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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region
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    Thismia sahyadrica  Sujanapal, Robi & Dantas


     Abstract 
    Thismia, a genus of mycoheterotrophic plants, is reported for the first time from mainland India, from Neryamangalam forests in Idukki district of Kerala, along with a new species, T. sahyadricaThismia sahyadrica, described and illustrated here, is unique within Thismia in having a mitre with a single opening; five perianth lobes are fused into a mitre-like structure, while the sixth one is free, forming a lateral single opening of the flower. Due to its unique morphological characteristics, the taxonomic placement of the new species remains obscure, although some root and flower characters suggest an affinity with species from the sections GlaziocharisSarcosiphonGeomitra, and Scaphiophora. Ecological specificity and phytogeographical peculiarities of the new species are also discussed.

    Keywords: Kerala; Thismia; Western Ghats; mycoheterotrophy


    Fig. 2 Thismia sahyadrica Sujanapal, Robi & Dantas.
     a. Habitat; b– c. habit; d. young flowers; e. plants with flowers; f. flowers enlarged with pedicel and bract.
     — Photos by A.J. Robi. 


      

    Thismia sahyadrica Sujanapal, Robi & Dantas, sp. nov. 

     Thismia sahyadrica differs from all other species of Thismia in having a mitre with a single opening; it is further characterized by a brownish hypanthium, greenish yellow perianth lobes, a yellow ovary, and two fused outer perianth lobes and spreading third one. 
    — Type:
    A.J. Robi & K.J. Dantas 28097 (holotype KFRI; isotypes CALI, K, L, MH), India, Kerala, Idukki dist., Neryamangalam, ± 500 m, 14 July 2014.

     Etymology. The specific epithet ‘sahyadrica’ refers to the Sahyadri HillsWestern Ghats, where the type locality of the species is located.


     P. Sujanapal, A.J. Robi, K.J. Dantas, M. Sumod and V.S.F.T. Merckx. 2017. Thismia (Thismiaceae): The First Record of the Mycoheterotrophic Genus to the Flora of India with A New Species Revealing the Phytogeographical Significance of Western Ghats.  Blumea - Biodiversity, Evolution and Biogeography of Plants. 62;  97–102.  DOI:  10.3767/blumea.2017.62.2.04



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    Altmuehlopterus Vidovic & Martill, 2017
    Altmuehlopterus rhamphastinus  (Wagner, 1851)

    Fig. 2. ‘Germanodactylus rhamphastinus’ – photographs and interpretative drawings of the slabs (a) BSP AS I 745 b and (b) BSP AS I 745 a. Abbreviations: pc, premaxillary crest; st, sternum.

    The Solnhofen pterosaurs Pterodactylus antiquus, Aerodactylus scolopaciceps, Diopecephalus kochi, Germanodactylus cristatus and Germanodactylus rhamphastinus all have complicated taxonomic histories. Species originally placed in the genus Pterodactylus, such as Aerodactylus scolopaciceps, Ardeadactylus longicollum, Cycnorhamphus suevicus and Germanodactylus cristatus possess apomorphies not observed in the type species of Pterodactylus, and consequently have been placed in new genera. The affinities of another Solnhofen pterosaur previously placed in Pterodactylus, Diopecephalus kochi, are less clear. It has been proposed that D. kochi is a juvenile specimen of Pterodactylus antiquus, or perhaps ‘Germanodactylus rhamphastinus’ specimens are mature examples of D. kochi. Furthermore, studies have suggested that ‘Germanodactylus rhamphastinus’ is not congeneric with the type species of Germanodactylus. Geometric morphometric analysis of prepubes and a cladistic analysis of the Pterosauria elucidate plesiomorphic and apomorphic conditions for basal Jurassic pterodactyloids. Germanodactylus is found to be a monotypic genus and Pterodactylus, Diopecephalus, and ‘G. rhamphastinus’ are found as distinct taxa belonging in individual genera, diagnosable using a combination of characters. Thus, Diopecephalus kochi is not demonstrated to be congeneric with Germanodactylus or Pterodactylus and is maintained as a valid taxon. ‘G. rhamphastinus’ is readily distinguishable from other Solnhofen pterosaur taxa, and a new genus is erected for its reception.


    ......


    Altmuehlopterus gen. nov.

    Derivation of name.Altmuehl’ refers to the Altmühl river that flows through Solnhofen (close to Mörnsheim), Eichstätt and joins the river Danube at Kelheim. ‘Pterus’ is a common suffix in pterosaur names referring to the wing. This name is presented as an alternative to the geographically significant name Daitingopterus (Maisch et al., 2004) which is a nomen nudum. 

    Type species: Altmuehlopterus rhamphastinus(Wagner, 1851) 

    Fig. 3. Germanodactylus cristatus – (a) a photograph of most of the skeleton on the slab and (b) a line drawing of the skull of the holotype BSP 1892 IV 1.

    Fig. 10. Cranial characters and prepubes of Franconia laminated limestone pterosaurs plotted onto a pruned tree. The tree is plotted against the ‘fine scale’ dating criteria of the Franconia laminated limestones (Schweigert 2007).


    Steven U. Vidovic and David M. Martill. 2017. The Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Diopecephalus kochi(Wagner, 1837) and ‘Germanodactylus rhamphastinus (Wagner, 1851). Geological Society, London. Special Publications. (2017); SP455.12. DOI: 10.1144/SP455.12


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    Fig. 24.   Homolidae from the  South China Sea. Colour in life.
    ALamoha longirostris (Chen, 1986), female (24.9 × 20.3 mm);
     
    BLamoha murotoensis (Sakai, 1979), male (20.8 × 18.4 mm); CParomola macrochira Sakai, 1961, female (16.5 × 11.4 mm); DParomola macrochira Sakai, 1961, female (16.3 × 11.1 mm); EMoloha majora (Kubo, 1936), male (54.8 × 47.8 mm); FHomolochunia gadaletae Guinot & Richer de Forges, 1995, ovigerous female (34.1 × 26.4 mm); GHomolomania sibogae Ihle, 1912, male (15.4 × 11.3 mm); HParomolopsis boasi Wood-Mason, in Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891, male (20.1 × 17.7 mm). 

    Ng & Richer de Forges, 2017. RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY. 65

    Abstract
     Recent collections from southern Taiwan and the South China Sea obtained 10 species of homolid crabs, of which two species of Homologenus A. Milne-Edwards, in Henderson, 1888, are described as new. The taxonomy of the allied H. malayensis Ihle, 1912, from Indonesia and Papua New Guinea is also clarified. The identity of Lamoha superciliosa (Wood-Mason, in Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891)s. str. from the Indian Ocean is discussed and specimens from East Asian seas that had been referred to this species are here shown to be conspecific with L. longirostris (Chen, 1986) instead. The taxonomy of L. superciliosa and L. longirostris is treated.

     Key words. Taxonomy, new species, South China Sea, deep sea, homolid crabs, Homologenus


    Fig. 24. Colour in life, AH from South China Sea;
    I, J from Papua New Guinea and Bismarck Sea.
    A, Lamoha longirostris (Chen, 1986), female (24.9 × 20.3 mm) (ZRC 2016.0555); B, Lamoha murotoensis (Sakai, 1979), male (20.8 × 18.4 mm) (ZRC 2016.0200); C, Paromola macrochira Sakai, 1961, female (16.5 × 11.4 mm) (ZRC 2016.0560); D, Paromola macrochira Sakai, 1961, female (16.3 × 11.1 mm) (ZRC 2016.0562); E, Moloha majora (Kubo, 1936), male (54.8 × 47.8 mm) (ZRC 2016.0197); F, Homolochunia gadaletae Guinot & Richer de Forges, 1995, ovigerous female (34.1 × 26.4 mm) (ZRC 2016.0198); G, Homolomania sibogae Ihle, 1912, male (15.4 × 11.3 mm) (ZRC 2016.0199); H, Paromolopsis boasi Wood-Mason, in Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891, male (20.1 × 17.7 mm) (ZRC 2016.0565);
    I, Homologenus malayensis Ihle, 1912, ovigerous female (16.0 × 13.9 mm) (MNHN-IU-2015-80); J, Homologenus malayensis Ihle, 1912, ovigerous female (14.9 × 9.9 mm) (MNHN-IU-2014-8052). 

