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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region
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    Argyreia gyrobracteata Traiperm & Chitchak

    in Chitchak, Traiperm, Staples, et al., 2018. 
       DOI:  10.1139/cjb-2017-0108 

    ABSTRACT
    Argyreia Lour. is one of the most taxonomically complex genera of the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae). The number of named species is now 135, and new species are regularly being described. There are several species complexes that are morphologically similar and difficult to tell apart. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the species identification criteria for Argyreia, especially new sources for taxonomically informative characters. Ten accessions representing three morphologically similar Argyreia operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were collected and their anatomical characters were investigated using the leaf peeling technique and paraffin sectioning method. Anatomical character states were analyzed using two phenetic analysis methods: clustering analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Three distinct clusters were clearly separated in both PCA and CA at the internal similarity coefficient of 0.48 with a high R-value of 0.89757. Nineteen effectively distinguishable character states were derived from the high loadings of the first two components. In conclusion, two of the separated groups were matched with known species, and the third separated group is here delineated as a new species. Therefore, a new species, Argyreia gyrobracteata Traiperm & Chitchak, is described and illustrated together with ecological data and a preliminary conservation assessment.

    Keywords: cluster analysis, cryptic species, morphometrics, principal component analysis, species delimitation

    Fig. 7. Argyreia gyrobracteata Traiperm & Chitchak sp. nov.:
     (A) flower in front view; (B) flower in side view; (C) interaction with an insect visitor, oriental carpenter bee (Xylocopa nasalis); (D) plant habit
    (all photos taken by P. Rattanakrajang from live plants vouchered as P. Rattanakrajang et al. 104).

    Argyreia gyrobracteata Traiperm & Chitchak, sp. nov. 

    TYPE: Thailand. Ubon Ratchathani, Sirindhorn district, ..., in the edge of dipterocarp forest, August 2016, P. Rattanakrajang, N. Chitchak & P. Traiperm 110 (holotype BKF!; isotypes K!, QBG!)

    DIAGNOSIS: The new species is similar to A. mekongensis in having a white campanulate corolla, but differs from that species by the linear-oblong to narrowly lanceolate bract shape (versus lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate), the curly or twisted bract orientation (versus falcate), the larger sepals, and the multicellular, uniseriate, villous trichomes restricted to a small, dense, triangular patch on the adaxial side of the filaments, above the insertion point of the filaments on the corolla tube (versus dispersed in a band 3–5 mm wide surrounding the free filament, above the insertion point on the corolla tube).
    ....

    DISTRIBUTION: Known so far from discrete populations in two different districts within Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. One population is close to the border of Thailand–Laos and possibly A. gyrobracteata occurs across the border in Laos.

    ETYMOLOGY: The specific epithet refers to the curly/twisted bracts of this species, which have not been observed in any other known species of Argyreia

     Natthaphong Chitchak, Paweena Traiperm, G. Staples, Pantamith Rattanakrajang and Pirada Sumanona. 2018. Species Delimitation of Some Argyreia (Convolvulaceae) Using Phenetic Analyses: Insights from Leaf Anatomical Data Reveal A New Species. Botany. 96(4); 217-233.  DOI:  10.1139/cjb-2017-0108 

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    Odontochilus putaoensis X.H. Jin, L.A. Ye & A.T. Mu

    in Ye, Mu & Jin, 2018.  


    Abstract
    Odontochilus putaoensis, a new species of Orchidaceae, is described and illustrated from Putao Township, Kachin State, Myanmar. Odontochilus putaoensis is close to O. duplex, but can be easily distinguished from the latter by having a light yellow lip, a bisaccate hypochile with a small, erect, blade-like and emarginate callus within each sac, a mesochile with a pair of dentate-pectinate flanges and a bilobed epichile with a pair of widely diverging lobes that are erect and concave. An identification key to the Southeast Asian species of Odontochilus and colour photographs of O. putaoensis are provided. A preliminary conservation assessment according to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria is given for the new species.

    Keywords: Cranichideae, Kachin State, key, new species, southeast Asia, terrestrial orchid

    Figure 1. Odontochilus putaoensis X.H.Jin, L.A.Ye & A.T.Mu.
     A Habit of Odontochilus putaoensis B Front view of flower, showing lip epichile with a pair of erect and concave lobes C Hypochile of Odontochilus putaoensis, indicating small, erect, blade-like, emarginate callus within each sac D Dissected flower, showing pedicel and ovary, column, sepals, petals, lip and a pair of clavate pollinia E Dorsal view of flower, showing dorsal sepal forming a hood with petals. Photographed by X.H. Jin.

    Odontochilus putaoensis X.H. Jin, L.A. Ye & A.T. Mu, sp. nov.

    Diagnosis: Odontochilus putaoensis is similar to O. duplex, but can be easily distinguished from the latter by having a light yellow lip composed of a bisaccate hypochile with a small, erect, blade-like and emarginate callus within each sac, a mesochile with a pair of dentate-pectinate flanges and bilobed epichile with a pair of widely diverging lobes that are erect and concave.

    Type: MYANMAR. Kachin State: Putao Township, Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, subtropical, evergreen, broad-leaved, montane forest, 2000 m a.s.l., 20 October 2014, Xiaohua Jin et al, PT-ET 959 (Holotype, PE!).

    ....

    Etymology: The new species is named after Putao, the northernmost town of Myanmar, near which it was discovered in a vast area of undisturbed mountain forest.

    Distribution and habitat: Odontochilus putaoensis grows in shaded and damp humus in humid, broad-leaved, evergreen forest, at an elevation of about 1500-2000 m. At present, O. putaoensis is only known from the type locality.




    Ye Lwin Aung, Aye Thin Mu and Xiaohua Jin. 2018. Odontochilus putaoensis (Cranichideae, Orchidaceae), A New Species from Myanmar. PhytoKeys. 103: 19-26.   DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.103.25913

      


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    Megophrys lancip 
     Munir, Hamidy, Farajallah & Smith, 2018 


    Abstract
    Megophrys lancip sp. nov., from the Bukit Barisan mountain range of southwestern Sumatra, Indonesia, is described on the basis of molecular and morphological evidence. The new species is distinguished from its congeners in Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and the Philippines by having a medium-sized body, snout with an extremely pointed rostral appendage, a medium-sized triangular eyelid appendage, a dorsolateral fold extending from just behind the eye to the groin, vomerine teeth, vocal slits, nuptial pads on the dorsomedial surface of the first and second fingers in males, and in lacking a Y, X, or H-shaped fold on the dorsum. Morphologically, the new species is most similar to M. montana, but it has a longer rostral appendage, shorter eyelid appendages, and less developed toe webbing. We also evaluate the taxonomic status of M. parallela and comment on the occurrence of M. aceras in Sumatra.

    Keywords: Amphibia, Megophrys lancip, new species, Sundaland


    Misbahul Munir, Amir Hamidy, Achmad Farajallah and Eric N. Smith. 2018.  A New Megophrys Kuhl and Van Hasselt (Amphibia: Megophryidae) from southwestern Sumatra, Indonesia. Zootaxa. 4442(3); 389–412. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4442.3.3


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    in Marki, Fjeldså, Irestedt & Jønsson, 2018.


    Highlights: 
    • A time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of all shrikethrushes (Colluricincla).
    C. megarhyncha consists of seven unrecognized species.
     • A new taxonomy for C. megarhyncha is proposed.
     • C. megarhyncha melanorhyncha belongs in the genus Pachycephala.

    Abstract
    Detailed knowledge of species limits is an essential component of the study of biodiversity. Although accurate species delimitation usually requires detailed knowledge of both genetic and phenotypic variation, such variation may be limited or unavailable for some groups. In this study, we reconstruct a molecular phylogeny for all currently recognized species and subspecies of Australasian shrikethrushes (Colluricincla), including the first sequences of the poorly known C. tenebrosa. Using a novel method for species delimitation, the multi-rate Poisson Tree Process (mPTP), in concordance with the phylogenetic data, we estimate species limits in this genetically diverse, but phenotypically subtly differentiated complex of birds. In line with previous studies, we find that one species, the little shrikethrush (C. megarhyncha) is characterized by deep divergences among populations. Delimitation results suggest that these clades represent distinct species and we consequently propose a new classification. Furthermore, our findings suggest that C. megarhyncha melanorhyncha of Biak Island does not belong in this genus, but is nested within the whistlers (Pachycephala) as sister to P. phaionota. This study represents a useful example of species delimitation when phenotypic variation is limited or poorly defined.

    Keywords: Passerine birds, Corvides, Australia, New Guinea, Cryptic species, Species delimitation


    Fig. 2. A time-calibrated maximum clade credibility tree of Colluricincla shrikethrushes derived from the divergence estimation of the one mitochondrial gene and three nuclear introns in BEAST. Posterior probabilities are shown for major nodes. Error bars show the 95% highest posterior density intervals for the divergence time estimates. Vertical bars indicate the species identified by the mPTP-approach. Species names reflect the new taxonomy proposed in this study. Illustrations are watercolours by Jon Fjeldså and show all eleven delimited species. For species that exhibit significant within-species morphological variation, multiple illustrations are shown.

    Fig. 1. Sampling localities for the 129 sequences included in this study. Colours and taxon names refer to the eleven species delimited in this study. 

    Conclusion: 
    In this study, we present a densely sampled molecular phylogeny for the Australasian shrikethrushes. Our results suggest that species diversity within this complex is underestimated, and we consequently propose a revised classification. Nonetheless, we view our proposed taxonomy as preliminary and hope that this study may stimulate further study of species limits in this group. In particular, we believe that increased study of behaviour, contact zone dynamics and vocalizations coupled with the analysis of genome-wide data are likely to be promising in this respect.


