanian marine turtles (e.g., Protostegids, Toxochelys, and Ctenochelys) went extinct.

    Systematic Paleontology
    Reptilia Laurenti, 1768 
    Testudines Batsch, 1788

    Cryptodira Cope, 1868 
    Chelonioidea Baur, 1893

    Pan-Cheloniidae Joyce, Parham, and Gauthier, 2004

    Genus Peritresius Leidy, 1856 

    Type species: Peritresius ornatus Baird, 1964, figs 1–8, Navesink Formation (upper Maastrichtian), Burlington County, New Jersey, USA.

    Amended diagnosis: Cretaceous pan-cheloniid differentiated from Allopleuron hofmanni in having a more broadly rounded carapace, a decreased distance between the axillary and inguinal notches of the plastron, a lack of elongate, finger-like lateral projections of the hypoplastron, and the relatively constant width of peripheral elements 3–11. Differentiated from pan-cheloniids such as Ctenochelys by a greatly expanded contact between the left and right epiplastra, significantly reduced contact between the hyo- and hypoplastron due to the presence of large central and lateral plastral fontanelles, and a highly domed carapace as evidenced by the broad angle (90°-120°) formed by the dorsal and ventral facets of peripherals 3–8. Specimens can be diagnosed as Peritresius by the following combination of features: generally cordiform carapace having peripheral elements with moderate lateral serrations; a single mid-sagittal keel on the dorsal surface of the carapace (ch.116/3) consisting of 7 keeled neurals (ch.126/1) with epineural ossifications situated at the junctures of neurals 3–4, 5–6, and 7-suprapygal 1; reduction in peripheral height moving posteriorly from peripheral 4; ratio between the axillary-inguinal distance of the plastron and the length of hyo-hypoplastral contact >2.5:1 (plastral index is this value * 100); and thyroid fenestra subdivided by pronounced contact between the pubes and ischia (ch.224/1).

    Fig 3. Peritresius martini sp. nov., carapace, ALMNH 6191 (holotype) from the upper Campanian of Alabama, USA. (1) carapace in dorsal view and plastron in ventral view; (2) left peripherals 3–6, 9, & 11 in posterior view; (3) 10X magnified view of the dorsal surface of right peripheral 10; (4) hypothetical reconstruction of the complete shell with the preserved elements shown in gray. Abbreviations: p, peripheral; pyg, pygal; spg, suprapygal.


    Peritresius martini sp. nov.

    Etymology: martini: for the discoverer and initial preparator of the holotype specimen, Mr. George Martin of Auburn, Alabama.

    Differential diagnosis: As for genus but can be distinguished from Peritresius ornatus by a lack of sculpturing on the dermal surfaces of the carapacial elements, a less pronounced lateral keel of the anterior peripherals, and a ‘rib-free’ 10th peripheral (ch.133/2).

    Holotype: ALMNH 6191 (Figs 3–5), includes peripherals 3–6 and 8–11 of the right side, peripherals 8–11 of the left side, pygal, partial 1st suprapygal, right epiplastron, right hyoplastron, both hypoplastra, both xiphiplastra, and an articulated pelvic girdle.

    Type locality: Site ALn-8, Dry Cedar Creek, Lowndes County, Alabama, USA.

    Type stratum: Lower Ripley Formation, lower Globotruncana aegyptiaca Interval Zone, upper Campanian.


    A confluent thyroid fenestra has been suggested as a derived characteristic of crown cheloniids based on the subdivided thyroid fenestra of many early cryptodires and the absence of such a division in fossil chelonioids like Toxochelys latiremis and Lophochelys spp. Zangerl 1953 [2] ([49]). However, the presence of a divided thyroid fenestra in Peritresius spp., A. hofmanni, and certain extant cheloniids such as Caretta caretta may indicate this feature was lost early in pan-chelonioid evolution and later reacquired in select lineages of pan-cheloniids. It is also possible that Late Cretaceous sea turtles, such as Toxochelys and Peritresius, represent distinct radiations of marine adapted turtle potentially due to multiple invasions of marine environments by Testudines during the latter half of the Cretaceous, with the plesiomorphic condition retained in one lineage (Peritresius) and lost in another (Toxochelys). Testing the latter scenario using only morphology based phylogenetics would require an extensive review of the pelvic elements of fossil and extant Testudines in order to ensure that any character set or coding strategy regarding the arrangement of these elements was sufficiently inclusive to provide meaningful resolution between members of clades containing highly convergent lineages (i.e. marine turtles). Such a review is beyond the scope of the present study but is certainly an area of chelonioid evolution in need of further examination.