    Homologenus exilis n. sp.

    Etymology. From the Latin “exilis” meaning “thin or slender”, alluding to the relatively long ambulatory legs of the species when compared to the other new species, H. brevipes. Used as a noun in apposition.

    Homologenus brevipes n. sp. 

    Etymology. The name alludes to the relatively shorter ambulatory legs of this species when compared to those of the allied new species, H. exilis. Used as a noun in apposition.




    Peter K. L. Ng and Bertrand Richer de Forges. 2017. On A Collection of Homolidae from the South China Sea, with Descriptions of Two New Species of Homologenus A. Milne-Edwards, in Henderson, 1888, and the Identities of Homologenus malayensis Ihle, 1912, and Lamoha superciliosa (Wood-Mason, in Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891).
     RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY. 65: 243–268. 



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    Theloderma moloch (Annandale, 1912)
    Yunnan, China, 1000 m elevation.

    Photo by Mian Hou 

    Abstract

    The problems of identification, number and distribution of Theloderma species living in China are discussed on the base of new original morphological and molecular data collected during the last years. According to the author’s results there are six known Theloderma species living in China: Theloderma albopunctatum (Liu et Hu, 1962), Theloderma baibungense Jiang, Fei et Huang, 2007, Theloderma bicolor (Bourret, 1937), Theloderma corticale (Boulenger, 1903), Theloderma moloch (Annandale, 1912), and Theloderma rhododiscus Liu et Hu, 1962.

    Keywords: taxonomy; distribution; Theloderma; new records; China


    Theloderma corticale (Boulenger, 1903)
    English name. Tonkin Bug-eyed Frog, Kwangsi Warty Treefrog.
    Etymology. The specific epithet is derived from Latin “cortex,” genit. cortices or corticulus, means bark.
    Distribution. Known from south China, Laos, and Vietnam.

    Theloderma bicolor(Bourret, 1937)
    English name. Chapa Bug-eyed Frog. 
    Etymology. the specific epithet is derived from Latin “bis,” means two, twice; and color is from Latin “color,” as hue, tint or complexion.
    Distribution. Northwest to central Vietnam; southwest China.


     Theloderma moloch  (Annandale, 1912)

    Theloderma asperum species group, such as Theloderma albopunctatum (southern China to central Indochina), Theloderma baibungense(SE Himalaya) and T. asperum (south Indochina to Malaysian Peninsula).

    Theloderma rhododiscus  Liu et Hu, 1962

    ....

    According to above discussion, currently there are six known Theloderma species in China, such as Theloderma albopunctatum (Liu et Hu, 1962), Theloderma baibungense Jiang, Fei et Huang, 2007, Theloderma bicolor (Bourret, 1937), Theloderma corticale (Boulenger, 1903), Theloderma moloch (Annandale, 1912), and Theloderma rhododiscus Liu et Hu, 1962 



    Hou Mian, Yu Guo-Hua, Chen Hong-man, Liao Chang-Le, Zhang Li, Chen Jin, Li Pi-Peng and Nikolai L. Orlov. 2017. The Taxonomic Status and Distribution Range of Six Theloderma Species (Anura: Rhacophoridae) with A New Record in China.
     Russian Journal of Herpetology. 24(2); 91-127. 
    ResearchGate.net/project/Theloderma-Taxonomy-of-China
     Theloderma in China(Anura: Rhacophoridae); Taxonomic Status and Distribution Range 



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    Xangoniscus itacarambiensis
     Pereira, Souza & Ferreira, 2017


    Abstract

    Xangoniscus (Styloniscidae, Synocheta, Isopoda) includes only two species, both occurring in Brazil. Here a new amphibious troglobitic species of this genus found at Olhos D’Água Cave, Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, is described.Xangoniscus itacarambiensis sp. nov. differs from the congeneric species mainly due to the following characters: head well-detached from the first pereonite, second and third articles of antennula subequal in length, presence of six short aesthetascs in the antennula and reduced triangular lobe in the distal part of pleopod 2 endopod.

    Keywords: Isopoda, Styloniscidae, Xangoniscus, Brazil




    Rafaela Bastos Pereira, Leila Aparecida Souza and Rodrigo Lopes Ferreira. 2017. A New Amphibious Troglobitic Styloniscid from Brazil (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Synocheta). Zootaxa. 4294(2); 292–300.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4294.2.11


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    Albertavenator curriei 
    Evans, Cullen, Larson & Rego, 2017


    ABSTRACT

    Troodontid material from the Maastrichtian of North America is extremely rare, beyond isolated teeth from microvertebrate sites. Here we describe troodontid frontals from the early Maastrichtian Horseshoe Canyon Formation (Horsethief Member). The most complete specimen, TMP 1993.105.0001, is notably foreshortened and robust when compared with numerous specimens referred to Troodon from the Dinosaur Park Formation, and exhibits several characteristics that distinguish it from other Late Cretaceous troodontids. Morphometric analyses reinforce shape differences between TMP 1993.105.0001 and other North American troodontids, and show that proportional differences are independent of size. We therefore erect a new taxonAlbertavenator curriei gen. et sp. nov., which is diagnosed by the following autapomorphies: (1) primary supraciliary foramen is truncated anteriorly by the lacrimal contact; (2) superficial (ectocranial) surface of the frontal proportionally shorter than all known troodontids, with a length to width ratio under 1.3; and (3) frontoparietal contact in which an enlarged lappet of the frontal extends medially to extensively overlap the lateral region of the anteromedial process of the parietal. Interestingly, tooth and jaw morphology from the single relatively complete dentary recovered from the Horseshoe Canyon cannot be distinguished from dentaries and teeth from the Dinosaur Park Formation. If the dentary and teeth from the Horsethief Member of the Horseshoe Canyon Formation prove to belong to A. curriei, extensive overlap in tooth morphology between the Dinosaur Park and Horseshoe Canyon formations reinforces the notion that tooth morphotypes do not exhibit strong correspondence to species alpha diversity, and may encompass multiple closely related taxa.

    Life recreation of Albertavenator curriei.
     Illustrated by Oliver Demuth 







    Comparison of 3D frontal models in dorsal, lateral, ventral, medial, anterior, and posterior, respectively, of Albertavenator curriei (top) and Troodon inequalis.


    Abbreviations: fc – frontal midline contact, lc – lacrimal contact with frontal, lcb – lacrimal buttress, lsc – laterosphenoid contact with frontal, nc – nasal contact with frontal, or – orbital rim, pc – parietal contact with frontal, pl – parietal lappet, poc – postorbital contact with frontal, scf – supraciliary foramen. Scale bar – 1 cm. 


     .   
    David C. Evans, Thomas M. Cullen, Derek W. Larson and Adam Rego. 2017. A New Species of Troodontid Theropod (Dinosauria: Maniraptora) from the Horseshoe Canyon Formation (Maastrichtian) of Alberta, Canada.
     Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. DOI: 10.1139/cjes-2017-0034

    Albertavenator curriei: New Species of Bird-Like Dinosaur Identified in Canada || 
    Scientists name new species of dinosaur after Canadian icon http://phy.so/419501502 via @physorg_com



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    Deltamys araucaria
    Quintela,Bertuol,González, Cordeiro-Estrela,de Freitas & Gonçalves, 2017


    Abstract

    Deltamys is a monotypic sigmodontine rodent from the Pampas of South America. In addition to the formally recognized D. kempi that inhabits lowlands, an undescribed form Deltamys sp. 2n=40 was recently found in the highlands of southeastern Brazil. In the present study, we perform a phylogeographic reassessment of Deltamys and describe a third form of the genus, endemic to the Brazilian Araucaria Forest. We describe this new species based on an integrative analysis, using complete cytochrome b DNA sequences, karyology and morphology. Bayesian tree recovered two allopatric clades (lowlands vs. highlands) and three lineages: (i) the lowland D. kempi, (ii) the highland Deltamys sp. 2n=40, and (iii) Deltamys araucaria sp. n. Deltamys araucaria sp. n. is karyotypically (2n=34) and morphologically distinguishable from D. kempi (2n=37-38), showing a tawnier dorsum/flank pelage, presence of a protostyle, M1 alveolus positioned anteriorly to the posterior margin of the zygomatic plate, and several other distinguishing characteristics. A phylogeographic assessment of D. kempi recovered two haplogroups with significant differences in skull measurements. This phylogeographic break seems to have been shaped by the Patos Lagoon estuarine channel. The diversification in Deltamys might have been triggered by dispersal of older lineages over different altitudinal ranges in the Paraná geological basin.