     Petter Z. Marki, Jon Fjeldså, Martin Irestedt and Knud A. Jønsson. 2018. Molecular Phylogenetics and Species Limits in A Cryptically Coloured Radiation of Australo-Papuan Passerine Birds (Pachycephalidae: Colluricincla). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 124; 100-105. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2018.02.029 



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    ສົ້ມກຸ້ງຄັນຄາກ Begonia hinnamnoensis Souvann. & Lanors. &
    ສົ້ມກຸ້ງໃບບົວ Begonia khammouanensis Souvann. & Lamxay,

    in Souvannakhoummane, Lanorsavanh & Lamxay, 2018

    Abstract
    Two new species of Begonia are described and illustrated from Hin Nam No National Protected Area in the Khammouan Province, Central Laos. Begonia hinnamnoensis Souvann. & Lanors. and Begonia khammouanensis Souvann. & Lamxay, both belonging to Begonia sect. Diploclinium (Lindl.) A. DC. The two new species are endemic to the Khammouan limestone karst. The provisional IUCN status of both new species is here assessed as ‘Vulnerable’.

    Keyword: Begonia hinnamnoensis, Begonia khammouanensis, Begoniaceae, Limestone flora, Laos, Taxonomy



    Fig. 1. Begonia hinnamnoensis Souvann. & Lanors.
     A, Habit in nature; B, habit; C, inflorescences (bud); D. staminate flowers; E, pistillate flowers. (A & E photo by K. Souvannakhoummane; B-D photo by S. Lanorsavanh, all from Lamxay et al. HNN 227).
      
    Begonia hinnamnoensis Souvann. & Lanors., sp. nov. 
    ສົ້ມກຸ້ງຄັນຄາກ | Som Koung Khan Khak [Bufo begonia]
    Sect. Diploclinium

    Differs from the allied Begonia gesneriifolia Aver. in having a denser indumentum over all vegetative parts and fruit wings narrowly triangular (B. gesneriifolia has short scurfy hairs, sub-glabrous petioles, glabrous leaf lamina, inflorescenceand flowers, and fruit wings distinctly larger). Also differs from Begonia cladotricha M. Hughes in having a stout rhizome, upper surface of lamina bullate between veins giving a rugose appearance and pistillate flowers smaller fruit wings (B. cladotricha has tuberous rhizome, upper surface of lamina not bullate between veins and pistillate flowers larger fruit wings). 
    − Type: Laos, Khammouan province, Boualapha district, Hin Nam No National Protected Area, ..., 240 m, 9 October 2017, Lamxay et al. HNN 227 (holo HNL, iso FOF, E, SING).  

    Distribution. Endemic to Khammouan province, Boualapha district, Hin Nam No National Protected Area, only know from type locality. 

    Habitat and ecology. Occurring on limestone rock crevices in seasonally dry evergreen forest at 240 m elevation. Flowering September to October; fruiting October to January. 


    Notes. Begonia hinnamnoensis is closely allied with B. cladotricha and B. gesneriifolia, as shown by characters of reniform lamina and pistillate flowers with 5-tepals. The basally-branched hair type of this species is the same as in B. cladotricha (Hughes, 2008b). The specific epithet hinnamnoensis refers to the type locality


    Fig. 3. Begonia khammouanensis Souvann. & Lamxay,
     A, habit in nature; B, habit; C, upper part of inflorescences; D. staminate flowers; E, pistillate flowers. A, C, E photo by K. Souvannakhoummane; B, D photo by S. Lanorsavanh from Lamxay et al. HNN 138.

    Begonia khammouanensis Souvann. & Lamxay, sp. nov. 
    ສົ້ມກຸ້ງໃບບົວ |  Som Koung Bai Boua [Lotus leaf begonia] 
    Sect. Diploclinium

    A distinct species, closest to Begonia crassula Aver. in having succulent leaves, the same number of tepals in male and female flowers and bifid, axile placentae. It differs in being stemless (not succulent caulescent), and in having a symmetric reniform lamina, (not strongly asymmetric and narrowly ovate), and lanceolate and acuminate apex of tepals (not reniform and rounded apex of tepals).
    − Type: Laos, Khammouan province, Boualapha district, Hin Nam No National Protected Area, ..., 259 m,, 10 October 2017, Lamxay et al. HNN 138 (holo HNL, iso FOF, E, SING). 

    Distribution. Endemic to central Laos; Hin Nam No National Protected Area with three additional populations in Boualapha district, Khammouan province. 

    Habitat and ecology. This species occurs on wet steep rocky slopes in limestone mixed deciduous forest and dry evergreen forest at 230-400 m elevation. Flowering September to October; fruiting October to January. 

    Notes. This species is distinct in its glabrous and glossy symmetrical reniform lamina, and petioles and inflorescences with glandular hairs. The specific epithet khammouanensis refers to the type locality. 


    Keooudone Souvannakhoummane, Soulivanh Lanorsavanh and Vichith Lamxay. 2018. Two New Species of Begonia L. (Begoniaceae) from central Laos. Taiwania. 63(3); 188-194.  DOI:  10.6165/tai.2018.63.188

        


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    Paratya compressa (De Haan, 1844 [in De Haan, 1833-1850])

    in Marin, 2018. 

    Abstract
    One of the most northern representatives of the family Atyidae, an amphidromous shrimp Paratya borealis Volk, 1938 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae), is considered as a junior synonym of Paratya compressa (De Haan, 1844 [in De Haan, 1833-1850]) based on morphological and genetic investigations of the specimens collected in rivers flowing into Peter the Great Bay and Posyeta Bay along the Russian coasts of the Sea of Japan. The study greatly increases the area of distribution of P. compressa to north for more than 1000 km and suggests that the species probably inhabit rivers flowing into the Sea of Japan also along North and South Korean coasts.

    Keywords: Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae, shrimp, Paratya borealisParatya compressa, junior synonym, freshwaters, Russian Far East, Russia, northern Asia


      Alive coloration of Paratya compressa (De Haan, 1844)
     from Volchanka river (ZMMU Ma3575) (the Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan):
    (upper, middle) female, (lower) male.

    Ivan Marin. 2018. On the Taxonomic Status of Amphidromous Shrimp Paratya borealis Volk, 1938 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae) from the south of the Russian Far East. Zootaxa.  4444(2); 154–162. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4444.2.4


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    Reassessing Protocarnivory – How Hungry are Triggerplants?

    Nge & Lambers, 2018. 
    DOI: 10.1071/BT18059 

    Abstract
    Stylidium species (triggerplants) are claimed to be protocarnivorous based on the presence of glandular hairs, observations of trapped small organisms, and induction of proteinase activity. However, these traits might serve alternative functions. We aimed to re-assess and quantify the degree of carnivory for Stylidium species in an ecological context, by comparing the natural abundance (δ15N) of Stylidium species with co-occurring carnivorous (Drosera species) and non-carnivorous plants in their natural habitats. We hypothesised that the δ15N signature of Stylidium species would more closely match co-occurring carnivorous plant species than their non-carnivorous counterparts if they rely on captured organisms as a nutrient source, since there is an increase in fractionation by 3–5 ‰ per trophic level. Our results show that the Stylidium species sampled had δ15N signatures that matched more closely with co-occurring non-carnivorous plants than with carnivorous Drosera species. This does not support the claim that they rely on captured organisms as a nitrogen source, or the source is negligible. Other studies have shown that protocarnivorous species have a δ15N signature that is more similar to that of co-occurring carnivorous than that of non-carnivorous species. Therefore, our findings question the protocarnivory status of Stylidium species.

     keywords: carnivorous plants, Drosera, insectivorous plants, protocarnivorous plants, stable nitrogen isotopes, Stylidium, Stylidiaceae.




    Francis J. Nge and Hans Lambers. 2018. Reassessing Protocarnivory – How Hungry are Triggerplants? Australian Journal of Botany.  Online Early. DOI: 10.1071/BT18059



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    Ingentia prima
     Apaldetti, Martínez, Cerda, Pol & Alcober, 2018

    Illustration: Jorge A. Gonzalez   twitter.com/PolDiego

    Abstract 
    Dinosaurs dominated the terrestrial ecosystems for more than 140 Myr during the Mesozoic era, and among them were sauropodomorphs, the largest land animals recorded in the history of life. Early sauropodomorphs were small bipeds, and it was long believed that acquisition of giant body size in this clade (over 10 tonnes) occurred during the Jurassic and was linked to numerous skeletal modifications present in Eusauropoda. Although the origin of gigantism in sauropodomorphs was a pivotal stage in the history of dinosaurs, an incomplete fossil record obscures details of this crucial evolutionary change. Here, we describe a new sauropodomorph from the Late Triassic of Argentina nested within a clade of other non-eusauropods from southwest Pangaea. Members of this clade attained large body size while maintaining a plesiomorphic cyclical growth pattern, displaying many features of the body plan of basal sauropodomorphs and lacking most anatomical traits previously regarded as adaptations to gigantism. This novel strategy highlights a highly accelerated growth rate, an improved avian-style respiratory system, and modifications of the vertebral epaxial musculature and hindlimbs as critical to the evolution of gigantism. This reveals that the first pulse towards gigantism in dinosaurs occurred over 30 Myr before the appearance of the first eusauropods.