    Peritresius ornatus Leidy, 1856 
    Chelone ornata Leidy [1856]: 105, pl. 18, fig 10.
    Peribresius [sic, errore] ornatus. Cope in Cook [1869]: 735.
    Peritresius ornatus Cope [1869]: 88; 1870: 150.
    Prochonias nodosus Cope [1870]: 158, 159.
    Taphrosphys nodosus Cope [1870]: 167, 244, pl. 1, fig 16.
    Peritresius ornatus = ? Taphrosphys nodosus Hay [1908]: 122, 210.
    Peritresias [sic] ornatus Miller [1955]: 908.
    Peritresius ornatus Baird [1964]

    Fig 9. Time-calibrated, strict consensus phylogeny of select fossil and extant Testudine species.

    A new species of Cretaceous marine turtle from the southeastern United States (Peritresius martini sp. nov.) is herein described based on material collected from the upper Campanian of Alabama, USA. Peritresius martini sp. nov. differs from Peritresius ornatus in having a ‘rib-free’ 10th peripheral, a less pronounced lateral keel on the anterior peripherals, and an unsculptured carapace and plastron. The heavily vascularized and sculptured dermal elements characteristic of P. ornatus are interpreted here as potentially indicative of a thermoregulatory capability and may have been one of the key factors contributing to the survival of Peritresius into the Maastrichtian, a period of cooling when other lineages of Campanian marine turtles (e.g., Protostegids, Toxochelys, and Ctenochelys) went extinct.

    Andrew D. Gentry , James F. Parham, Dana J. Ehret and Jun A. Ebersole. 2018. A New Species of Peritresius Leidy, 1856 (Testudines: Pan-Cheloniidae) from the Late Cretaceous (Campanian) of Alabama, USA, and the Occurrence of the Genus within the Mississippi Embayment of North America.  PLoS ONE. 13(4): e0195651.  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195651


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    Pimenta berciliae

    in Vasconcelos, Lucas & Peguero, 2018.

    One new species and two new combinations are here published as taxonomic updates on the all-spice genus Pimenta (Myrtaceae) for the flora of Hispaniola, Greater Antilles. Pimenta berciliae is a small tree, the type of which was found in the vicinity of the National Botanical Gardens in Santo Domingo. Natural populations of this species are restricted to a small area in Samaná and Cordillera Septentrional, and the preliminary assessment of its conservation status indicates an endangered species. Additionally, Eugenia yumana and Eugenia samanensis are here formally transferred to Pimenta after molecular and morphological analyses demonstrate that they belong to this latter genus. Two new combinations, Pimenta yumana and Pimenta samanensis are here provided. These three additions to the flora of Pimenta in Hispaniola increase the known diversity of the genus on the island and are important to better understand the diversity of the all-spice genus in the region.

    Keywords: Caribbean, Eugenia, Myrteae, Eudicots


    Thais N.C. Vasconcelos, Eve J. Lucas and Brigido Peguero. 2018.  One New Species, Two New Combinations and Taxonomic Notes on the All-spice Genus Pimenta (Myrtaceae) from Hispaniola. Phytotaxa. 348(1); 32–40.  DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.348.1.4

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     Vietnamophryne occidentalis
    Poyarkov, Suwannapoom, Pawangkhanant, Aksornneam, Duong, Korost & Che, 2018

    อึ่งถ้ำแคระเชียงราย ||  DOI:  10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2018.019 