    Keywords: Mammalia, Akodontini, altitudinal gradient, cytochrome b, dispersal, evolution



    Fernando M. Quintela,Fabrício Bertuol,Enrique M. González, Pedro Cordeiro-Estrela,Thales Renato Ochotorena de Freitas and Gislene Lopes Gonçalves. 2017. A New Species of Deltamys Thomas, 1917 (Rodentia: Cricetidae) Endemic to the southern Brazilian Araucaria Forest and Notes on the Expanded Phylogeographic Scenario of D. kempi.
     Zootaxa. 4294(1); 71–92. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4294.1.3



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    Oligodon saiyok 
     Sumontha, Kunya, Dangsri & Pauwels, 2017


    Abstract

    We describe Oligodon saiyok sp. nov. from Benjarat Nakhon Cave Temple, Sai Yok District, Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand. It is characterized by a maximal known SVL of 626.1 mm; 13 maxillary teeth, the posterior two enlarged; 8 supralabials; 17-17-15 dorsal scale rows; 181–187 ventrals and 38–43 subcaudals; a single anal; hemipenes extending in situ to the 18th subcaudal; dorsum with 21–22 dark blotches or white rings without vertebral or lateral stripes; and venter with a dense network of subrectangular dark blotches. It is the 7th squamate species believed to be endemic to Sai Yok District.

    Keywords: Reptilia, Thailand, Oligodon saiyok sp. nov., new species, taxonomy, limestone cave, Buddhist temple





    Montri Sumontha, Kirati Kunya, Siriwat Dangsri and Olivier S. G. Pauwels. 2017.  Oligodon saiyok, A New Limestone-dwelling Kukri Snake (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand. Zootaxa. 4294(3); 316–328. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4294.3.2

      


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    Samples of fish species from the Poeciliidae family show the diversity in color, fin size and body shape. Kansas State University researchers studied 112 species of these live-bearing fishes and found that males and females evolve differently.


    Abstract
    Natural selection is often assumed to drive parallel functional diversification of the sexes. But males and females exhibit fundamental differences in their biology, and it remains largely unknown how sex differences affect macroevolutionary patterns. On microevolutionary scales, we understand how natural and sexual selection interact to give rise to sex-specific evolution during phenotypic diversification and speciation. Here we show that ignoring sex-specific patterns of functional trait evolution misrepresents the macroevolutionary adaptive landscape and evolutionary rates for 112 species of live-bearing fishes (Poeciliidae). Males and females of the same species evolve in different adaptive landscapes. Major axes of female morphology were correlated with environmental variables but not reproductive investment, while male morphological variation was primarily associated with sexual selection. Despite the importance of both natural and sexual selection in shaping sex-specific phenotypic diversification, species diversification was overwhelmingly associated with ecological divergence. Hence, the inter-predictability of mechanisms of phenotypic and species diversification may be limited in many systems. These results underscore the importance of explicitly addressing sex-specific diversification in empirical and theoretical frameworks of evolutionary radiations to elucidate the roles of different sources of selection and constraint.


    Samples of fish species from the Poeciliidae family show the diversity in color, fin size and body shape. Kansas State University researchers studied 112 species of these live-bearing fishes and found that males and females evolve differently.

      

     Conclusions 
    Some of our most basic tenets and enduring theories of evolution have come from systems in which phenotypes or species have diversified in response to putatively clear and strong sources of selection. However, even in those systems, evolutionary dynamics are more complex than previously assumed. Compartmentalizing our understanding of diversification into male or female (or, worse yet, sex averages), natural or sexual selection, phenotypic or species patterns, and micro- or macroevolution provides an incomplete assessment of evolutionary patterns and processes. Only integrative analysis of evolutionary dynamics across these areas will allow us to develop robust understanding of the origins of biodiversity.


    Zachary W. Culumber and Michael Tobler. 2017. Sex-specific Evolution during the Diversification of Live-bearing Fishes.
     Nature Ecology & Evolution. DOI: 10.1038/s41559-017-0233-4

    A tale of two fishes: Biologists find male, female live-bearing fish evolve differently
     phy.so/419594245 via @physorg_com



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    Liolaemus gardeli 
    Verrastro, Maneyro, da Silva & Farias, 2017

     DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4294.4.4 ภาพ

    Abstract

    Lizards of the Liolaemus wiegmannii group comprise 11 species that are widely distributed east of the Andes, occurring in Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. Here we analyzed a population of the genus Liolaemus, found in the Pampa region of Uruguay, on isolated sand dunes along the Tacuarembó River. We conducted biometric, meristic, and genetic comparisons between this population and other populations of L. weigmannii from Argentina and Uruguay, and the other species of the L. weigmannii complex. Our morphological and genetic analyses showed that this population represents to a new species of the genus Liolaemus, belonging to the L. wiegmannii group. To date, its known distribution is extremely restricted.

    Keywords: Reptilia, endemic species, phylogeny, sand habitat, Pampa biome



      
     Laura Verrastro, Raúl Maneyro, Caroline M. da Silva and Iraia Farias. 2017. A New Species of Lizard of the L. wiegmannii group (Iguania: Liolaemidae) from the Uruguayan Savanna. Zootaxa. 4294(4); 443–461. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4294.4.4


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    Aepyornithomimus tugrikinensis
    Tsogtbaatar, Kobayashi, Khishigjav, Currie, Watabe & Rinchen, 2017

    Illustration by Masato Hattori

    Abstract
    The Upper Cretaceous Djadokhta Formation has been intensively surveyed for its fossil vertebrate fauna for nearly a century. Amongst other theropods, dromaeosaurids and parvicursorines are common in the formation, but ornithomimosaurs are extremely rare. A new ornithomimosaur material was discovered from the Djadokhta Formation, represented by eolian deposits, of the Tögrögiin Shiree locality, Mongolia. This is only the third ornithomimosaur specimen reported from this formation, and includes the astragalus, the calcaneum, the third distal tarsal, and a complete pes. The new material is clearly belonged to Ornithomimidae by its arctometatarsalian foot condition and has the following unique characters; unevenly developed pair of concavities of the third distal tarsal, curved contacts between the proximal ends of second and fourth metatarsals, the elongate fourth digit, and a laterally inclined medial condyle on phalanx IV-1. These diagnostic characters of the Djadokhtan ornithomimosaur indicate that this is a new taxon. Our phylogenetic analysis supports three clades within derived ornithomimosaurs, and the new taxon is placed a member of the derived ornithomimosaurs. The present specimen is the first ornithomimid record from eolian Tögrögiin Shiree locality, and is indicative of their capability to adapt to arid environments.



    Systematic paleontology
    Dinosauria Owen, 184224.
    Theropoda Marsh, 188125.

    Ornithomimosauria Barsbold, 197626.
    Ornithomimidae Marsh, 189027.

    Aepyornithomimus tugrikinensis gen. et sp. nov.

    Etymology: The generic name refers to the largest ratite bird Aepyornis~, which has similar pes structure; in Latin, ~mimus = ‘as’ or ‘like’; the species name tugrikinensis refers to the locality where the specimen was found.

    Holotype: MPC-D 100/130, articulated left pes preserved with an astragalus that is missing the ascending process, a complete calcaneum, and distal tarsal III (DT-III) (Figs 2, 3 and 4). The original specimen is now housed in the Institute of Paleontology and Geology of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences (IPG-MAS).


    Type locality and horizon: Central Sayr of Tögrögiin Shiree locality, Upper Cretaceous Djadokhta Formation (Campanian) (Fig. 1). This locality is interpreted as semi-arid eolian sediments28 with up to 52 m of light gray, cross-bedded, structureless sands and sandstones17.

    Diagnosis: An ornithomimid dinosaur with the following unique characters; unevenly developed pair concavities on the posterior margin of the DT-III; robust distal articular caput of second metatarsal (Mt II) in dorsal view; proximoventrally rounded ridge of phalanx II-1 (II-1); the elongate fourth digit; laterally inclined medial condyle of phalanx IV-1 (IV-1); elongated pedal unguals.