    Fig. 1: Skeletal anatomy of Ingentia prima gen. et sp. nov. from the Quebrada del Barro Formation, northwestern Argentina.
    a–k, Holotype (PVSJ 1086). l–s, Referred material (PVSJ 1087). a–d, Mid-posterior cervical vertebrae, C5–C10 articulated series (a), close up of the pneumatic fossa with internal subfossae on the centrodiapophyseal fossa (cdf)26 of C8 (b) and C9 (c), and a complex of subfossae on the prcdf26 of C10 (d). e, Right partial scapula. f–i, Right forelimb: humerus (f), and the radius and ulna in proximal (g) and anterior (h) view, and distal articulation (i). j, Right manus in plantar view. k,l, Metacarpal I in proximal (k) and dorsal (l) view. m,n, Radius and ulnae with respective proximal ulna: right radius-ulna (m) and left radius-ulna (n) in posterior view. o, Left proximal end of fibula. p–r, Right partial pes: distal tarsal III–IV in proximal view (p), metatarsal I and II in dorsal view (q) and isolated phalanges (r). s, Four anterior caudal vertebrae and a distal one (bottom left).

     cen, centrum; dp, diapophysis; dt, distal tubercles of radius-ulna; f-sf, fossa-subfossae complex; ft, fibular tubercle; nc, neural canal; ol, olecranum; pm, posteromedial margin of the ulna; prz, prezygapophysis; rf, radial fossa; rib, rib. Scale bars: 10 cm in a and i–s; 2 cm in b–d; 20 cm in e–h; 120 cm for the skeleton. Red, holotype; yellow, referred specimen; orange, holotype and referred specimen.

    Systematic palaeontology
    Dinosauria Owen, 1842 
    Saurischia Seeley, 1888 
    Sauropodomorpha von Huene, 1932 

    Lessemsauridae clade nov. 

    Etymology. Related to Lessemsaurus sauropoides Bonaparte, 1999. 

    Definition. The clade Lessemsauridae is defined here as L. sauropoides Bonaparte, 1999 and Antetonitrus ingenipes Yates and Kitching, 2003, and all the descendants from their most common ancestor. 

    Ingentia prima gen. et sp. nov. 

    Etymology. Ingentia’, huge (fem., Latin); ‘prima’, first (fem. Latin), referring to the large body size acquired during the early evolution of Dinosauria.

    ....



    Cecilia Apaldetti, Ricardo N. Martínez, Ignacio A. Cerda, Diego Pol and Oscar Alcober. 2018. An Early Trend Towards Gigantism in Triassic Sauropodomorph Dinosaurs. Nature Ecology & Evolution.  DOI: 10.1038/s41559-018-0599-y  
     twitter.com/PolDiego/status/1016383540387352578

    Huge new gentle giant dinosaur the size of a double decker bus discovered  metro.co.uk/2018/07/09/huge-gentle-giant-dinosaur-size-double-decker-bus-discovered-argentina-7695748 via @MetroUK


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    Trimma blematium
    Winterbottom & Erdmann, 2018 


    Abstract
    Two new species of Trimma are described from New Guinea, one at the southeastern end at Normanby Island (Milne Bay Province), the other from Cendrawasih Bay, West Papua, on the north-east coast. The dorsal surface of the eye of both species is blue in life, a characteristic not reported elsewhere in the genus. Although the two species look very similar in life, and both occupy similar mesophotic rubble habitats in the 50-70 m depth range, they are separated both genetically (7.7% pairwise genetic distance in COI) and morphologically. Trimma blematium has 16 pectoral fin rays, a branched 5th pelvic fin ray, and 7 papillae in row p, whereas T. meityae has 17–18 pectoral fin rays, an unbranched 5th pelvic fin ray, and 8 papillae in row p. In live specimens, the blue colour over the top of the eyes is much darker in T. blematium than in T. meityae. The type localities are separated by almost 2,000 km (straight-line distance).

    Keywords: Pisces, taxonomy, Western Pacific, coral reef gobies, COI gene




     Richard Winterbottom and  Mark V. Erdmann. 2018. Two New Species of Blue-eyed Trimma (Pisces; Gobiidae) from New Guinea.  Zootaxa.  4444(4); 471–483. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4444.4.7



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    Brachystelma ananthapuramense K. Prasad, A. Naray. & Meve

    in Prasad, Swamy & Meve, 2018.
    Photos by K. Prasad & A. N. Swamy.  facebook.com/KewBulletin 

    Summary
    A new species of Brachystelma from the Southern Deccan plateau of Gorantla hills, Andhra Pradesh is described and illustrated. This taxon, named Brachystelma ananthapuramense, is morphologically similar to the B. kolarense complex but differs by its small habit, short internodes, large flowers with more than 1.5 cm long corolla lobes, globular cage and densely pubescent corona. A key to the B. kolarense complex, including the proposed new species in India is provided.

    Keywords: Ananthapuramu, Ceropegieae, Gorantla hills, Southern Deccan plateau

    Fig. 1. Brachystelma ananthapuramense
    A habit; B flowering plant; C flower bud; D flowers; E tuber; F & G calyx lobes; H – K details of corona; L pollinia; M gynostegium; N follicles; P seeds.
    Photos: K. Prasad & A. N. Swamy.

    Fig. 2. Brachystelma ananthapuramense.
     A habit; B flower bud; C calyx lobe; D flower; E flower without hairs; F corona top view; G corona side view; H pollinia; J gynostegium.
    Drawn BY K. Prasad.

    Brachystelma ananthapuramense K. Prasad, A. Naray. & Meve, sp. nov. 
    Type: India, Andhra Pradesh, Ananthapuramu distr., Gorantla hills, 800 m, 8 June 2014, A. N. Swamy & K. Prasad 44922 (holotype CAL!; isotype SKU!).



    Recognition: Brachystelma ananthapuramense is closely allied to B. naorojii P. Tetali et al., but differs by having a much smaller habit, 4 – 5 cm (vs 30 – 55 cm in B. naorojii), corolla lobes uniformly linear, 1.5 – 2.5 cm long (vs triangular at base, c. 1 cm long in B. narojii), cage globular (vs cage conical in B. narojii) and staminal corona lobes pubescent and not exceeding the coronal cup (vs staminal corona lobes glabrous and exceeding the coronal cup in B. naorojii). 
    ....

    Etymology: The new species is named after the type locality Ananthapuramu, which is a part of the Southern Deccan plateau of Andhra Pradesh.


    K. Prasad, A. Narayana Swamy and U. Meve. 2018. Brachystelma ananthapuramense (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae), A New Species from Andhra Pradesh, India. Kew Bulletin. 73(1); DOI: 10.1007/s12225-018-9740-y  
     facebook.com/KewBulletin/photos/2126425100924176

      


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    Platichthys solemdali 
    Momigliano, Denys,  Jokinen & Merilä, 2018
    photo: Mats Westerbom 

    The European flounder Platichthysflesus (Linnaeus, 1758) displays two contrasting reproductive behaviors in the Baltic Sea: offshore spawning of pelagic eggs and coastal spawning of demersal eggs, a behavior observed exclusively in the Baltic Sea. Previous studies showed marked differences in behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits of flounders with pelagic and demersal eggs. Furthermore, a recent study demonstrated that flounders with pelagic and demersal eggs represent two reproductively isolated, parapatric species arising from two distinct colonization events from the same ancestral population. Using morphological data we first established that the syntypes on which the original description of P. flesus was based belong to the pelagic-spawning lineage. We then used a combination of morphological and physiological characters as well as genome-wide genetic data to describe flounders with demersal eggs as a new species:Platichthyssolemdali sp. nov. The new species can be clearly distinguished from P. flesus based on egg morphology, egg and sperm physiology as well as via population genetic and phylogenetic analyses. While the two species do show some minor morphological differences in the number of anal and dorsal fin rays, no external morphological feature can be used to unambiguously identify individuals to species. Therefore, we developed a simple molecular diagnostic test able to unambiguously distinguish P. solemdali from P. flesus with a single PCR reaction, a tool that should be useful to fishery scientists and managers, as well as to ecologists studying these species.


    Family Pleuronectidae Rafinesque 1815

    Genus Platichthys Girard 1854

    Platichthys solemdali sp. nov.
      Baltic flounder

    Diagnosis: Platichthys solemdali sp. nov. is diagnosable from P. stellatus by the absence of stripes on the dorsal and anal fin rays [Figures 6A, 2B; vs. presence of stripes for P. stellatus (Morrow, 1980)]. It can be distinguished with more than 99.999% certainty from P. flesus using genotypes of at least three of the outlier loci which were genotyped in this study (Loci 886, 3599, and 1822) by comparison with publically available reference data deposited in the Dryad digital repository (Momigliano et al., 2017a). P. solemdali sp. nov. (N = 50) has 46–59 dorsal fin rays vs. 51–66 for P. flesus recorded in this study, in Voronina (1999) and in Galleguillos and Ward (1982), and 35–41 anal fin rays vs. 35–45 in P. flesus from this study, Voronina (1999) and Galleguillos and Ward (1982). Hence, none of these meristic characters provide unambiguous species diagnosis. However, reproductive traits (viz. egg morphology and buoyancy, as well as sperm physiology) are unambiguous diagnostic characters. Eggs of P. solemdali sp. nov. become neutrally buoyant at salinities between 16 and 21.5 psu and are 0.99 ± 0.05 mm in diameter (Table 6; Figure 7), whereas the eggs of P. flesus in the Baltic Sea are larger (1.3–1.5 mm) and reach neutral buoyancy between 11 and 18 psu (Table 6; Nissling et al., 2002). Spermatozoa of P. solemdali sp. nov. activate at minimum salinities between 2 and 4 psu, in contrast to a required salinity above 10 psu for P. flesus (Table 7).