    We report on the discovery of a new genus of microhylid subfamily Asterophryinae from northern and eastern Indochina, containing three new speciesVietnamophryne Gen. nov. are secretive miniaturized frogs (SVL<21 mm) with a mostly semi-fossorial lifestyle. To assess phylogenetic relationships, we studied 12S rRNA-16S rRNA mtDNA fragments with a final alignment of 2?591 bp for 53 microhylid species. External morphology characters and osteological characteristics analyzed using micro-CT scanning were used for describing the new genus. Results of phylogenetic analyses assigned the new genus into the mainly Australasian subfamily Asterophryinae as a sister taxon to the genus Siamophryne from southern Indochina. The three specimens collected from Gia Lai Province in central Vietnam, Cao Bang Province in northern Vietnam, and Chiang Rai Province in northern Thailand proved to be separate species, different both in morphology and genetics (genetic divergence 3.1%≤P≤5.1%). Our work provides further evidence for the “out of Indo-Eurasia” scenario for Asterophryinae, indicating that the initial cladogenesis and differentiation of this group of frogs occurred in the Indochina Peninsula. To date, each of the three new species of Vietnamophryne Gen. nov. is known only from a single specimen; thus, their distribution, life history, and conservation status require further study.

    Keywords: Vietnamophryne Gen. nov., Vietnamophryne inexpectata sp. nov., Vietnamophryne orlovi sp. nov., Vietnamophryne occidentalis sp. nov., Siamophryne, Gastrophrynoides, mtDNA, micro-CT scanning, Vietnam, Thailand, Herpetofauna, Amphibia, Biogeography, Taxonomy, Indochina

    Figure 2 Bayesian inference dendrogram of Asterophryinae derived from analysis of 2 591-bp long 12S rRNA – 16S rRNA mtDNA gene fragments Voucher specimen IDs and GenBank accession numbers are given in Table 1. Sequence of Rhacophorus schlegelii was used as an outgroup. Numbers near branches represent posterior probability (PP) or bootstrap support values (BS, 1 000 replicates) for BI/ML inferences, respectively. Photos by N. A. Poyarkov and Y. Lee.

    Amphibia Linnaeus, 1758 
    Anura Fischer von Waldheim, 1813 
    Microhylidae Günther, 1858 
    Asterophryinae Günther, 1858 

    Figure 5 Three male holotypes of Vietnamophryne Gen. nov. species in life
    A: Vietnamophryne inexpectata sp. nov. (ZMMU A-5820); B: Vietnamophryne orlovi sp. nov. (ZMMU A-5821); C: Vietnamophryne occidentalis sp. nov. (ZMMU A-5822).

    Vietnamophryne Gen. nov.

    Type species: Vietnamophryne inexpectata sp. nov. 
    Other included species: Vietnamophryne orlovi sp. nov.; Vietnamophryne occidentalis sp. nov.

    Etymology: The generic nomen Vietnamophryne is derived from “Vietnam”, the name of the country where the representatives of this genus were first recorded and where two of the three known species of the genus occur; and Greek noun “phryne” (Φρύνη; feminine gender), meaning “toad” in English; this root is often used in generic names in Asterophryinae frogs. Gender of the new genus is feminine. 

    Suggested common names: We suggest the name “Indochinese Dwarf Frogs” as a common name of the new genus in English, “Nhái Lùn” as a common name of the new genus in Vietnamese, and “Eung Tham Khaera, อึ่งถ้ำแคระ” as a common name of the new genus in Thai.

     Vietnamophryne inexpectata sp. nov

    Etymology: The specific name “inexpectata” is a Latin adjective in the nominative singular meaning “unexpected”; referring to the surprising discovery of this frog species in 2016, which belongs to the mainly Australasian subfamily Asterophryinae; until recently (Suwannapoom et al., 2018) members of Asterophryinae were not recorded from mainland Southeast Asia or eastern Indochina. 

    Suggested common names. We recommend the following common names for the new species: “Tay Nguyen Dwarf Frog” (English) and “Nhái Lùn Tây Nguyên” (Vietnamese). 

    Vietnamophryne orlovi sp. nov.

    Etymology: The specific name “orlovi” is a Latinized patronymic in genitive singular; the name of the new species is given in honor of Dr. Nikolai L. Orlov (ZISP, St. Petersburg, Russia) for recognition of his outstanding contribution to the knowledge of herpetofauna of Indochina. 

    Suggested common names: We recommend the following common names for the new species: “Orlov’s Dwarf Frog” (English) and “Nhái Lùn Ðông Bac” (Vietnamese). 