    Illustration by Masato Hattori 

    Figure 8: Comparative graph and restoration drawing of Aepyornithomimus tugrikinensis.
     (a), Different proportions of the three metatarsals is represented by ternary diagram, (b), Illustration is drawn by Mr. Masato Hattori.
    Abbreviations: (Mt II), the metatarsal II, (Mt III), the metatarsal III, and (Mt III), the metatarsal III, (Ω), Aepyornithomimus tugrikinensis, (Δ), basal ornithomimosaurs, (Π), deinocheirids, (†), ornithomimids. 

    Chinzorig Tsogtbaatar, Yoshitsugu Kobayashi, Tsogtbaatar Khishigjav, Philip J. Currie, Mahito Watabe and Barsbold Rinchen. 2017. First Ornithomimid (Theropoda, Ornithomimosauria) from the Upper Cretaceous Djadokhta Formation of Tögrögiin Shiree, Mongolia.  Scientific Reports. 7, Article number: 5835. DOI:  10.1038/s41598-017-05272-6
      

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     Owadowia borsukbialynickae
    Szczygielski, Tyborowski & Błażejowski, 2017

    DOI: 10.1002/gj.2952 

    Abstract

    Although Western Europe has yielded numerous Jurassic turtle taxa, several represented by cranial material or complete skeletons, the fossil record of the Jurassic turtles remains scarce to the north and east from Germany. Although some Late Jurassic testudinates were historically described from Poland, they were, thus far, represented by fragmentary remains that never were properly figured or described in detail. Therefore, very little is known about the mid-Mesozoic diversity of turtles in that region of the continent. A new pancryptodiran turtle genus and species, Owadowia borsukbialynickae, is described from the uppermost Jurassic (Tithonian, ca. 148 Ma) carbonate sediments of the Kcynia Formation in Owadów-Brzezinki Quarry, near Tomaszów Mazowiecki in central Poland. The lower jaw morphology and palaeoecological setting inhabited by the new genus and species, together with the trophic relationships of the Jurassic pancryptodiran turtles, are discussed in an attempt to determine the potential range of mode of life of O. borsukbialynickae. We propose that the new specimen belongs to a new durophagous pancryptodiran turtle taxon. O. borsukbialynickae might have spent considerable time in the marine environment and specialized on eating hard-shelled invertebrates like bivalves and decapod crustaceans, common to that setting.


    Figure 5: Owadowia borsukbialynickae, life restoration during feeding on decapod crustacean.
    Digital painting by T. Szczygielski 

    SYSTEMATIC PALAEONTOLOGY

    Order Testudinata Klein, 1760
    Pancryptodira Joyce, Parham, & Gauthier, 2004
    Incertae sedis

    Genus Owadowia gen. nov.

    Type species. Owadowia borsukbialynickae sp. nov.

    Etymology.Owadowia, from Owadów-Brzezinki Quarry—the locality where remains of this new turtle were found.
    Owadowia borsukbialynickae sp. nov.

    Etymology. borsukbialynickae, in honour to the Polish palaeontologist, Prof. Magdalena Borsuk-Białynicka—a long time researcher of the Mesozoic reptiles.

    Type specimen. ZPAL V/O-B/1959 (Figures 2-4), stored in the collections of the Institute of Palaeobiology, Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw, a fragment of the lower jaw, right coracoid, right ilium, and mostly complete right femur.

    Type locality. Owadów-Brzezinki Quarry of Nordkalk GmbH, Sławno, close to Tomaszów Mazowiecki (Central Poland). 

    Occurrence. Kcynia Formation, Tithonian, Upper Jurassic; the first lithofacial unit within Zaraiskites zarajskensis subzone.

    Diagnosis. Relatively large Jurassic turtle (estimated carapace length around 50 cm) with narrow and V-shaped lower jaw, relatively short and wide but pronounced snout, massive, spoon-like symphysis, no symphyseal hook, well-developed triturating surface in the symphyseal area, moderately developed triturating surface with parallel lingual and labial ridges along the mandibular rami, the labial ridge much higher and sharper than the lingual ridge, the lingual ridge only present laterally and gradually disappearing towards the midline of the symphyseal area, splenial large. The triangular, symmetrical coracoid plate without anterior or posterior expansions, the coracoid neck without coracoid foramen. The slender and proximally and distally slightly curved femur with deep, U-shaped intertrochanteric fossa, small fibular condyle and prominent, well-developed tibial condyle. The ilium with expanded ventral end, constricted neck and well-developed, thin dorsal fan with posterior and no anterior expansion, no signs of sutural attachment to the carapace.


    CONCLUSIONS
    A new pancryptodiran turtle, Owadowia borsukbialynickae, is described from the Tithonian lagoon limestones of Owadów-Brzezinki Quarry, Poland. The most characteristic trait of this new taxon is its expanded triturating surface indicating a durophagous ecology. The morphology of O. borsukbialynickae mandible is unlike that any other Jurassic turtle known thus far, but rather resembles the Cretaceous protostegids and recent cheloniids, which suggests that this turtle might have inhabited a similar trophic niche. While it is possible that O. borsukbialynickae was a semiaquatic or freshwater turtle, the lower jaw morphology and its inferred feeding preferences make such assumption unlikely, and rather suggest that this animal spent a lot of time in a shallow water, possibly marine environment, like Owadów-Brzezinki lagoons. The taphonomic evidence (the quantitative dominance of marine vertebrates in the Owadów-Brzezinki bone-bed, lack of any brackish and freshwater taxa, and absence of transportation) suggests that O. borsukbialynickae was an inhabitant of these lagoons, rather than a terrestrial animal that inhabited the adjacent land. Such assumptions may be supported in the future by new finds and isotope data.


    Tomasz Szczygielski, Daniel Tyborowski and Błażej Błażejowski. 2017. A New Pancryptodiran Turtle from the Late Jurassic of Poland and Palaeobiology of Early Marine Turtles. Geological Journal. DOI: 10.1002/gj.2952


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    Thismia brunneomitroides  Suetsugu & Tsukaya

    Abstract

    Here we describe a new species of the mycoheterotrophic genus Thismia (Thismiaceae), Thismia brunneomitroides, discovered during a botanical survey in Khao Luang National Park, Peninsular Thailand. Thismia brunneomitroides resembles Thismia brunneomitrafrom Brunei Darussalam in that both species possess inner tepal lobes that are connate to form a mitre with three projections at the apex and large lateral appendage of the connective. However, it differs in having ivory flowers with twelve pale orange to brownish orange vertical stripes on the perianth tube and slightly dentate lateral appendage of the connective which does not exceed apical part of the connective. Descriptions, illustrations and a key to the 13 species of Thismia in the Thai-Malay Peninsula are provided.

    Keywords: mycoheterotrophy, taxonomy, Sarcosiphon, Monocots


    FIGURE 1. Thismia brunneomitroidesfrom the type locality. A. Flowering plant. 

    Thismia brunneomitroides Suetsugu & Tsukaya, sp. nov.

     Type:—THAILAND, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Khao Luang National Park, along trail to Kung Ching Waterfall, in lowland evergreen forest,  elev. 285 m, 15 December 2015, Tagane S., Toyama H., Nagamasu H., Rueangruea S., Hemrat, C., Keiwbang W. T4968 (holotype BKF!–a spirit collection, isotype TNS!–a spirit collection).

    Diagnostic characters:—Thismia brunneomitroides is most similar to Thismia brunneomitra Hroneš, Kobrlová & Dančák (2015: 173) from Brunei Darussalam in having inner tepal lobes connate to form a mitre with three projections at the apex and large lateral appendage of the connective. However, it differs from T. brunneomitra in having ivory flowers with twelve pale orange to brownish orange vertical stripes on the perianth tube (vs. brown to blackish flowers with twelve darker vertical stripes on the perianth tube) and slightly dentate lateral appendage of the connective which does not exceed apical part of the connective (vs. entire lateral appendage of the connective which exceeds whole apical part of the connective). 

    Etymology:—The new species is named after the great morphological similarity to T. brunneomitra.

    Habitat and Ecology:—Less than 10 individuals were found in shaded understory of lowland evergreen forest. No other mycoheterotrophic species were found in the locations in which the new Thismia were collected.