    Geographic distribution:   P. solemdali sp. nov. is endemic to the Baltic Sea, where it has a wide distribution in coastal and bank areas across the region up to the Gulf of Finland and the southern Bothnian Sea. Confirmed individuals of P. solemdali sp. nov. have been sampled as far south as Öland (SD 27) (species identity confirmed via genetic analyses, Figure 1) and Hanö Bay (SD 25) (based on egg morphology, see Wallin, 2016; Nissling et al., 2017). In a recent paper Orio et al. (2017) suggested that environmental conditions in the entire southern Baltic Sea are suitable for demersal spawning flounders, and already Mielck and Künne (1935) reported ripe female flounders with small eggs from shallow low-saline (6–7‰) areas in the southern Baltic Sea (Oder Bank, SD 24). However, the current occurrence of Psolemdali sp. nov. in the southern regions is poorly known and, hence, it is still unclear whether the species is found throughout the coastal Baltic Sea area.

    Habitat: P. solemdali sp. nov. lives in brackish water of varying salinities in the coastal zone at 0.5–50 m depth on soft and hard bottoms.

    Etymology: This species is dedicated to Per Solemdal (1941–2016) who was the first researcher to study the Baltic Sea flounder's eggs and sperm in connection to salinity and discovered that “the specific gravity of the eggs is a fixed population characteristic which is almost unchangeable” (Solemdal, 1973) laying the foundations on which many subsequent studies on local adaptation and speciation of Baltic Sea marine fishes were built.



    Paolo Momigliano, Gaël P. J. Denys, Henri Jokinen and Juha Merilä. 2018. Platichthys solemdali sp. nov. (Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes): A New Flounder Species From the Baltic Sea.  Frontiers in Marine Science.  DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00225

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     Thismia kinabaluensis

    in Nishioka, Suetsugu, Repin & Kitayama, 2018 

    Abstract
    A new species of Thismia (Thismiaceae), Thismia kinabaluensis, is described from Mt. Kinabalu, Sabah, Borneo. Thismia kinabaluensis is clearly placed in section Thismia subsect. Odoardoa, in having its creeping vermiform roots and free and equal perianth lobes, and it is distinguished from the other members of this subsection by three anther appendages (one filiform appendage between two club shaped ones) and a pale-blue perianth tube with transverse bars inside. A key to the Malaysian Thismia is provided for easy identification of these mycoheterotrophic plants.

    Keywords: Burmanniaceae, mycoheterotrophy, taxonomy, tropical rain forest, Monocots





    Tatsuki Nishioka, Kenji Suetsugu, Rimi Repin and Kanehiro Kitayama. 2018.  Thismia kinabaluensis (Thismiaceae), A New Species from Mt. Kinabalu, Sabah, Borneo. Phytotaxa. 360(2); 174–178.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.360.2.10


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    Callilanguria weiweii Huang & Yang

    in Huang, Han & Yang, 2018.

    Abstract
    A worldwide review of the genus Callilanguria is presented. Three new species are described: Callilanguria weiweii Huang & Yang, sp. nov. from Sabah, Malaysia; C. helleri Huang & Yang, sp. nov. from Panay, the Philippines; and C. nigripes Huang & Yang, sp. nov. from Samar Island, the Philippines. Callilanguria scrupulosa Heller, 1918 is transferred to the genus Doubledaya. The other species are C. eximia Fowler, 1885; C. gorhami Villiers, 1945; C. asymmetrica Heller, 1900; C. ruficeps Achard, 1923; C. milloti Villiers, 1945; C. stenosoma (Harold, 1879); C. flaviventris Fowler, 1886; C. wallacii Crotch, 1876; and C. luzonica Crotch, 1876. In total, twelve species are recognized in the genus Callilanguria, and a key to the described species of the genus is provided.

    Keywords: Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, new species, new combination, Doubledaya, Oriental region




    Zheng-Zhong Huang, Xin-Yu Han and Xing-Ke Yang. 2018. A Taxonomic Review of the Genus Callilanguria Crotch, 1876 (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae). Zootaxa. 4446(1); 97–110. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4446.1.7


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    Hippeastrum lunaris Campos-Rocha & Meerow

    in Campos-Rocha, Meerow & Dutilh, 2018. 
    Abstract
    Monographic work on the genus Hippeastrum in Brazil has revealed two new species endemic to the Cerrado biome, here described and illustrated. Hippeastrum lunaris is a species restricted to the region of Chapada dos Veadeiros; H. mauroi is so far found only in Chapada dos Guimarães. Detailed descriptions, illustrations and taxonomic comments on the conservation status of these species are provided, in addition to comparisons with morphologically similar species. An identification key to the species of Hippeastrum occurring in the Brazilian Cerrado is presented, accompanied by photographs of these species in their natural habitats.

    Keywords: Endemism, Hippeastreae, taxonomy, threatened species, Monocots




    Hippeastrum lunaris Campos-Rocha & Meerow sp. nov. 
     Hippeastrum lunaris is similar to H. morelianum Lemaire (1845: 37) and can be separated readily by underground bulb (vs. exposed) and the paraperigone of free and loose fibrae (vs. fimbrae partially connate). It appears related to H. leucobasis (Ravenna 1978: 90) Dutilh in Meerow et al. (1997: 18) but differs by the staminal filaments shorter than the perigone and its trifid stigma (vs. filaments exceeding the perigone and a capitate stigma in H. leucobasis). 

    Type:— BRAZIL. Goiás: Colinas do Sul, campo sujo com mata inundável adjacente, área a ser inundada, 18 December 1996, L.B. Bianchetti 1502 (holotype CEN [photo!]; isotype UB!; UEC!).


    Etymology:— The specific epithet refers to the Vale da Lua, to where the species is confined. The area is so named because of its rock formations along the banks of the ribeirão São Miguel, considered similar to lunar craters

    FIGURE 2. Hippeastrum lunaris.
     A, B. Flowering plants in habitat. C. Details of leaves and inflorescence. D. Detail of flower.
    Photos A: J. Costa. B–D: H. Moreira.

        


    FIGURE 5. Hippeastrum mauroi.
     A. Plants flowering ex situ. B. Flower, lateral view. C. Flower, frontal view. A: A. Campos-Rocha & G. Bellozi 1215.
    Photos A: A. Campos-Rocha. B, C: M. Peixoto.

    Hippeastrum mauroi Campos-Rocha & Dutilh, sp. nov. 

    Hippeastrum mauroi is similar to H. puniceum and H. reginae (Linnaeus 1759: 977) Herbert (1821: 31) but can be distinguished from both by its uniflorous inflorescence (vs. 2–4, except rarely one in H. puniceum), different color pattern at the base of the tepals, the paraperigone devoid of fimbrae (vs. fimbrae present), and the style up to 1/2 of the perigone length (vs. 2/3 or more).

     Type:— BRAZIL. Mato Grosso: Chapada dos Guimarães, área de Cerrado ralo próxima ao Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Guimarães; florescimento em cultivo no Jardim Botânico Plantarum, 21 August 2013, A. Campos-Rocha & G. Bellozi 1215 (holotype UEC!).

    Etymology:— The specific epithet is in honor of our friend Mauro Peixoto, who collected and introduced us to this and so many other plants new to science. Mauro has a unique knowledge about Brazilian native plants, a result of decades of study and observation in the field, having collaborated actively with various scientists over the years.


     Antonio Campos-Rocha, Alan William Meerow and Julie Henriette Antoinette Dutilh. 2018. Two New Critically Endangered Species of Hippeastrum (Amaryllidaceae) from the Brazilian Cerrado. Phytotaxa. 360(2); 91–102.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.360.2.1



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    Vermicella parscauda
    Derez, Arbuckle, Ruan, Xie, Huang, et al., 2018

    Abstract
    Bandy-bandies (genus Vermicella) are small (50–100cm) black and white burrowing elapids with a highly specialised diet of blindsnakes (Typhlopidae). There are currently 5 recognized species in the genus, all located in Australia, with Vermicella annulata the most encountered species with the largest distribution. Morphological and mitochondrial analyses of specimens collected from the Weipa area, Cape York, Queensland reveal the existence of a new species, which we describe as Vermicella parscauda sp. nov. Mitochondrial DNA analysis (16S and ND4) and external morphological characteristics indicate that the closest relatives of the new species are not V. annulata, which also occurs on Cape York, but rather species from Western Australia and the Northern Territory (V. intermedia and V. multifasciata) which, like V. parscauda, occupy monsoon habitats. Internasal scales are present in V. parscauda sp. nov., similar to V. annulata, but V. intermedia and V. multifasciata do not have nasal scales. V. parscauda sp. nov. has 55–94 black dorsal bands and mottled or black ventral scales terminating approximately 2/3rds of the body into formed black rings, suggesting that hyper-banding is a characteristic of the tropical monsoon snakes (V. intermedia, V.multifasciata and V. parscauda). The confined locality, potential habitat disruption due to mining activities, and scarcity of specimens indicates an urgent conservation concern for this species.

    Keywords: Reptilia, Australian Monsoonal Tropics, mtDNA, taxonomy, Vermicella parscauda sp. nov.