    [upper] Male holotype of Vietnamophryne occidentalis sp. nov. (ZMMU A-5822) in life A: Dorsal view; B: Ventral view. 
    [lower] Microhabitat at type locality of V. occidentalis sp. nov. in Doi Tung Mt., Chiang Rai Province, Thailand
     (Photos by P. Pawangkhanant and M. Naidaungchan)

    Vietnamophryne occidentalis sp. nov. (ZMMU A-5822).

    Vietnamophryne occidentalis sp. nov.

    Etymology: The specific name “occidentalis” is a Latin adjective in the nominative singular meaning “western”; referring to the type locality of the new species in western Indochina (Chiang Rai Province of Thailand) – to date, the westernmost area where members of the subfamily Asterophryinae are recorded. 

    Suggested common names: We recommend the following common names for the new species: “Chiang Rai Dwarf Frog” (English) and “Eung Tham Khaera Chiang Rai, อึ่งถ้ำแคระเชียงราย” (Thai).

    Nikolay A. Poyarkov, Jr., Chatmongkon Suwannapoom, Parinya Pawangkhanant, Akrachai Aksornneam, Tang Van Duong, Dmitriy V. Korost and Jing Che. 2018. A New Genus and Three New Species of Miniaturized Microhylid Frogs from Indochina (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae: Asterophryinae). Zoological Research.  DOI:  10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2018.019

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     Xylopia aethiopica from Gabon Xylopia longipetala from Mali, representing a record for the country not otherwise documented Xylopia piratae from Ivory Coast Xylopia odoratissima from Zambia Xylopia arenaria from Tanzania

    in Johnson & Murray, 2018.

    A revision of the 45 species of the pantropical genus Xylopia in Tropical Africa includes descriptions of six new species and a new section of the genus. The fruits and seeds of Xylopia show specializations that promote vertebrate dispersal, primarily by hornbills and monkeys. Over half of the African species have an Area of Occupancy (AOO) less than 80 km2, suggesting that they are in need of protection. African species are classified into five sections. Section Neoxylopia , with four species, is centered in the Guineo-Congolian Region and includes Xylopia globosa sp. nov. Section Ancistropetala, with three species, occurs in the same region. Both of these sections are endemic to Africa. Section Xylopia, which extends to Madagascar and the American tropics, has only a single species in Africa, X. aethiopica. The three species of section Verdcourtia sect. nov. are restricted to the East African coast and Madagascar. The largest number of African species, (34) belong to section Stenoxylopia, in which the seeds lack the arils found in the other sections and instead have a fleshy sarcotesta. Section Stenoxylopia is divided into two informal groups, one centered in eastern and southern Africa (X. odoratissima group) and the other centered in the wetter forests of western and central Africa (X. acutiflora group). Five new species are described in section StenoxylopiaXylopia nilotica sp. nov. from Sudan, South Sudan, and Uganda, Xylopia calva sp. nov. from Nigeria and Cameroon, which is allied to X. phloiodora, and Xylopia monticola sp. nov. from Nigeria and Cameroon, X. piratae sp. nov. from Ivory Coast and Ghana, and X. unguiculata sp. nov. from Gabon. The latter three species are segregates of the former Xylopia acutiflora s. l. One new combination is made at the species level, X. shirensis comb. nov. Keys, descriptions, illustrations, distribution maps, and an index to numbered collections document diversity and assist with species identification. The name Unona oliveriana Baill. was found to pre-date the name Unona lepidota Oliv., requiring the combination Meiocarpidium oliverianum comb. nov.

    Keywords: Xylopia, pantropical Annonaceae, Tropical Africa, long distance dispersal, bird/monkey syndrome, X. aethiopica, conservation, new species

    Figure 3. Flowers of representative Xylopia species.
    A Flower from type collection of Xylopia globosa from Gabon B Xylopia tenuipetala from Mozambique C Xylopia quintasii from Gabon D Xylopia aethiopica from Gabon E Xylopia longipetala from Mali, representing a record for the country not otherwise documented F Xylopia piratae from Ivory Coast G Xylopia odoratissima from Zambia H Xylopia arenaria from Tanzania I Xylopia collina from Tanzania.
    A, D by Thomas L. P. Couvreur B by Frances Chase C by Ehoarn Bidault E by Philip Birnbaum F by Céline Pirat G by Warren McClelland H and I by D. M. Johnson.