    . Kenji Suetsugu, Hirokazu Tsukaya, Shuichiro Tagane, Somran Suddee, Sukid Rueangruea and Tetsukazu Yahara. 2017. Thismia brunneomitroides (Thismiaceae), A New Mycoheterotrophic Species from southern Thailand.
     Phytotaxa. 314(1); 103–109.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.314.1.9


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    Mola tecta
    Nyegaard, Sawai, Gemmell, Gillum, Loneragan, Yamanoue & Stewart, 2017

    Hoodwinker Ocean Sunfish  DOI: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlx040 

    Abstract

    The taxonomy of the ocean sunfishes (Molidae) has a complicated history. Currently, three genera and four species are recognized, including two in the genus Mola (M. mola and M. ramsayi). In 2009, a genetic study revealed a potential third species, Mola species C, in Southeast Australian waters. Concentrating on this region, we obtained samples and morphological data from 27 Mola sp. C specimens, genetically confirmed the existence of this species (mtDNA D-loop and cytochrome c oxidase 1), and established its morphology across a size spectrum of 50–242 cm total length. Mola sp. C is diagnosed by clavus meristics [15–17 fin rays (13–15 principal, 2 minor), 5–7 ossicles, paraxial ossicles separate], clavus morphology (prominent smooth band back-fold, rounded clavus edge with an indent), and body scale morphology (raised conical midpoints, non-branching). This species does not develop a protruding snout, or swollen dorso- or ventrolateral ridges. Body proportions remain similar with growth. A review of the historic literature revealed that Mola sp. C is a new, hitherto undescribed species, Mola tecta, which we describe and diagnose, and that it is the first proposed addition to the genus Mola in 125 years. Its core distribution is likely in the temperate waters of the Southern Hemisphere.

    Keywords: Australia, CO1 mtDNA, D-loop, morphology, morphometrics, New Zealand, phylogenetics, southern hemisphere, taxonomy.


    Family Molidae Bonaparte, 1832
    Genus Mola Koelreuter, 1766

    Mola Koelreuter, 1766. Type specimen Mola aculeata, i.e. pre-juvenile form.
    Mola Cuvier, 1798. Type specimen Tetraodon mola Linnaeus, 1758, i.e. adult form.


     •  Mola mola(Linnaeus, 1758)
    No known holotype(Parenti, 2003; Eschmeyer et al., 2017) 

    Distribution: Currently thought to be widely distributed in all the world’s oceans except for the polar seas, however may be relatively uncommon in some areas (e.g. around Australia and New Zealand).


     •  Mola ramsayi (Giglioli, 1883)
    Holotype: BMNH 1883.11.29.22 

    Distribution: Previously thought to be restricted to the South Pacific (Fraser-Brunner, 1951), however if Mola sp. A is shown to belong to M. ramsayi, the distribution is much wider than previously thought, including the Pacific and Indian oceans in both hemispheres, as well as the Mediterranean and probably also the European seas.

    Mola tecta stranded on Birdlings Flat south of Christchurch, New Zealand, May 2014.
    Photograph by M. NYEGAARD 

    The hoodwinker sunfish grows to at least 2.4 metres long, with a distinctive ‘backfold’ of smooth skin separating the back fin into two.
    Illustration by Michelle Freeborn, Wellington Museum Te Papa Tongarewa. 


     •  Mola tecta sp. nov. 
    New English name: Hoodwinker Ocean Sunfish.
    New Japanese name: Kakure-manbo

    Etymology: The species name tecta is derived from the Latin tectus (disguised, hidden), as this species evaded discovery for nearly three centuries, despite the keen interest among early sunfish taxonomists and the continued attention these curious fish receive. The Japanese name is derived from the species name tecta: ‘hidden’ (Kakure), ‘sunfish’ (manbo), while the English name, ‘Hoodwinker’, pertains to the figurative meaning ‘trickster, deceiving by disguise’, c. 1600.

    Habitat and distribution: Mola tecta has been confirmed in the southeast of Australia (New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania and Victoria) (Yoshita et al., 2009; this study), around New Zealand (this study), and off South Africa (Bass et al., 2005) (Fig. 10). Photographs (e.g. Supporting Information, Fig. S1A) indicates that it also occurs in Chilean waters. This suggests that M. tecta is distributed widely in the temperate waters of the Southern Hemisphere, with occasional, but presumably rare, occurrences in the Northern Hemisphere. Migrations are unknown.


    Marianne Nyegaard, Etsuro Sawai, Neil Gemmell, Joanne Gillum, Neil R. Loneragan, Yusuke Yamanoue and Andrew L. Stewart. 2017. Hiding in Broad Daylight: Molecular and Morphological Data Reveal A New Ocean Sunfish Species (Tetraodontiformes: Molidae) that has Eluded Recognition.  Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. XX, zlx040. DOI: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlx040

    The four-year treasure hunt for the hoodwinker sunfish theconversation.com/the-four-year-treasure-hunt-for-the-hoodwinker-sunfish-81265 via @ConversationEDU
     Massive Two-Ton Fish Species Discovered  on.natgeo.com/2udsR8V via @NatGeo


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    Plethoscorpiops profusus  Lourenço, 2017

      
    Abstract
    Plethoscorpiops profusus gen. n., sp. n., belonging to the family Scorpiopidae Kraepelin, 1905 is described on the basis of two specimens, one adult female and one male juvenile collected in the Saddan Cave, in Kayin State, Hpa-An, Burma (Myanmar). This new scorpion taxon most certainly represents an endemic element for the fauna of Burma and seems to be strictly distributed inside the cave system. The new genus is characterized by a previously unknown and totally unique plethotaxic trichobothrial pattern within the family Scorpiopidae.

    Keywords: Scorpion, Scorpiopidae, Burma, New genus, New species, Trichobothrial pattern


    Fig. 5. Plethoscorpiops profusus sp. n. Female holotype alive (photo A. Kury).

    Fig. 2. The region where is located the Saddan Cave, showing the outside relief and typical vegetation (photo: F. Bréhier).
    Fig. 4. Interior view of the Saddan Cave, showing the limestone walls with the crevices where the specimens were found (photo A. Kury).

    Taxonomic treatment

    Family Scorpiopidae Kraepelin, 1905

    Genus Plethoscorpiops gen. nov.

    Diagnosis for the new genus: The new genus presents most of the characteristics already defined for the family Scorpiopidae and several of these characters associate it with both Alloscorpiops and Dasyscorpiops. It can, however, be characterized by a very particular trichobothrial pattern of some ‘territories’ or series. Femur with three trichobothria: dorsal, internal and external. Patella with two dorsal, one internal, 23 ventral and a very high number of 41 external trichobothria (up to 42–43 in the male paratype). Most outstanding are the values found for chela-hand with 25 ventral, two dorsal (Dt, Db), two internal (ib, it), 3 Est, 6 Et, Esb and a very high number of 19 trichobothria in the Eb series. This latter number is particularly unusual, because in the other genera of the family, only three (or five) trichobothria are observed on Eb series. See the following taxonomic comments.

    Type species: Plethoscorpiops profusus sp. n.

    Etymology: The generic name is an association of plethos with scorpiops and refers to the very high numbers of trichobothria found in the chela of pedipalps. From Latin plethora, originate from ancient Greek πληθώρη (plēthōrē) = plenty.

    Fig. 1. Map of Southeast Asia showing the known distribution of genera Alloscorpiops, Dasyscorpiops and Plethoscorpiops. Notice that the type locality of Dasyscorpiops grandjeani, Malacca is dubious (according to Fage's personal notes). 

     Description of the new species
    Plethoscorpiops profusus sp. n.

    Burma (Myanmar), Kayin State, Hpa-An, Saddan Cave, 250 m alt., about 90 m from the entry, hidden in wall crevices, 31/VII/2016 (A. Giupponi & A. Kury leg.). 
    Female holotype, deposited in the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro; male juvenile paratype deposited in the ‘Muséum national d’histoire naturelle’, Paris.

    Etymology: The specific name refers to the very high number of trichobothria presented by the new species.