    Chantelle M. Derez, Kevin Arbuckle, Zhiqiang Ruan, Bing Xie, Yu Huang, Lauren Dibben, Qiong Shi, Freek J. Vonk and Bryan G. Fry. 2018. A New Species of Bandy-bandy (Vermicella: Serpentes: Elapidae) from the Weipa Region, Cape York, Australia. Zootaxa. 4446(1); 1–12. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4446.1.1 

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     Selvasaura brava
    Moravec, Šmíd, Štundl & Lehr, 2018


    Abstract
    Cercosaurine lizards (subfamily Cercosaurinae of the family Gymnophthalmidae) represent a substantial component of the reptile fauna in the Neotropics. Several attempts have been made to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships within this group, but most studies focused on particular genera or regions and did not cover the subfamily as a whole. In this study, material from the montane forests of Peru was newly sequenced. In combination with all cercosaurine sequences available on GenBank, an updated phylogeny of Cercosaurinae is provided. Monophyly was not supported for three of the currently recognised genera (Echinosaura, Oreosaurus, and Proctoporus). The genus Proctoporus is formed by five monophyletic groups, which should be used in future taxonomic revisions as feasible entities. Recognition of two previously identified undescribed clades (Unnamed clades 2 and 3) was supported and yet another undescribed clade (termed here Unnamed clade 4), which deserves recognition as an independent genus, was identified herein. Selvasaura brava, a new genus and new species of arboreal gymnophthalmid lizard is described from the montane forests of the Pui Pui Protected Forest, Provincia de Chanchamayo, Región Junín, Peru. The new species is characterised by its small size (SVL 42.1–45.9 mm), slender body, smooth head shields, presence of paired prefrontal shields, fused anteriormost supraocular and anteriormost superciliary shields, transparent not divided lower palpebral disc, slightly rugose subimbricate rectangular dorsal scales in adults (slightly keeled in juveniles), distinctly smaller but non-granular lateral scales, smooth squared to rectangular ventral scales, and hemipenial lobes large, distinct from the hemipenial body. Phylogenetic affinities of the new genus to the other cercosaurine genera, as well as basal phylogenetic relationships between the other cercosaurine genera remain unresolved.

    Keywords: Andes, arboreality, phylogeny, reptile diversity, Selvasaura gen. n., Selvasaura brava sp. n., taxonomy

    Taxonomy
    Family Gymnophthalmidae Fitzinger, 1826
    Subfamily Cercosaurinae Gray, 1838

    Genus Selvasaura gen. n.
    Unnamed clade 3 (in Torres-Carvajal et al. 2016)

    Type species: Selvasaura brava sp. n.

    Diagnosis: Phenotypic synapomorphies are not known for this genus. Morphologically, Selvasaura gen. n. can be distinguished from all other genera of Cercosaurinae by the combination of the following characters: lower palpebral disc transparent, not divided (divided in Andinosaura, Euspondylus, Gelanesaurus, Oreosaurus, Petracola, Riama, and most Anadia and Placosoma species; opaque in Pholidobolus); dorsal scales slightly rugose (smooth in Anadia; keeled in Cercosaura; strongly keeled and tuberculate in Echinosaura, Gelanesaurus, Neusticurus, Potamites; minute tubercles on posterior dorsal scales in Placosoma); lateral scales distinctly smaller than dorsal scales (lateral scales not distinctly reduced in size in Macropholidus); lateral scales adjacent to ventrals non-granular (granular in Proctoporus) (see e.g., Oftedal 1974; Cadle and Chuna 1995; Altamirano-Benavides et al. 2013; Kok et al. 2013; Torres-Carvajal and Mafla-Endara 2013; Echevarría et al. 2015; Borges-Nojosa et al. 2016; Chávez et al. 2017; Sánchez-Pacheco et al. 2017b). Genetically, the genus is differentiated from the other cercosaurines by distances given in Table 3 and 4.

    Definition: (1) head shields smooth; (2) frontoparietal and parietal shields paired; (3) frontonasal, frontal and interparietal shields single; (4) prefrontal shields present; (5) lower palpebral disc transparent, not divided; (6) loreal shield present; (7) scale organs on labials present; (8) anteriormost supraocular and anteriormost superciliary shields fused; (9) dorsal surface of the tongue covered by scale-like papillae; (10) nuchal scales smooth; (11) dorsal scales rectangular, slightly rugose; (12) ventral scales squared to rectangular, smooth; (13) limbs pentadactyl, digits clawed; (14) femoral pores present in males, absent in females; (15) hemipenial lobes large, distinct from the hemipenial body.

    Content: Selvasaura brava sp. n. and undescribed species of Unnamed clade 3 (sensu Torres-Carvajal et al. 2016) whose formal descriptions are underway (see Torres-Carvajal et al. 2016).

    Distribution: Peru: Región Junín, Provincia de Chanchamayo, Pui Pui Protected Forest (Selvasaura brava sp. n.); Región San Martin, Provincia Mariscal Cáceres, Laurel (Cercosaurinae sp. 3; Torres-Carvajal et al. 2016). Ecuador: Provincia de Zamora Chinchipe, El Pangui (Cercosaurinae sp. 3; Torres-Carvajal et al. 2016); Provincia de Napo, Wildsumaco Wildlife Sanctuary (Cercosaurinae sp. 3; Torres-Carvajal et al. 2016).

    Etymology: The generic name Selvasaura is derived from the Spanish noun ‘selva’ (forest) and the Greek noun σαύρα (lizard; saura is the feminine form) and refers to the habitat (montane rainforest) of the type species.


    Figure 6. Holotype of Selvasaura brava sp. n. (MUSM 32738) in life. Photographs by E. Lehr. 

    Figure 7. Paratypes of Selvasaura brava sp. n. 
    Dorsal (A) and ventral (B) view of adult male (NMP6V 75653) with a detail of an everted hemipenis (C)
    D adult female (MUSM 32718) E – juvenile (NMP6V 75655). Note the generally uniform colouration of the female compared to the male and juvenile specimens. Photographs by J. Moravec.

    Selvasaura brava sp. n.
     Suggested English name: Brave forest microtegu 
    Suggested Spanish name: Microtegu selva brava

    Diagnosis: A small gymnophthalmid (SVL 42.1–45.9 mm, n = 4), which can be characterised by the following combination of characters: 1) body slender, slightly depressed, maximum SVL 45.9 mm in males, 42.1 mm in a single female; 2) head relatively short, pointed, about 1.5 times longer than wide; 3) ear opening distinct, moderately recessed; 4) nasals separated by undivided frontonasal; 5) prefrontals, frontal, frontoparietals, parietals, postparietals and interparietal present; 6) parietals slightly longer than wide; 7) supraoculars four, anteriormost fused with anteriormost superciliar; 8) superciliar series complete, consisting of four scales; 9) nasal shield divided above and below or behind the nostril; 10) loreal separated or in contact with second supralabial; 11) supralabials seven; 12) genials in four pairs, first and second pair in contact; 13) collar present, containing 9–11 enlarged scales; 14) dorsals in 33–36 transverse rows, rectangular, nearly twice as long as wide, subimbricate, rugose in adults, slightly keeled in juveniles; 15) ventrals in 22–25 transverse rows, squared to rectangular, smooth, juxtaposed; 16) scales around mid-body 32–34; 17) lateral scales at mid-body reduced in 4–7 lines; 18) limbs pentadactyl, all digits clawed, forelimb reaching anteriorly to third supralabial; 19) subdigital lamellae under Finger IV 14–16, under Toe IV 18–22; 20) femoral pores in males 7–9; 21) four large preanal plate scales; 22) tail about 1.5–1.7 times longer than body (in juveniles); 23) caudals subimbricate, rugose to slightly keeled dorsally in adults, slightly keeled in juveniles, smooth ventrally; 24) lower palpebral disc transparent, undivided; 25) in life, dorsal surface of head, body and limbs light brown with fine dark brown speckling, dorsal surface of tail light brown with a reddish tint or reddish-brown markings; a tan or yellowish brown vertebral stripe bordered laterally by dark brown, vertebral stripe extends on head anteriorly and on tail caudally (inconspicuous in the female); a narrow dirty white to tan dorsolateral line extending on each side from above the tympanum to pelvic region (discontinuous caudally from the level of forelimbs in adults, reaching posterior edge of orbit in some individuals); a narrow dirty white to tan stripe running from above the orbit across parietals and first postparietals up to the neck (connected with the dorsolateral line in some individuals); a narrow white stripe extending from below of orbit to insertion of forelimbs (bordered dorsally by black in juveniles and some adults); minute ocelli-like white spots on flanks (most conspicuous at forearm insertion, absent in some adults); ventrolateral parts of flanks whitish brown; throat and belly creamy white with fine dark grey speckling inside the individual scales (yellowish white with black speckling in juveniles); ventral surfaces of limbs, anal area and tail yellowish white in males and juveniles, white in the female; iris tan with orange tint in males, tan in the female.

    Etymology: The species epithet brava is derived from the Spanish adjective bravo (brave, courageous, wild; brava the feminine form) and refers to Río Bravo, the largest river in the area of occurrence of the new species, as well as to the fearless nature of the lizard to share shelter with people.

    Distribution, natural history, and threat status: Selvasaura brava sp. n. is known from two localities lying at the northeastern border of the Pui Pui Protected Forest, ca. 18 km (straight airline distance) NW of the town of Satipo (Fig. 1). Both localities are located in the valley of the tributary of Río Bravo (on opposite banks of the tributary) about 500 m (straight distance) from each other. The valley and its slopes are covered by a primary montane rainforest characterized by 15–20 m high canopy and frequent occurrence of bromeliads, ferns, and epiphytic mosses (see also Lehr and Moravec (2017). All specimens of S. brava sp. n. were collected during the day within roofs of provisional camp shacks consisting of dried palm leaves and built by locals on small forest clearings (Fig. 8; MorphoBank picture: M485681). The roofs of the shacks were placed on 1.5–4 m pillars made of tree trunks and stood in an open space fully exposed to sun. The activity of all observed specimens seemed correlated with the intensity of solar radiation. During the sunny hours, the animals emerged from their shelters in the leaf layer, climbed and basked on the roof surface and searched for prey. As agile climbers, the lizards were able to climb up thin vertical tree trunks and jump between the palm leaves. These observations indicate that S. brava sp. n. represents an arboreal heliothermic species. Other gymnophthalmid species found at the type locality in sympatry with S. brava sp. n. included Potamites sp. (not included in the genetic analyses), which inhabited banks of small forest brooks, and Proctoporus sp. 4 (sensu this publication, Fig. 3) collected on the ground in the open clearing. With respect to the sparse data available, we suggest classifying S. brava as “Data Deficient” according to the IUCN red list criteria.