    Xylopia globosa D. M. Johnson & N. A. Murray, sp. nov.

    Xylopia nilotica D. M. Johnson & N. A. Murray, sp. nov.

     Xylopia calva D. M. Johnson & N. A. Murray, sp. nov.

     Xylopia monticola D. M. Johnson & N. A. Murray, sp. nov.

    Xylopia piratae D. M. Johnson & N. A. Murray, sp. nov.

    Figure 4. Fruits and seeds of representative Xylopia species.
    A Xylopia staudtii from Democratic Republic of the Congo B Xylopia aethiopica from Republic of the Congo C Xylopia quintasii from Cameroon D Xylopia tenuipetala from Mozambique E Xylopia collina from Mozambique F Xylopia gracilipes from Mozambique G Xylopia hypolampra from Gabon H Xylopia tanganyikensis from Tanzania.

    A by Quentin Luke B by David Harris C, G by Thomas L. P. Couvreur D by Jonathan Timberlake E, F by Mervyn Lötter H by Noriko Itoh. C reproduced with permission of Thomas L. P. Couvreur and of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists D reproduced with the permission of Jonathan Timberlake and of the Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.

     David M. Johnson and Nancy A. Murray. 2018. A Revision of Xylopia L. (Annonaceae): The Species of Tropical Africa.  PhytoKeys. 97: 1-252.  DOI:  10.3897/phytokeys.97.20975

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    Pachyphytum rogeliocardenasii Add  E. Pérez-Calix & R.Torres

    in Pérez-Calix & Torres-Colín, 2018. 


    Pachyphytum (Crassulaceae) is a genus of perennial plants with ca. 20 species endemic to central Mexico. Pachyphytum rogeliocardenasii is described here as a new species. It is compared to P. garciae, which is morphologically similar. The new species is endemic to the northwestern region of the state of Querétaro where it was found on limestone walls. It is assigned the category of endangered (EN).

    Keywords: Arroyo Seco, sect. Diostostemon, sect. Ixiocaulon, Eudicots

    FIGURE 2. Pachyphytum rogeliocardenasii:
    A) habit; B) petal color; C) calyx lobes; D) inflorescence peduncle and floral bracts. 

    FIGURE 2. Pachyphytum rogeliocardenasii: A) habit; B) petal color; C) calyx lobes; D) inflorescence peduncle and floral bracts. P. garciae: E) habit; F) petal color; G) calyx lobes; H) inflorescence peduncle and flowers bracts.

    Pachyphytum rogeliocardenasii E. Pérez-Calix & R.Torres, sp. nov.,

     Type:— MEXICO. Querétaro: municipio Arroyo Seco, cerca de 2.9 km al sur de Santa María de Cocos, 800 m elevation, 21°18’24.64” N, 99°38’26.54” O, 3 November 2015, E. Pérez 6616 (holotype IEB!, isotypes MEXU!, QMEX!).

    Pachyphytum rogeliocardenasii is morphologically similar to P. garciae, which differs in that its leaves are up to 1.3 cm longer and 0.5 cm wider; the bracts of the peduncle are 6‒7.5 mm longer and 2‒3.5 wider; calyx lobes are also larger and corolla lobes are white with an abaxial red spot in the middle.


    Distribution and habitat:— Pachyphytum rogeliocardenasii is endemic to the northwest region of Queretaro, near the border with Guanajuato where one population that lives on vertical walls of limestone sedimentary rock has been recorded in the canyon of the Atarjea river. The climate of the region is subhumid, semi-warm (sensu García 1973). The vegetation corresponds to the deciduous tropical forest (sensu Zamudio et al. 1992). Some of its elements are Celtis iguanaea and various representatives of Leguminosae. The walls where the plant grows are also habitat by populations of Agave sp., Hechtia sp., Echeveria sp. and Sedum corynephyllum.