    Diagnosis: Species of moderate size relative to other species of the family Scorpiopidae, adult female 61.8 mm in total length. Coloration dark reddish-brown; three pairs of lateral eyes, the third pair reduced; pectines with 9–9 teeth in the female holotype and 12–13 teeth in the male paratype; fulcra reduced to vestigial. Annular ring clearly marked in the telson. Trichobothrial pattern as in generic diagnosis.

    ....

    Wilson R. Lourenço. 2017. A New Genus and Species of Scorpion from Burma [Myanmar] (Scorpiones: Scorpiopidae): Implications for the Taxonomy of the Family. {Un nouveau genre et espèce de scorpion de Birmanie [Myanmar] (Scorpiones : Scorpiopidae) : implicationsdans la taxonomie de la famille}. Comptes Rendus Biologies. In Press.  DOI: 10.1016/j.crvi.2017.05.003 

    Résumé: Plethoscorpiops profusus gen. n., sp. n., appartenant à la famille des Scorpiopidae Kraepelin, 1905 est décrit sur deux spécimens, une femelle adulte et un mâle juvénile, collectés dans la grotte Saddan, située dans l’État de Kayin, Hpa-An, Myanmar. Ce nouveau taxon scorpionique représente très certainement un élément endémique pour la faune de Myanmar et semble strictement inféodé dans le système cavernicole. Le nouveau genre est caractérisé par un modèle trichobothriotaxique, pléthotaxique, encore inconnu et certainement unique parmi les scorpions de la famille des Scorpiopidae.
    Mots clés: Scorpion, Scorpiopidae, Myanmar, Nouveau genre, Nouvelle espèce, Modèle trichobothriotaxique


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    Premna bhamoensis  Y. T. Tan & B. Li


    Abstract
    In the present study, we describe and illustrate a new speciesPremna bhamoensis Y. T. Tan & B. Li (Lamiaceae), from Myanmar. In the 1980s, this species was transplanted from Bhamo County in northeastern Myanmar to the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The species shows striking morphological similarity to P. menglaensis B. Li, and thus, has been misidentified as the latter for a long period of time. However, morphological comparison revealed that P. bhamoensis is distinct from P. menglaensis in many aspects. Moreover, literature survey and specimen examinations also indicated that P. bhamoensis is undoubtedly different from all seven known congenetic species recorded from Kachin State, Myanmar, and a key for their identification has been provided in this paper.

    Keywords: China, morphology, Myanmar, Premna menglaensis, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden


    Figure 2. Morphological comparison between Premna bhamoensis (AC) and P. menglaensis (ac).
    A, a branchlets with inflorescences B, b inflorescences, flowers and calyces (in the blank circle) C, c fruitescences and fruits (arrow show fruiting calyx). 

    Figure 1. Premna bhamoensis Y. T. Tan & B. Li, sp. nov.
     A 
    habit a branchlet with ovate-oblong to elliptic leaves C branchlet and petioles covered by dense brownish pubescences D abaxial surface of leaf blade.

    Taxonomy
    Premna bhamoensis Y.T. Tan & B. Li, sp. nov.

    Diagnosis: The species is most similar in morphology to P.menglaensis B. Li, but differs from the latter in having branchlets and petioles densely tomentose (vs. glabrous or glabrescent), leaf blades papery with minute pubescence (vs. leathery and glabrous), flowers green to greenish yellow (vs. red flowers), calyces slightly 2-lipped with five equal lobes (vs. calyces distinctly 2-lipped with entire or minute emarginate lips), and stamens exserted from corolla (vs. included).

    Distribution: Per the introduction record, P. bhamoensis is originally collected from northeastern Myanmar, but currently known only from the cultivated type in the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (Figure 4). Based on our experience in examination of Asian Premna specimens, we suspect that the species is probably endemic to Kachin State of Myanmar and distributed in a very small area.

    Etymology: The specific epithet of this new species, “bhamoensis”, is derived from the name of the locality, Bhamo County, from where the species was originally collected.


     Yunhong Tan, Derong Li, Yongjun Chen and Bo Li. 2017. Premna bhamoensis (Lamiaceae, Premnoideae), A New Species from Kachin State, northeastern Myanmar.   PhytoKeys. 83: 93-101.  DOI:  10.3897/phytokeys.83.12869


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    Abstract
    Linear infrastructure development and resulting habitat fragmentation are expanding in Neotropical forests, and arboreal mammals may be disproportionately impacted by these linear habitat clearings. Maintaining canopy connectivity through preservation of connecting branches (i.e. natural canopy bridges) may help mitigate that impact. Using camera traps, we evaluated crossing rates of a pipeline right-of-way in a control area with no bridges and in a test area where 13 bridges were left by the pipeline construction company. Monitoring all canopy crossing points for a year (7,102 canopy camera nights), we confirmed bridge use by 25 mammal species from 12 families. With bridge use beginning immediately after exposure and increasing over time, use rates were over two orders of magnitude higher than on the ground. We also found a positive relationship between a bridge’s use rate and the number of species that used it, suggesting well-used bridges benefit multiple species. Data suggest bridge use may be related to a combination of bridge branch connectivity, multiple connections, connectivity to adjacent forest, and foliage cover. Given the high use rate and minimal cost, we recommend all linear infrastructure projects in forests with arboreal mammal populations include canopy bridges.

    Figure 1: The six species that most frequently used the 13 natural canopy bridges over the pipeline clearing: (a) Aotus nigriceps, (b) Potos flavus, (c) Coendou ichillus, (d) Caluromys lanatus, (e) Bassaricyon alleni, and (f) Hadrosciurus spadiceus


      
    Coendou ichillus,     Tamandua tetradactyla

    Pithecia irrorata,       Saguinus fuscicollis


    Figure 1: The six species that most frequently used the 13 natural canopy bridges over the pipeline clearing:
    (a) Aotus nigriceps, (b) Potos flavus, (c) Coendou ichillus, (d) Caluromys lanatus, (e) Bassaricyon alleni, and (f) Hadrosciurus spadiceus

    Figure 5: Tremaine Gregory climbing a canopy bridge over a recently cleared natural gas pipeline in the Lower Urubamba Region of Peru.


    Tremaine Gregory, Farah Carrasco-Rueda, Alfonso Alonso, Joseph Kolowski and Jessica L. Deichmann. 2017. Natural Canopy Bridges Effectively Mitigate Tropical Forest Fragmentation for Arboreal Mammals. Scientific Reports. 7, Article number: 3892. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-04112-x

    Natural Canopy Bridges Maintain Vital Connections for Arboreal Mammals in Fragmented Forests  NationalZoo.SI.edu/news/natural-canopy-bridges-maintain-vital-connections-for-arboreal-mammals-fragmented-forests


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    Geosesarma faustum  Ng, 2017

    RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY. 65 
         
    Abstract
     The identities of two poorly known semiterrestrial sesarmid crabs Geosesarma foxi (Kemp, 1918) and G. serenei Ng, 1986, from northern Peninsular Malaysia are clarified with the study of additional material. A new species associated with phytotelms in Penang, Geosesarma faustum n. sp., is described and distinguished from the two known species by various carapace, male pleon and gonopod characters. The taxonomy of the three species is discussed. All three are highland species, occurring only at altitudes higher than 700 m; and are characterised by their quadrate carapace, long and slender ambulatory legs, absence of a flagellum on the exopod of their third maxilliped, and relatively slender male first gonopod. 

    Key words: Phytotelmata, Southeast Asia, Sesarmidae, montane crabs, Geosesarma, taxonomy, new taxa
    Fig. 8. Geosesarma faustum n. sp., colour in life, Penang Hill, Penang.
     AB, specimens photographed in bromeliad in situ, part of type species; C, holotype male (10.6 × 10.5 mm) (ZRC 2016.617); D, paratype ovigerous female (10.6 × 10.4 mm) (ZRC 2014.340). 



    Geosesarma faustum n. sp. 

    Etymology. The species name is derived from the Latin for fortunate and lucky; alluding to the circumstances leading to the discovery of the new species



    Fig. 8. Geosesarma faustum n. sp., colour in life, Penang Hill, Penang.
     