    Figure 8. Type locality of Selvasaura brava sp. n. The lizards were active during the day basking and foraging in the leaves of the roof and on the shack pillars. They used the leaves on the roof as a refuge to hide in. Photograph by J. Moravec.

       


    Jiří Moravec, Jiří Šmíd, Jan Štundl and Edgar Lehr. 2018. Systematics of Neotropical Microteiid Lizards (Gymnophthalmidae, Cercosaurinae), with the Description of A New Genus and Species from the Andean Montane Forests. ZooKeys. 774: 105-139.  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.774.25332


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    Agave maria-patriciae Cházaro & Arzaba

    in Arzaba-Villalba, Cházaro-Basáñez & Viveros-Colorado, 2018

    Abstract
    Agave maria-patriciae Cházaro & Arzaba is described and illustrated here as a new species from the central coast of the state of Veracruz in Mexico. It belongs to the subgenus Littaea and Polycephalae group, which contains tropical and subtropical species from the American continent. Agave maria-patriciae is closely related to A. pendula, but differs from the latter by having smaller rosettes, shorter and suberect stems and smaller and subsessile flowers. It is only known from a small population in the oak forest from the mountains of Sierra de Monte de Oro in the municipality of Alto Lucero in eastern Mexico.

    Keywords: Agave, endemic, new species, Polycephalae, Veracruz, Monocots

    FIGURE 3. Agave maria-patriciae:
     A. habit, B. Flower, C. unripe fruits, D. detail of the rosette, E. leaf with central stripe.

    FIGURE 2. Agave maria-patriciae.
    A. Flower, B. Tepals, C. Sagittal view of flower, D. Capsules and bracteole, E. Transversal section of the capsule, F. seed, G. Leaf, H. Denticles at margin, I, J. Habit. Illustration by first author from C. Arzaba et al. 451, XAL—holotype. The numbers beside barscales denote centimeters.

    Agave maria-patriciae Cházaro & Arzaba sp. nov. 

     Agave maria-patriciae is most similar to A. pendula by sharing lanceolate to oblong leaves with a central yellow stripe, but it differs in its shorter leaves, stems and floral scape; presence of continuous reddish margins along the leaves, thicker terminal spine and larger denticles, its smaller and succulent flowers with reflexed and not broadly cucullate tepals and subsessile capsules. 

    Type:— MEXICO. Veracruz: municipality of Alto Lucero, summit of Cerro La Bandera, NE of La Yerbabuena village, 660 m, 07 January 2016 (fl. & fr.), C. Arzaba 451 et al. (holotype XAL!; isotypes CHAPA!, MEXU!).
    ....

    Etymology:— The species name is dedicated to Mrs. María Patricia Hernández, wife of the second author, who in the 1980s and early 1990s was a great companion in numerous field trips even to remote areas. As a result, several hundreds of botanical specimens are labeled as “M. Cházaro & P. Hernández”, deposited in the main herbaria of Mexico and the USA. She also mounted hundreds of exsiccata at the WIS and IBUG herbaria, as well as coauthored several papers on succulent plants of Mexico.


    Carlos Arzaba-Villalba, Miguel Cházaro-Basáñez and César Viveros-Colorado. 2018. Agave maria-patriciae (Polycephalae Group: Asparagaceae), A New Species from Central Coastal Veracruz, Mexico. Phytotaxa. 360(3); 263–268.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.360.3.6


    Resumen: Agave maria-patriciae Cházaro & Arzaba es descrita e ilustrada como una nueva especie de la costa central del estado de Veracruz en México. Pertenece al subgénero Littaea y al grupo Polycephalae, el cual contiene especies tropicales y subtropicales del continente americano. A. maria-patriciae está estrechamente relacionado con A. pendula pero difiere de ésta última al poseer rosetas más pequeñas, tallos más cortos y suberectos y flores de menor tamaño y subsésiles. Solo se conoce de una pequeña población en bosque de encino en la Sierra de Monte de Oro, en el municipio de Alto Lucero, en el oriente de México. 
    Palabras-clave: Agave, endémica, nueva especie, Polycephalae, Veracruz


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    FIGURES 97–105.  Habitus photographs of Lamprima Latreille, 1804, type material in Australian collections: 
    97, L. krefftii W.J. MacLeay, 1871, holotype; 98, L. latreillii W.S. MacLeay, 1819, lectotype; 99, L. latreillii W.S. Macleay, paralectotype; 
    100, L. latreillii sericea W.J. Macleay, 1885, lectotype; 101, L. latreilliisericea W.J. Macleay, paralectotype; 102, L. mandibularis W.J. Macleay, 1885, lectotype. 
     103, L. mandibularis W.J. Macleay, 1885, paralectotype; 104, L. minima W.J. Macleay, 1885, holotype; 105, L. nigripennis W.J. Macleay, 1885, holotype. 
    Figures 98–105 courtesy of Cate Lemann, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, 2017. All images to same scale. 


    FIGURES 45–53. Male Lamprima species, mandibles, lateral view:
    45, L. adolphinae (Gestro, 1875), elongate mandible form; 46, L. adolphinae, short mandible form; 47, L. aenea (Fabricius, 1792); 48, L. aurata Latreille, 1804, elongate mandible form, northern Queensland; 49, L. aurata, New South Wales, large male; 50, L. aurata, New South Wales, small male; 51, L. aurata, Western Australia; 52, L. imberbis Carter, 1926, holotype; 53, L. insularis W.J. Macleay, 1885. 
    Figure 52 courtesy Peter Hudson, South Australian Museum.

    in Reid, Smith & Beatson, 2018. 

    Abstract
    The genus Lamprima Latreille, 1804 (Coleoptera: Lucanidae: Lampriminae: Lamprimini), is revised. Five species are recognised: one in New Guinea (L. adolphinae (Gestro, 1875)), two on isolated western Pacific islands (L. aenea Fabricius, 1792: Norfolk Island; L. insularis W.J. Macleay, 1885: Lord Howe Island), one in northeastern New South Wales (L. imberbis Carter, 1926) and a common widespread species in eastern and southern Australia, L. aurata Latreille, 1817. Lamprima aurata varies considerably morphologically and many of the different forms encompassed by this variation have been described as species. Our study of morphology does not support this classification. Therefore, Lamprima aurata is designated a senior synonym of the following 24 names: L. cuprea Latreille, 1817; L. latreillii W.S. MacLeay, 1819 (new synonym); L. pygmaea W.S. MacLeay, 1819 (new synonym); L. fulgida Boisduval, 1835; L. micardi Reiche, 1841 (new synonym); L. rutilans Erichson, 1842; L. splendens Erichson, 1842; L. viridis Erichson, 1842; L. nigricollis Hope in Westwood, 1845 (new synonym); L. purpurascens Hope in Westwood, 1845 (new synonym); L. sumptuosa Hope in Westwood, 1845 (new synonym); L. tasmaniae Hope in Westwood, 1845 (new synonym); L. varians Burmeister, 1847 (new synonym); L. cultridens Burmeister, 1847 (new synonym); L. amplicollis Thomson, 1862 (new synonym); L. krefftii W.J. MacLeay, 1871 (new synonym); L. violacea W.J. Macleay, 1885 (new synonym); L. mandibularis W.J. Macleay, 1885 (new synonym); L. sericea W..J Macleay, 1885 (new synonym); L.nigripennis W.J. Macleay, 1885 (new synonym); L. minima W.J. Macleay, 1885 (new synonym); L. mariae Lea, 1910; L. coerulea Boileau, 1913 (new synonym); L. insularis Boileau, 1913 (new synonym). Lamprima adolphinae is a senior synonym of L. bohni (Darge & Séguy, 1953) (new synonym). Lamprima schreibersi Hope in Westwood, 1845, is an unnecessary nomen novum for L. aenea redescribed by Schreibers in 1802 from the same material as Fabricius, and therefore an objective synonym of L. aenea. Lamprima puncticollis Dejean, 1833, L. coerulea Hope in Westwood, 1845, and L. insularis Hope in Westwood, 1845, are nomina nuda, the last two names first made available by Boileau in 1913. The five Lamprima species are redescribed and recommendations made for their conservation. Type specimens of the species of Lamprima described by William Sharpe MacLeay and William John Macleay are illustrated for the first time. Lectotypes are designated for Lamprima insularis, L. latreillii, L. latreillii sericea, and L. mandibularis.

    Keywords: Coleoptera, stag beetle, synonymy, morphology, nomenclature, polymorphism, insect trade, island endemism, distribution


    Chris A.M. Reid, Kindi Smith and Max Beatson. 2018. Revision of the Genus Lamprima Latreille, 1804 (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). Zootaxa. 4446(2); 151–202. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4446.2.1

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    Vaccinium cebuense  

    in Salares, Obico, Ormerod, et al., 2018. 

    Abstract
    Vaccinium cebuense (Ericaceae) from Nug-as forest (Alcoy) and the Central Cebu Protected Landscape (Balamban), two of the last remaining forested areas of Cebu Island, Philippines, is here described as a new species. This species is unique among the known species of this genus in displaying a unique combination of characters: leaves with marginal glands that are spaced along the entire length of the leaf, anthers with distinct and recurved dorsal spurs, and petioles that are adaxially grooved. Our fieldwork in Nug-as also resulted in the discovery of Phaius reflexipetalus (Orchidaceae), a new record for the Philippines previously only known from Borneo. These and other recent taxonomic novelties emphasize the conservation importance of the few and small remaining forests of Cebu.