    Etymology:— The specific epithet is dedicated to the memory of Rogelio Mariano Cárdenas-Soriano (Cuautla, Morelos, 1961 - Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, 2010). Rogelio worked as a scientific illustrator in the Bajío Regional Center of the Institute of Ecology, A.C., from 1995 until his death, and elaborated a series of illustrations, published in the fascicles of Flora del Bajío and of adjacent regions; he also drew new taxa for science, which were published in various specialized journals in botany.

    Emmanuel Pérez Calix and Rafael Torres Colín. 2018. Pachyphytum rogeliocardenasii (Crassulaceae), A New Species from northwestern Querétaro, Mexico. Phytotaxa. 348(1); 56–62. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.348.1.7

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    Rhinolophus gorongosae 
    Taylor, Macdonald, Goodman, Kearney, Cotterill, Stoffberg, Monadjem, Schoeman, Guyton, Naskrecki& Richards, 2018 

    photo: Piotr Naskrecki  

    Examination of historical and recent collections of small Rhinolophus bats revealed cryptic taxonomic diversity within southern African populations previously referred to as R. swinnyi Gough, 1908 and R. landeri Martin, 1832. Specimens from Mozambique morphologically referable to R.swinnyi were phylogenetically unrelated to topotypic R. swinnyi from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa based on cytochrome b sequences and showed distinctive echolocation, baculum and noseleaf characters. Due to their genetic similarity to a previously reported molecular operational taxonomic unit (OTU) from north-eastern South Africa, Zimbabwe and Zambia, we recognize the available synonym (R. rhodesiae Roberts, 1946) to denote this distinct evolutionary species. This new taxon is genetically identical to R. simulator K. Andersen, 1904 based on mtDNA and nuclear DNA sequences but can easily be distinguished on morphological and acoustic grounds. We attribute this genetic similarity to historical introgression, a frequently documented phenomenon in bats. An additional genetically distinct and diminutive taxon in the swinnyi s.l. group (named herein, Rhinolophus gorongosae sp. nov.) is described from Gorongosa National Park, central Mozambique. Specimens from Mozambique referable based on morphology to R. landeri were distinct from topotypic landeri from West Africa based on mtDNA sequences, and acoustic, noseleaf and baculum characters. This Mozambique population is assigned to the available synonymR. lobatusPeters, 1952.

    Peter J. Taylor, Angus Macdonald, Steven M. Goodman, Teresa Kearney, Fenton P. D. Cotterill, Sam Stoffberg, Ara Monadjem, M. Corrie Schoeman, Jennifer Guyton, Piotr Naskrecki and Leigh R. Richards. 2018. Integrative Taxonomy Resolves Three New Cryptic Species of Small southern African Horseshoe Bats (Rhinolophus). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.  DOI: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zly024
    Descoberta de novas espécies de morcegos no Parque Nacional da Gorongosa e no Norte de Moçambique
    A new study just published in the Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society described a new bat species in southern Africa, named Rhinolophus gorongosae; it seems to occur only in Gorongosa National Park in Mozambique and possibly also on nearby Mount Mecula. Using genetic and morphological techniques, R. gorongosae was found to be distinct from neighboring horseshoe bat populations. With a mass of only 5 g this “dwarf” becomes Africa’s smallest horseshoe bat.


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    Polystichum hastipinnum  G.D. Tang & Li Bing Zhang

    in Tang, Huang, Li, He & Zhang, 2017


    A new species of Polystichum (subg. Haplopolystichum; Dryopteridaceae), Polystichum hastipinnum, is described from a limestone cave in northern Guangdong, China. Polystichum hastipinnum is most similar to P. kwangtungense in having oblong pinnae, but the former has stipe and rachis scales denser, basalmost pair of pinnae hastate and with bases somewhat cordate, while the latter has stipe and rachis scales much sparser, basalmost pair of pinnae oblong and with bases cuneate.

    Keywords: Cave ferns, Polystichum hastipinnum, P. kwangtungense, Pteridophytes, China

    FIGURE 2. Polystichum hastipinnumG.D. Tang & Li Bing Zhang. .— Habit from the field. 

    Polystichum hastipinnum G.D. Tang & Li Bing Zhang, sp. nov.