    AB, specimens photographed in bromeliad in situ, part of type species; C, holotype male (10.6 × 10.5 mm) (ZRC 2016.617); D, paratype ovigerous female (10.6 × 10.4 mm) (ZRC 2014.340).
     Photo credits: A–D, Ji Tan; E–F, Paul Y. C. Ng 

    Fig. 8. Geosesarma faustum n. sp., colour in life, Penang Hill, Penang.
    A, B, specimens photographed in bromeliad in situ, part of type species;
    C, holotype male (10.6 × 10.5 mm) (ZRC 2016.617); D, paratype ovigerous female (10.6 × 10.4 mm) (ZRC 2014.340);
      EG, paratype male (10.2 × 10.1 mm) (ZRC 2016.0599); H, paratype female (10.8 × 10.9 mm) (ZRC 2016.0599). Photo credits: A–D, Ji Tan; E–H, Paul Y. C. Ng 
       

    Peter K. L. Ng. 2017. On the Identities of The Highland Vampire Crabs, Geosesarma foxi (Kemp, 1918) and G. serenei Ng, 1986, with Description of A New Phytotelmic Species from Penang, Peninsular Malaysia (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Sesarmidae). RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY. 65: 226–242. 



        

        

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    Geosiris australiensis   B. Gray & Y.W. Low


    Geosiris Baill. is a small genus of achlorophyllous, mycoheterotrophic herbs that until now consisted of only two species, Geosiris albiflora Goldblatt & J.C. Manning and Geosiris aphylla Baill., the latter being the type species of the genus. Prior to this study, the genus was known only from two islands off the southeast coast of Africa, Madagascar and Mayotte. A recent discovery in Australia reported here expands its geographic range to the Pacific. The Australian taxon represents a species distinct from the two African taxa based on the key morphological characters for species distinction in the genus, namely stigma characteristics. Geosiris albiflora has a somewhat club-like stigma with three coherent lobes, Geosiris aphylla with a stigma terminates in three fringed broad and flat stigmatic lobes, and the Australian Geosiris has a truncate stigma with a short fimbriate margin. Hence, the Australian taxon is formally described here as Geosiris australiensis B. Gray & Y.W. Low.

    Keywords: Iridaceae, Geosiris, Australia, Queensland, Taxonomy, Mycoheterotrophy, New generic record, New species



    Geosiris australiensis B. Gray & Y.W. Low, spec. nova

    Etymology. – The species epithet refers to Australia, as it is the first generic record for the continent.

    Distribution and habitat. – Geosiris australiensis is only known from the tropical rainforests of north-east Queensland, Australia. The only known specimens were growing on a moist forest floor covered with thick organic litter under shaded conditions in the Daintree National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage site.


    Bruce Gray and Yee Wen Low. 2017. First Record of Geosiris (Iridaceae: Geosiridoideae) from Australasia : A New Record and A New Species from the Wet Tropics of Queensland, Australia. Candollea. 72(2); 249-255.  DOI: 10.15553/c2017v722a2

    Scientists in a spin over discovery of new flower species in Daintree



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    Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus, 1758)
         Filander & Griffiths, 2017.  

    Abstract

    The sea-urchins (class Echinoidea) of South Africa have received little taxonomic attention since the last comprehensive regional monographic guide, which was published in 1976 and is thus now severely outdated. That account was also poorly illustrated, making it difficult to use. Recent work by the authors has also added some 19 additional species to the known fauna, which now stands at 70 species. The aims of this study are thus to revise and update the South African echinoid fauna list, and to present a new, easy to use and fully-illustrated guide to all known regional species. The analysis is based mainly on examination of samples from the Iziko South African Museum collections, although additional records from other museum collections, the published literature, photographic images submitted to the EchinoMap Virtual Museum Database and any other reliable records are also included. A short account of each species is given, including relevant synonymy and literature, and brief notes on identification, size, and global distribution. Photographs that best represent the diagnostic features of each species and a map showing its known records within the region accompany each species account. A binary key to species is also provided.

    Keywords: Echinodermata, Biodiversity, taxonomy, echinoderm, sea urchin, distribution records, identification key


    Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus, 1758)


     Zoleka Filander and Charles Griffiths. 2017. Illustrated Guide to the Echinoid (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) Fauna of South Africa. Zootaxa. 4296(1); 1-72.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4296.1.1


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     Zingiber alba Nurainas


    ABSTRACT

     Zingiber alba is a new species from West Sumatra. Scaphoclamys perakensis is newly recorded species from the Eastern part of Sumatra. Detailed descriptions and photographs are given for each species. 

    KEY WORDS: Scaphoclamys perakensis, Zingiberaceae, Zingiber alba, Sumatra.



    Fig. 1.  Zingiber alba Nurainas.
      A: The plant habit. B: Part of the pseudostem showing the lower part of leaves and ligules. C: Inflorescence. D: Fruits. E: Seeds. F: Top part of inflorescence. G: A flower. H: Dissection of flower (from left): bract, calyx, corolla lobes, floral tube with stamen attach, ovary with epigenous gland style and stigma. I: detail of stamen and ovary with epigenous gland.
    Scale bar: D = 2 cm; E = 1 cm; H = 2 cm; I = 2 cm. Photographed by Nurainas.

    Zingiber alba Nurainas, sp. nov 

    Type: INDONESIA, Sumatra, Simanau, Solok, West Sumatra, altitude 1200 m, 21 June 2016, Nurainas 3272 (holotype ANDA, isotype BO, TAI).

     Zingiber alba differs from Zingiber acuminatum var. acutibractetatum Valeton in its apex of ligules rounded, elongated of spike, arrangement of bract at top of spike is rose-like, bract bright white, ovate with subapicalmucronate, bracteole small, white and yellow flower


    Distribution: throughout West Sumatra province and Batang Gadis National Park, North Sumatra. 

    Ecology: Zingiber alba grows on sandy soils along the margins of mixed evergreen forests, edges of small rivers at 500-1200 meter elevation. Etymology: the epithet specific refers to color of bract. 

    Phenology: Zingiber alba was observed in flower when it was collected in February 2006 and May 2016 and fruit when it was collected in October 2014. 

    Vernacular name: Penggalan (Minangkabau language).



    Scaphoclamys perakensis Holtt., 
    Scaphochlamys perakensis Holttum, Gard. Bull. Singapore. 13 (1950) 97., nom. nov. 
    ....

    Distribution: Perak and Sumatra (Riau). 
    Ecology: Scapholamys perakensis grows on the forest floor at limestone area.


    Nurainas Nurainas and Dayar Arbain. 2017. A New Species and A New Record of Zingiberaceae from Sumatra, Indonesia. Taiwania. 62(3); 294-298.   DOI:   10.6165/tai.2017.62.294


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    Sphaenorhynchus cammaeus 
    Roberto, Araujo-Vieira, Carvalho-e-Silva & Ávila, 2017


    Abstract
    We describe a new species of Sphaenorhynchus from highland forest habitats in the Reserva Biológica de Pedra Talhada, an Atlantic Forest remnant of northeastern Brazil [ca. 850 m elevation]. The new species is diagnosed by having a snout–vent length of 24.8–29.3 mm in males and 26.6 mm in the only available female; snout truncate in dorsal view, protruding in lateral view; vocal sac single, subgular, moderately developed, extending to the middle of the pectoral region, longitudinal folds present; dorsolateral black line from the tip of snout extending posteriorly beyond the eye to gradually disappear on the flanks; white glandular subcloacal dermal fold present; vomerine, premaxillary, and maxillary teeth present; and advertisement call with 2–3 pulsed notes (3–6 pulses each) with a duration of 0.19–0.24 s, a frequency range of 526.3–4438.8 Hz, and a dominant frequency of 2250–3000 Hz. It is the eighth species of the genus that occurs in northeastern Brazil.

    Keywords: Atlantic Forest, Hatchet-faced treefrogs, Reserva Biológica de Pedra Talhada, Species description, Taxonomy, Vocalization


    FIG. 4.— Dorsal and ventral views of  Sphaenorhynchus cammaeus in life.
    (upper) URCA-H 9285. (C–D) URCA-H 9286.

    Sphaenorhynchus cammaeus sp. nov.

    Sphaenorhynchus prasinusDa Silva et al. (2013: 1519–1520), Carvalho-e-Silva et al. (2015: 347).
    Sphaenorhynchus aff. palustrisAraujo-Vieira et al. (2016).

    Etymology.— The specific epithet is a Medieval Latin name that means carved precious stone with two color layers.It is given in reference to the name of the type locality (Pedra Talhada = carved stone) and also to the beauty of the species.
      