    Keywords: Epidendroideae, Phaius sect. Pesomeria, Taxonomy, Vaccinium sect. Bracteata, Visayas, Monocots



    Val B. Salares, Jasper John A. Obico, Paul Ormerod, Julie F. Barcelona and Pieter B. Pelser. 2018. Taxonomic Novelties from Cebu: A New Species of Vaccinium (Ericaceae) and A New Record of Phaius (Orchidaceae) for the Philippines. Phytotaxa. 360(3); 255–262.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.360.3.5


    A new species of #Philippines #Vaccinium from #Cebu and a new country record of #Phaius: recent taxonomic novelties emphasize #conservation importance of the few remaining forest fragments of Cebu.  ||  @UCNZscience @UCNZbiology #CDFP #Ericaceae #Orchidaceae  biotaxa.org/Phytotaxa/article/view/phytotaxa.360.3.5 …



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    Orobanche javakhetica Piwow., Ó. Sánchez & Moreno Mor.

    in Piwowarczyk,Pedraja,Moral,et al., 2018. 

    Abstract
    Orobanche javakhetica (Orobanchaceae) is described as a new, probably endemic, species from the Lesser Caucasus in Armenia. It grows on a subalpine meadow, where it parasitises Lomelosia caucasica (Dipsacaceae). The newly-described species is very characteristic and different from other known Orobanche, however some morphological similarity may exist with species from the Orobanche subsect. Curvatae, particularly with species of the Orobanche series Krylowianae. A detailed description, illustrations, a comparison with the most similar species with identification key, and phylogenetic analysis are provided.

    Keywords: Lomelosia caucasica, Javakheti range, Lesser Caucasus, holoparasites, taxonomy, Orobanche, plant parasites, Eudicots


    FIGURE 2. Inflorescences and general habit of Orobanche javakhetica.

     Photos by Renata Piwowarczyk.

    Orobanche javakhetica Piwow., Ó. Sánchez & Moreno Mor., sp. nov.  

    Etymology:― The epithet ‘javakhetica’ derives from the name of the Javakheti mountain range (Dzhavakheti range), where the new species was discovered.


    Renata Piwowarczyk,Óscar Sánchez Pedraja,Gonzalo Moreno Moral ,Magdalena Denysenko-Bennett andGrzegorz Góralski and Dagmara Kwolek. 2018. Orobanche javakhetica (Orobanchaceae): A New Species from the Caucasus (Armenia). Phytotaxa. 360(2); 135–144. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.360.2.5
    Orobanche javakhetica Piwow., Ó. Sánchez & Moreno Mor. - nowy gatunek dla nauki z Armenii. Dzisiaj się ukazała publikacja w Phytotaxa,  mapress.com/j/pt/article/view/phytotaxa.360.2.5
    Rośnie na około 2230 m n.p.m. i pasożytuje na Lomelosia caucasica (Dipsacaceae). Nazwę nadałam od pasma górskiego Javakheti, gdzie został znaleziony.

    Renata Piwowarczyk


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    Brachycephalus investigated in the present study. 
     
    Brachycephalus brunneusB. izecksohni; B. fuscolineatus B. auroguttatus


    in Pie, Faircloth, Ribeiro, et al., 2018.

    Abstract
    Despite encompassing a relatively small geographical area, montane regions harbour disproportionately high levels of species diversity and endemism. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about the evolutionary mechanisms that ultimately lead to montane diversity. In this study, we used target capture of ultraconserved elements to investigate the phylogenetic relationships and diversification patterns of Melanophryniscus (Bufonidae) and Brachycephalus (Brachycephalidae), two frog genera that occur in sky islands of the southern Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Specifically, we tested whether diversification of montane species in these genera could be explained by a single climatic shift leading to isolation in sky islands, followed by climatic stability that maintained populations in allopatry. In both genera, the topologies inferred using concatenation and coalescent-based methods were concordant and had strong nodal support, except for a few recent splits, which nevertheless tended to be supported by more informative loci. Estimation of divergence time of a combined dataset using both genera is consistent with a concordant timing of their diversification. These results support the scenario of diversification by isolation in sky islands and suggest that allopatry attributable to climatic gradients in montane regions is an important mechanism for generating species diversity and endemism in these regions.

    Brachycephalus, coalescent, Melanophryniscus, target enrichment, ultraconserved elements

    Figure 1. Examples of the species of Brachycephalus investigated in the present study.
    E, Brachycephalus brunneus. F, Brachycephalus izecksohni. G, Brachycephalusfuscolineatus. H, Brachycephalus auroguttatus.
    Photographs by L.F. Ribeiro.


    Marcio R. Pie, Brant C. Faircloth, Luiz F. Ribeiro, Marcos R. Bornschein and John E Mccormack. 2018. Phylogenomics of Montane Frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest is Consistent with Isolation in Sky Islands Followed by Climatic Stability. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. bly093.   DOI: 10.1093/biolinnean/bly093   

    Marcio R. Pie, Brant C Faircloth, Luiz Fernando Ribeiro, Marcos R. Bornschein and John McCormack. 2018. Phylogenomics of montane frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest supports a scenario of isolation in sky islands followed by relative climatic stability. bioRxiv. 226159.  DOI: 10.1101/226159



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    Ptilotus yapukaratja R.W.Davis & T.Hammer

    in Davis & Hammer, 2018.  

    Ptilotus yapukaratja. plant in situ, showing habit and habitat.  
    Image by K. Millet from K. Millet 346. 

    Ptilotus yapukaratja R.W.Davis & T.Hammer, sp. nov. 

    Diagnostic features: Ptilotus yapukaratja can be distinguished from all other Ptilotus R.Br. species by the following combination of characters: a rigid habit, glabrous incurved leaves, bracts longer than bracteoles, two fertile stamens, an excentrically placed style on the ovary, and a hairy ovary.
    ....


    Ptilotus yapukaratja. a close-up showing an inflorescence with an open flower.
    Image by K. Millet from K. Millet 346.

    Distribution and habitat: Currently only known from north of Lorna Glen Station, where it is found at the base of breakaways on shallow rocky slopes in open scrub on brown clayey-sandy soils. 

    Conservation status: To be listed as Priority One under Conservation Codes for Western Australian Flora (M. Smith perscomm.). Ptilotus yapukaratja is only known from the one remote location north of Lorna Glen Station. 

    Etymology. The epithet derives from the Matuwa words yapu (rock) and karatja (belonging to), referring to the rocky habitat where the species occurs.


    Robert W. Davis and Timothy A. Hammer. 2018. Ptilotus yapukaratja (Amaranthaceae), A New Species from the Gascoyne Bioregion of Western Australia. Nuytsia: The Journal of the Western Australian Herbarium. 29; 157–160. 

        


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    Spectrolebias gracilis  Costa & Amorim, 2018 


    Abstract
    The miniature seasonal killifish Spectrolebias costae, first described for the middle Araguaia River basin, has been also recorded from two areas in the middle Tocantins River basin, from where male specimens exhibit some differences in their colour pattern. Analyses directed to species delineation (GMYC and bPTP), using a fragment of the mitochondrial gene COI, strongly support two species, S. costae from the Araguaia River basin and a new species from the Tocantins River basin. Spectrolebias gracilis sp. n. is described on the basis of specimens collected from two localities separated by about 530 km, Canabrava River floodplains near Alvorada do Tocantins and Tocantins River floodplains near Palmeirante. Field inventories were unsuccessful in finding additional populations in the region, which is attributed to the high environmental degradation, including several large dams that have permanently inundated typical killifish habitats. Spectrolebias gracilis is member of a clade also including S. costae, S. inaequipinnatus, and S. semiocellatus, diagnosed by having the dorsal and anal fins in males with iridescent dots restricted to their basal portion, caudal fin in males hyaline, and caudal-fin base with two pairs of neuromasts. Within this clade, a single miniaturisation event is supported for the most recent common ancestor of the subclade comprising S. costae and S. gracilis, which differ from other congeners by reaching only about 20 mm standard length as maximum adult size.

    Key Words: Amazon, Biodiversity conservation, Integrative taxonomy, Miniaturization, Molecular taxonomy, Species delimitation


    Taxonomic accounts
    Spectrolebias gracilis sp. n.

    Diagnosis: Spectrolebias gracilis is member of a clade endemic to the Araguaia-Tocantins River System, also including S. costae, S. semiocellatus Costa & Nielsen, 1997 and S. inaequipinnatus Costa & Brasil, 2008, and morphologically diagnosed by: dorsal and anal fins in males with iridescent dots restricted to the basal portion of fins (vs. scattered over the whole fin), caudal fin in males hyaline (vs. variably coloured, usually dark red or grey), caudal-fin base with two pairs of neuromasts (vs. one). Spectrolebias gracilis is similar to S. costae and distinguished from S. semiocellatus and S. inaequipinnatus by having dorsal fin rounded in males (vs. pointed), dark brown to black pigmentation on the flank in males (vs. light brownish grey), and a subdistal bright blue stripe on the dorsal and anal fins in males (vs. subdistal bright blue absent). Spectrolebias gracilis differs from S. costae by the iridescent light blue colour pattern in males, comprising the presence of 10–12 small blue spots irregularly arranged on opercle, surrounded by diffuse blue iridescence (Fig. 4; vs. 6–8 small blue spots, usually arranged in three vertical series, contrasting with dark brown colour ground, Fig. 3) and one or two series of dots irregularly arranged on the basal portion of the dorsal fin (Fig. 4; vs. blue dots arranged in single longitudinal row close to fin base, Fig. 3).
    ....