    Etymology:— From the Latin, hasti-, hastate, and -pinnum, pinnae, referring to the hastate basalmost pinnae.

    Guang-Da Tang, Lin Huang, Jia-Yu Li, Zeng-Li He and Li-Bing Zhang. 2017. Polystichum hastipinnum (subg. Haplopolystichum; Dryopteridaceae), A New Cave Fern from Guangdong, China. Phytotaxa. 309(1); 66-72. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.309.1.6

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    Palumbina macrodelta (Meyrick, 1918)

    in Lee, Li, Han & Park, 2018

    Palumbina is a small genus of Gelechiidae that includes species distributed only in the Old World. It was recently assigned to the subfamily Thiotrichinae, but the morphological and molecular studies at the species level have not been extensively conducted. In this study, we focused on the taxonomy of the Chinese Palumbina using morphology and DNA barcoding analysis to confirm the species identification and the relationship among closely related species. In China, three species of this genus were recorded previously. A total of 19 were finally recognized in the present study, including 12 new species:P. magnisigna sp. nov., P. grandiunca sp. nov., P. melanotricha sp. nov., P. atricha sp. nov., P. sigmoides sp. nov., P. acuticula sp. nov., P. rugosa sp. nov., P. sineloba sp. nov., P. spinevalva sp. nov., P. acerosa sp. nov., P. triangularis sp. nov. and P. acinacea sp. nov., and five species that are new records for China: P. chelophora (Meyrick, 1918), P. diplobathra (Meyrick, 1918), P. macrodelta (Meyrick, 1918), P. nesoclera (Meyrick, 1929) and P. operaria (Meyrick, 1918). Three new combinations are proposed: P. operaria (Meyrick, 1918) comb. nov., P. albilustra (Walia et Wadhawan, 2005) comb. nov. and P. shivai (Walia et Wadhawan, 2005) comb. nov., and one new synonymy is established: Thyrsostoma albilustra (Walia et Wadhawan, 2005), syn. nov. of P. oxyprora (Meyrick, 1922). Based on the neighbor-joining analysis of COI gene sequences of 67 exemplar specimens, four clades were well supported with high bootstrap values resulting in four species-groups: the guerinii-group, the grandiunca-group, the macrodelta-group and the nesoclera-group. However, seven species were grouped together in an additional clade with weak support and P. diplobathra and P. chelophora were not clustered with any other species due to the high genetic divergences. Palumbina chelophora showed typical characteristics of the genus morphologically, but it was not embedded within Palumbina as monophyletic from the tree, assuming that the sole use of mitochondrial fragments could not resolve the deeper relationship. Therefore, further investigation is needed to clarify those issues. In this study, the generic diagnosis was reviewed based on previous studies and morphological examination.

    Keywords: Lepidoptera, Taxonomy, Macrenches, Polyhymno, Thiotricha, DNA barcode, COI analysis

    Palumbina macrodelta (Meyrick, 1918) 

    Ga-Eun Lee, Houhun Li, Taeman Han and Haechul Park. 2018. A Taxonomic Review of the Genus Palumbina Rondani, 1876 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, Thiotrichinae) from China, with Descriptions of Twelve New Species. Zootaxa. 4414(1); 1-73. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4414.1.1

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     Hisonotus devidei 
    Roxo, Silva & Melo, 2018
    DOI:  10.1111/jfb.13599 

    A recent expedition to headwaters of the Rio Pandeiros, a left‐bank tributary of the Rio São Francisco revealed the presence of a fourth species of Hisonotus from that basin.Hisonotus devidei sp. nov. differs from congeners by the presence of conspicuous dark blotches of distinct shapes irregularly arranged along lateral and dorsal surfaces of the body and scattered throughout all fins, by possessing small plates in lateral portions of the abdomen and adjacent areas between pelvic fins without development of dermal plates and by morphometric ratios. The putative phylogenetic placement of the new species is discussed based on morphological comparisons with species of related Hypoptopomatinae genera and the Hisonotus species diversity within the Rio São Francisco Basin is compared with that of adjacent basins.