    Dorsal view of  Sphaenorhynchus cammaeus  in life, URCA-H 9285. 


    Igor Joventino Roberto, Katyuscia Araujo-Vieira, Sergio Potsch de Carvalho-e-Silva and Robson Waldemar Ávila. 2017. A New Species of Sphaenorhynchus (Anura: Hylidae) from northeastern Brazil.   Herpetologica. 73(2); 148–161.
     DOI: 10.1655/HERPETOLOGICA-D-16-00021

    Nova espécie de anfíbio é descoberta no Brasil - Primeira Hora notícias em Meio Ambiente
     primeirahora.com.br/noticia/207145/Nova-especie-de-anfibio-e-descoberta-no-Brasil


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    Melanterius pungalinae   
    Pinzón-Navarro, Jennings & Oberprieler, 2017  


    Abstract

    This paper presents the results of a three-year collecting and research project on Melanterius weevils in Australia, aimed mainly at discovering new host associations and assessing their fit to the emerging reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in the large genus Acacia. A revised and extended diagnosis of the genus Melanterius is provided, as well as characters differentiating the genus from related and/or similar Australian genera classified in the tribe Cleogonini. Given the size (79 species) and morphological variation of Melanterius, and to facilitate the assessment of co-evolutionary patterns between the weevils and their hosts, the genus is divided into six tentative species groups characterised by particular morphological traits. New host and locality data are recorded for 23 species, including five species described as new to scienceMelanterius abbreviatus sp. n., M. curvistriatus sp. n., M. psittacoides sp. n., M. pungalinae sp. n. and Mtesseymani sp. n. For each species, salient characters and a summary of known host plant species are provided. Melanterius tasmaniensis (Lea, 1909) comb. et stat. n. is raised from a subspecies of Melanteriosoma costatum to species level. All recorded host associations of Melanterius known to us are summarised, including those published, those recorded on label data associated with specimens in the Australian National Insect Collection and those recorded during this study. These host records are differentiated into true host associations (based on specimens reared from seeds), putative associations (based on long series of specimens collected from plants) and coincidental associations (based on single specimens collected from plants). Altogether, Melanterius weevils are recorded from 71 species of Acacia, still a small number in view of the ca. 1000 described species of Acacia, but it is likely that many or most of the other species are also hosts of Melanterius species or of the closely related genus Lybaeba. The pattern of host associations in evidence indicates that most species of Melanterius are not host-specific, developing in the seeds of a number of apparently related Acacia species. Nevertheless, several Melanterius species appear to have the potential to be employed as biocontrol agents if their main hosts become invasive weeds.

    Keywords: Coleoptera, weevils, host-plant associations, Acacia, biological control agents


    Melanterius pungalinae  Pinzón-Navarro, Jennings & Oberprieler, 2017


     Sara Pinzón-Navarro, Debbie Jennings and Rolf G. Oberprieler. 2017. Host Associations of Melanterius Erichson (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cleogonini), with A Diagnosis and Delimitation of the Genus and Description of Five New Species.
     Zootaxa. 4298(1); 1–77.   DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4298.1.1
      

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     Sciaphila sugimotoi Suetsugu & T. Nishioka


    Abstract

    A new species of Sciaphila (Triuridaceae), Sciaphila sugimotoi Suetsugu & T. Nishioka, is described and illustrated from Ishigaki Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. The new species is similar to S.arfakiana in having a stipitate globose to ellipsoid knob without hairs in apices of all male perianth segments. However, it is clearly distinguishable by its shorter pedicel, filament-connective not extended and thick stem. A key to the Japanese Sciaphila based on the whole flower characteristics and stylar characteristics, are provided for easy identification of these rare mycoheterotrophic plants.

    Keywords: Distribution, mycoheterotrophic plants, new species, Sciaphila, taxonomy, Triuridaceae, Ryukyu, Monocots


     Figure 1: Habit (A) and microscopic images (B, C, D) of Sciaphila sugimotoi.
    A. Flowering plant. B–C. Male flower. D. Female flower.

     Photographed by Takaomi Sugimoto in the type locality. 

    Sciaphila sugimotoi Suetsugu & T. Nishioka, sp. nov.

     Type:— JAPAN. Ryukyu. Okinawa Pref., Ishigaki City, Hirae, alt ca. 180m, 18 October 2016, T. Sugimoto s.n. (holotype KYO!; isotype OSA!). 

    Diagnosis:— Sciaphila sugimotoi is similar to Sciaphila arfakiana Beccari (1890: 337), but it differs by its shorter pedicel, its filamentconnective not extended and its thick stem.

     Etymology:— The new species is named after Mr. Takaomi Sugimoto, who collected ample specimens of this new species for the comparative study.



    Kenji Suetsugu and Tatsuki Nishioka. 2017.  Sciaphila sugimotoi (Triuridaceae), A New Mycoheterotrophic Plant from Ishigaki Island, Japan.
     Phytotaxa. 314(2); 279–284. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.314.2.10

    New non-photosynthesizing plant species discovered on Ishigaki island, J...
    eurekalert.org/e/7ttW via @KobeU_Global @EurekAlert


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    Hydrophis platurus xanthos 
    Bessesen & Galbreath, 2017

    ambush posture; floating at the sea surface at night in a sinusoidal shape, head below, mouth agape. 
    Abstract
    We describe a distinctive new subspecies of sea snake from the occasionally anoxic inner-basin waters of Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica, based on combined data garnered between 2010 and 2017 for 154 specimens, 123 free-ranging and 31 museum-held. The yellow sea snake, Hydrophis platurus xanthos Bessesen & Galbreath, subsp. n., is diagnosed by a notably smaller body size and nearly uniform yellow coloration, which contrasts with the black and yellow striae and tail spots or bands typical of the species. Within the modest geographic range (circa 320 km2), nearly all specimens possess both diagnostic character states. Bathymetrics appear to restrict genetic flow between this allopatric population and conspecifics in the broader Eastern Pacific. In perspicuous contrast to typical H. platurus, H. p. xanthos shows no association with drift lines, and feeds at night in turbulent waters, assuming a sinusoidal ambush posture never previously reported for the species. This evolutionarily significant unit (ESU) warrants taxonomic recognition and active protection.

    Keywords: Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica, sea snake, yellow color morph, platurus, type specimens, taxonomy



    Figure 2: Hydrophis platurus xanthos sharply contrasts typical H. platurus in color, body size and behavior.
    A Scaled size comparison of yellow sea snake, TL 43 cm (left), and yellow-bellied sea snake, TL 69 cm (right; note the use of Vetrap as a calming mask and sickly condition of the specimen) B ambush posture of H. p. xanthos; floating at the sea surface at night in a sinusoidal shape, head below, mouth agape C although predominantly yellow, xanthic individuals often possess black spots along the dorsum.
      
    Hydrophis platurus xanthos subsp. n.

    Diagnosis: Here we describe a new, allopatric subspecies, Hydrophis platurus xanthos subsp. n., or yellow sea snake, from the inner basin of Costa Rica’s Golfo Dulce. The new subspecies is diagnosed based on a dramatic color character state, as well as by a marked difference in body size. Aspects of behavior also appear to be unique.

    Etymology: From Greek xanthos, “yellow,” to highlight a diagnostic feature of this subspecies.

    Geographic distribution: The breeding population of Hydrophis platurus xanthos appears confined to approximately 320 sq.km. in the northern half of the Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica. A spatial gap up to 22 km separates the yellow sea snakes from the usually bi- or tricolored oceanic population, and appears to restrict genetic exchange (Bessesen 2012, Fig. 1).



    Conclusions
    Hydrophis platurus xanthos is a well-defined evolutionary subspecies inhabiting a small area of unusual geography. Given unique aspects of its behavioral ecology, it could well represent an intrinsically genetically isolated taxon of recent origin, in which case a species designation would be appropriate. We have been appropriately conservative here, in defining it at a subspecific level. This provides footing for protective strategies, while allowing future research to refine its taxonomic rank.


     Brooke L. Bessesen and Gary J. Galbreath. 2017. A New Subspecies of Sea Snake, Hydrophis platurus xanthos, from Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica.
     ZooKeys. 686: 109-123.  DOI:  10.3897/zookeys.686.12682