    Figure 4. Spectrolebias gracilis sp. n., UFRJ 6440, holotype, male, 19.2 mm SL; Canabrava floodplains. 

    Figure 5. Spectrolebias gracilis sp. n., UFRJ 6441, paratype, female, 17.8 mm SL; Canabrava floodplains.

    Etymology: From the Latin gracilis, meaning thin, referring to the thin body of the small-sized new species.

    Distribution and habitat: Spectrolebias gracilis is known from temporary pools of two localities of the middle Tocantins River basin, central Brazil (Fig. 6). In both localities pools were shallow, about 80 cm in deeper places, and densely occupied by aquatic vegetation.


    Figure 3. Specrolebias costae, UFRJ 3549, male, 18.8 mm SL; das Mortes River floodplains.


    Wilson J. E. M. Costa and Pedro F. Amorim. 2018. A New Miniature Cryptic Species of the Seasonal Killifish Genus Spectrolebias from the Tocantins River basin, central Brazil (Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheilidae).  Zoosystematics and Evolution. 94(2): 359-368.  DOI: 10.3897/zse.94.28085


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    Sinomicrurus houi Wang, Peng & Huang, 2018  

    in Peng, Wang, Ding, Zhu, Luo, et al., 2018.
    Hou’s Coral Snake || DOI: 10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.170090 

    Abstract 
    A new species of the coral snake genus Sinomicrurus is described based on four specimens from southern Hainan Island (three specimens from Tianchi, Jianfengling National Nature Reserve, one specimen from Diaoluoshan National Nature Reserve), Hainan Province, China. Morphologically, the new species is rather similar to Sinomicrurus kelloggi. However, it is distinct from S. kelloggi by the pattern on the head, the head length, head length/width, the number of infralabial scales, number of bands on dorsal body, and number of blotches on the belly.

    Keywords: Hainan; morphology; taxonomy; Sinomicrurus kelloggiSinomicrurus houi sp. nov.

     Figure 5 Sinomicrurus houi sp. nov. preyed on juveniles of Dinodon rufozonatum in captivity.
    Photo by Hang Yang and Wei Li.

    Figure 3 Dorsal head views of Sinomicrurus houi sp. nov.: holotype HUM20170001 (A), paratypes Re5410, CIB108251, HUM20170004 (B, C, D), morphological transition type from Vietnam (Orlov et al., 2003) and Yunnan (Sun et al., 2016) (E, F)
    and typical Sinomicrurus kelloggi from Yunnan Province (Wang et al., 2015) and Anhui (Chen et al., 2013). (G, H). 

    Photos by Lifang Peng and Diancheng Yang (A, B, C, D).

    Sinomicrurus houi sp. nov. Wang, Peng and Huang  
    Suggest English name: Hou’s coral snake. 
    Suggest Chinese name: 海南华珊瑚蛇 (Hǎi Nán Huá Shān Hú Shé).

    Etymology: The species name is a patronym honoring Mian HOU (Sichuan Normal University, China), a modern herpetological enthusiast and naturalist. He has been contributing substantially to the taxonomy and life history of amphibians and reptiles for 20 years. He collected 3 of the 4 type specimens. 

    Diagnosis: Sinomicrurus houi sp. nov. differs from the known five congeners by a combination of the following characters: 1) dorsal scale rows (DSC) 15: 15: 15, smooth throughout; 2) ventrals (VL) 173–183; 3) subcaudals (SC) 27–38; 4) head relatively elongated, head length (HL) 2.0–2.1 times as long as head width (HW); 5) no loreal; 6) supralabials (SL) 7/7, infralabials (IL) 7/7; 7) dorsal surface scarlet, with 16–19 edged yellowish black bands on trunk of body, 2–4 on tail; 8) numbers of ventral spots 34–42; 9) dorsum of head having a narrow white broadwise band in the forefront of head (covering almost all the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th supralabials, preoculars, and continuing through forefront prefrontals) and two symmetric white stripes appearing a Chinese symbol for the figure eight (“ 八 ”, from both sides of frontal to neck sides and gradually widening); 10) maxillary teeth behind the fangs present.
    ....

    Figure 4 The habitat of Sinomicrurus houi sp. nov. on Tianchi, Jianfengling National Nature Reserve, Ledong County: A: The holistic habitat; B and D: the microhabitat; C: The microhabitat on the side of a stream where S. houi sp. nov. was found hunting.
    Photos by Mian Hou. 

    Distribution The new species is currently known from the National Nature Reserves of Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling and Wuzhishan (Chu and Huang, 1990; Zhao, 2004; Wang, 2014), Hainan Province, China.

    Natural History Sinomicrurus houi sp. nov. is a nocturnal terrestrial snake, living in the forest floor of montane rain forest, usually hidden in deciduous or humic layers very close to streams or ditches. It feeds primarily on snakes, consuming small snakes and the juveniles of snakes which live in the same habitats, such as Indotyphlops braminus, Argyrophis diardii, Hebius popei and H. boulengeri etc., presumably they also prey on grass lizards and skinks, and may also feed on the sleeping juveniles of Acanthosaura lepidogaster and Pseduocalotes microlepis resting on the roots of bushwoods. In captivity, they catch actively and feed on juveniles of Dinodon rufozonatum (Figure 5), Xenochrophisflavipunctatus, Pantherophis guttatus and skinks).

     Lifang Peng, Lijun Wanf, Li Ding, Yiwu Zhu, Jian Luo, Diancheng Yang, Ruyi Huang, Shunqing Lu and Song Huang. 2018. A New Species of the Genus Sinomicrurus Slowinski, Boundy and Lawson, 2001 (Squamata: Elapidae) from Hainan Province, China. Asian Herpetological Research. 9(2); 65-73. DOI: 10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.170090


    0 0


    Thelocactus tepelmemensis T.J. Davis, H.M. Hern., G.D. Starr & Gómez-Hin.

    in Davis, Hernández, Starr & Gómez-Hinostrosa, 2018.
    Tepelmeme Cliff Cactus  ||  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.361.1.10 

    Abstract 
    Thelocactus tepelmemensis, a distinctive new species of Cactaceae from northern Oaxaca, Mexico, is described and illustrated. The new species is closest to T. leucacanthus but differs significantly from this and other species in the genus by a combination of morphological characters: smaller, red-purple flowers; stems with ribs consistently vertical; lower number of spines per areole, these being usually shorter; ovoid fruit; and seeds with conjunct micropyle. The new species is found in a narrow canyon growing on steep limestone rock faces protected from direct afternoon sun. The only known population appears to be locally common but geographically restricted. 

    Keywords: endemic, Oaxaca, Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve 



    Figure 2. Thelocactus tepelmemensis (body, flower, and fruit) and its habitat.
    A. Caespitose individual with several lateral stems (Type). B. Vertical limestone wall with several individuals. C. External aspect of a flower (above); dissected flower showing the internal perianth segments, the stamens, and the gynoecium (middle); and, semi-mature fruit with persistent perianth (below). Voucher: H.M. Hernández et al. 4128 (MEXU).

    Figure 1. Thelocactus tepelmemensis. A. Stem with flower. B. Areoles. C. Flower (lateral view and dissected). D. Fruit. Voucher: H.M. Hernández et al. 4128 (MEXU). Drawn by Albino Luna.

    Thelocactus tepelmemensis T.J. Davis, H.M. Hern., G.D. Starr, and Gómez-Hin., sp. nov. 

    Diagnosis:— Similar to Thelocactus leucacanthus, but differing in having a lower number of spines per areole, these being poorly differentiated into radials and centrals (vs. more and readily differentiated spines); by the much smaller, red-purple flowers (vs. larger yellow or magenta flowers); and, the conjunct seed micropyle lying inside the hilum border (vs. disjunct micropyle lying outside border). 

    Type:— MEXICO. Oaxaca, municipality Tepelmeme, 17 January 2018 (fl., fr.), H.M. Hernández et al. 4128 (holotype: MEXU 1471315!; isotypes: DES!, MEXU 1471316!). (Figures 1–3)

    ....

    Etymology:— The specific name refers to the community of Tepelmeme Villa de Morelos in whose territory the new species is currently known. 
    The suggested English (Tepelmeme cliff cactus) and Spanish (Biznaga de acantilado de Tepelmeme) names refer to the species’ cliff habitat and the community of Tepelmeme Villa de Morelos.


    Tristan J. Davis, Héctor M. Hernández, Greg D. Starr and Carlos Gómez-Hinostrosa. 2018. A Distinctive New Species of Thelocactus (Cactaceae) from Oaxaca, Mexico. Phytotaxa. 361(1);  115–122. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.361.1.10 


    Resumen: Se describe e ilustra Thelocactus tepelmemensisuna nueva especie de Cactaceae del norte de Oaxaca, México. La nueva especie está cercanamente relacionada a T. leucacanthus, pero difiere de ésta y otras especies del género por una combinación de caracteres morfológicos, en particular por tener flores más pequeñas, de color rojo-púrpura; los tallos con costillas consistentemente verticales; el número más bajo de espinas por areola, siendo éstas usualmente más cortas; el fruto ovoideo; y las semillas con el micrópilo conjunto. La nueva especie se localiza en un cañón estrecho creciendo sobre paredes verticales de calizas protegidas del sol vespertino. La única población conocida parece ser relativamente densa, pero restringida geográficamente. 

    Palabras Clave: endémica, Oaxaca, Reserva de la Biosfera Tehuacán-Cuicatlán