    Keywords: cascudinhos, freshwater, Hypoptopomatinae, Neotropics, taxonomy

    Figure 1 Hisonotus devidei sp. nov., MZUSP 123294, holotype, female, 28·9 mm standard length, Córrego Catolé, Rio Pandeiros, Rio São Francisco basin.

    Hisonotus devidei sp. nov

    Etymology: The epithet devidei honours Renato Devidé, a dear friend and collector of the species, for his immeasurable contribution during more than 30 years as an academic technician in the LBP fish collection, assisting and coordinating expeditions that resulted in numerous scientific publications, theses and dissertations in the fields of ecology, cytogenetics, population genetics, taxonomy, systematics and evolution of Neotropical fishes.

    F. F. Roxo, G. S. C. Silva and B. F. Melo. 2018. Hisonotus devidei, A New Species from the São Francisco basin, Brazil (Siluriformes: Loricariidae). Journal of Fish Biology. DOI:  10.1111/jfb.13599

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    Lampris immaculatus (Gilchrist 1905),  Lampris guttatus (Brünnich 1788)
     Lampris australensis n. sp.Lampris lauta (Lowe 1838)   
     Lampris megalopsis n. sp.,  & Lampris incognitus n. sp. 

     Underkoffler, Luers, Hyde & Craig, 2018


    The genus Lampris (Lampridae) currently comprises two species, Lampris guttatus (Brünnich 1788) and Limmaculatus (Gilchrist 1905) commonly known as Opah and Southern Opah, respectively. Hyde et al. (2014) presented DNA sequence data which revealed the presence of five distinct, monophyletic lineages within L. guttatus. In this paper, we present morphological and meristic data supporting the presence of five species previously subsumed within L. guttatus (Brünnich 1788). We restrict Lampris guttatus (Brünnich 1788), resurrect L. lauta (Lowe 1838), and describe three new species of Lampris. A key to the species of Lampris is provided.

    Keywords: Pisces, Opah, moonfish, taxonomy

    FIGURE 4. Species of the genus Lampris.
    A) Lampris immaculatus*, B) Lampris guttatus, uncatalogued, 118 cm TL †,
    C) AM I.24492-001, holotype, Lampris australensis n. sp. 67.3 cm SL, D) MMF 42253, Lampris lauta, 90.5 cm SL,
    E) USNM 402733, holotype, Lampris megalopsis n. sp., 85.3 cm SL, F) USNM 402731, holotype, Lampris incognitus n. sp., 82.8 cm SL.

     (*Photograph by Dianne J. Bray, Lampris immaculatus in Fishes of Australia, accessed 17 Feb 2018, († Photograph courtesy of Patrice Francour).

     Lampris immaculatus (Gilchrist 1905) 
    Common name: Southern Opah  

    Lampris guttatus (Brünnich 1788)
    Common Name: North Atlantic Opah

    Lampris lauta Lowe 1860
    Common name: East Atlantic Opah

    Etymology. The specific epithet lauta was taken from the Latin lautus meaning “elegant”.

    Lampris australensis, n. sp. 
    Lampris guttatus (Brünnich 1788)
    Lampris guttatus Lineage 4. Hyde et al. 2014.
    Common name: Southern Spotted Opah  

    Etymology. The specific epithet is taken from the Latin australis meaning “southern” in reference to the known range of the species in the southern hemisphere.

    Lampris incognitus n. sp. 
    Lampris guttatus (Brünnich 1778)
    Lampris guttatus Lineage 5. Hyde et al. 2014.
    Common name: Smalleye Pacific Opah

    Etymology. From the Latin incognitus, meaning, “unknown, strange.”

    Lampris megalopsis, n. sp. 
    Lampris guttatus (Brünnich 1778)
    Lampris guttatus Lineage 3. Hyde et al. 2014.
    Common Name: Bigeye Pacific Opah

    Etymology. The specific epithet is taken from the Greek mega, meaning, “big or large”, and ops meaning “eye” in reference to its comparatively large eye.

    Karen E. Underkoffler, Meagan A. Luers, John R Hyde and Matthew T. Craig. 2018. A Taxonomic Review of Lampris guttatus (Brünnich 1788) (Lampridiformes; Lampridae) with Descriptions of Three New Species. Zootaxa. 4413(3); 551-565. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4413.3.9