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[Entomology • 2020] Cymothales massaronei • A New Cymothales Gerstaecker (Neuroptera Myrmeleontidae) from the Gabonese Rainforest


Cymothales massaronei 
 Badano, 2020

Nine species of Cymothales, one of the most characteristic African antlion genera, are known from the Guineo-Congolian rainforests. A new species, Cymothales massaronei sp. nov. is described here from Gabon. Cymothales massaronei sp. nov. is characterized by the fifth tarsomere equal in length to the first tarsomere, but differs from all of the congeners with this character in the shape and markings of wings, shape of antenna and body pattern.

Keywords: Neuroptera, Neuropterida, Myrmeleontiformia, antlion, Afrotropical Region, Guineo-Congolian forests, Gabon

Myrmeleontidae Latreille, 1802
Dendroleontinae Banks, 1899

Dendroleontini Banks, 1899

Cymothales Gerstaecker, 1893

FIGURE 1. Cymothales massaronei sp. nov., holotype. A: habitus.
Scale bars, A: 10 mm.

FIGURE 1. Cymothales massaronei sp. nov., holotype.
B: head and thorax lateral view. C: head and pronotum, dorsal view. D: head, frontal view.

Scale bars, B: 2 mm, C–D: 1 mm.

Cymothales massaronei sp. nov.  

Etymology. The new species is named in honor of its collector, Carlo Massarone, who brought it to the attention of the author, as a sign of friendship.

Davide Badano. 2020. A New Cymothales Gerstaecker from the Gabonese Rainforest (Neuroptera Myrmeleontidae). Zootaxa. 4803(2); 345–354.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4803.2.6 

[Entomology • 2020] Rhachiella malawica from Malawi • Another Beauty of the Afrotropics (Neuroptera: Rhachiberothidae)


 Rhachiella malawica
Aspöck, Aspöck, Johnson, Donga & Duelli, 2020


A new species and a new genus of Rhachiberothidae, Rhachiella malawica gen. nov., spec. nov., are described from Malawi. The new species is characterized by a flat vertex, a long penisfilum in the male, and by a bifurcate pseudohypocauda in the female. This combination of characters requires the description of a new genus, which is the sister taxon of Mucroberotha Tjeder, 1959. This is the first record of Rhachiberothidae in Malawi.

 The distributions of all 14 species of Rhachiberothidae so far known are shown in three maps.

Keywords: Neuroptera, Neuropterida, Thorny Lacewings, taxonomy, distribution

 Rhachiella malawica spec. nov., paratype, female, habitus - Length of forewing 7 mm.
(photo: Thomas Reich, WSL Birmensdorf, Switzerland). 

Genus Rhachiella gen. nov.

 Rhachiella malawica spec. nov. 

Etymology: Rhachiella is derived from Rhachiberotha. It has feminine gender; malawica is an adjective derived from the country where the species has been discovered.

 Ulrike Aspöck, Horst Aspöck, James B. Johnson, Trust Kasambala Donga and Peter Duelli. 2020. Rhachiella malawica gen. nov., spec. nov. from Malawi— Another Beauty of the Afrotropics (Neuroptera: Rhachiberothidae). Zootaxa. 4808(1); 131–140. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4808.1.7

[Ichthyology • 2020] Systematic Reappraisal of the Anti-equatorial Fish Genus Microcanthus Swainson (Teleostei: Microcanthidae), with Redescription and Resurrection of Microcanthus joyceae Whitley


Microcanthus joyceae Whitley, 1931

in Tea & Gill, 2020

The taxonomy and classification of the microcanthid fish genus Microcanthus Swainson has been a subject of contention dating back to the 19th century. Its allopatric, disjunct anti-equatorial distribution across the Indo-West Pacific has resulted in the recognition of several nominal taxa, though these have been widely regarded as synonyms of Microcanthus strigatus (Cuvier). Following the results published in a companion study elsewhere by the authors, the taxonomy of Microcanthus and the validity of these nominal synonyms are herewith revised. Microcanthus strigatus is redescribed on the basis of 66 specimens from East Asia, Hawaii and Western Australia, and M. joyceae is resurrected and redescribed on the basis of 25 specimens from eastern Australia and the southwest Pacific. Microcanthus differs from other microcanthid genera in having the following combination of characters: dorsal-fin rays XI,15–17 (usually XI,16); anal-fin rays III,13–15 (usually III,14); pectoral-fin rays 15–17 (usually 16); scales ctenoid with ctenial bases present; lateral-line scales partially or heavily obscured by adjacent scales; and body pale in preservation with five horizontal dark stripes reaching the posterior edges of dorsal and anal fins, and base of caudal fin. The review is accompanied by a key to the genera of Microcanthidae.

Keywords: Pisces, taxonomy, ichthyology, cryptic species, anti-tropical, stripey

FIGURE 2. Genera of Microcanthidae. Tilodon and Neatypus are monotypic.
A) Tilodon sexfasciatusin situ photograph from Blairgowrie, Victoria, Australia; B) Neatypus obliquusin situ photograph from Bunbury, Western Australia;
C) Microcanthus joyceaein situ photograph from Magic Point, Maroubra, New South Wales, Australia; and D) Atypichthys strigatusin situ photograph from Henry Head, Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia.
Photographs by S. Schulz (A), C. Mark (B), and E. Schlogl (C & D).

Microcanthus Swainson

Etymology. The generic epithet Microcanthus is a combination of the Greek “mikros” for small, and “akantha” for thorn, alluding to the minute crenulations on the preopercle (Swainson 1839). 

Microcanthus strigatus (Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831)

Etymology. The specific epithet strigatus is the Latin for strigate, in having transverse bands or streaks of colour. 

FIGURE 9. Microcanthus joyceae, in situ photograph from Shelly Beach, Manly, New South Wales, Australia. Note the anal-fin stripe without a downward inflection, and the lack of spots on the lower abdomen. Photograph by E. Schlogl.

Microcanthus joyceae Whitley (1931) 

Etymology. The species is named after Joyce K. Allan, who provided Whitley with illustrations of this species for his original description. To be treated as a noun in the genitive case. While Whitley did not provide a common name in his description, he alluded to its vernacular name, the “Stripey,” commonly used by locals in New South Wales, Australia. Since the use of this name is pervasive throughout the region, we choose to retain it in part as the common name, proposing the usage of “East-Australian Stripey” instead to distinguish M. joyceae from M. strigatus.

  Yi-Kai Tea and Anthony C. Gill. 2020. Systematic Reappraisal of the Anti-equatorial Fish Genus Microcanthus Swainson (Teleostei: Microcanthidae), with Redescription and Resurrection of Microcanthus joyceae Whitley. Zootaxa. 4802(1); 41–60. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4802.1.3

[Herpetology • 2020] A Revision of the Asian Tree Toad Complex Rentapia hosii (Anura: Bufonidae) with the Description of, Rentapia flavomaculata, A New Species from Peninsular Malaysia


คางคกต้นไม้ ||  Rentapia flavomaculata
 Chan, Abraham & Badli-Sham, 2020

Distribution of samples used in this study. Inset photographs depict the distinct phenotypes present within the Rentapia hosii complex:  Rentapia flavomaculata, new species, from Peninsular Malaysia; R. hosii s.s. from Sarawak (Photo by Alexander Haas); R. cf. hosii from Tawau, Sabah (Photo by Robert F. Inger).

 We present a systematic revision of the Rentapia hosii complex based on morphological and bioacoustic data. In conjunction with genetic data from a previous study, our results show that populations from Peninsular Malaysia are distinct from the name-bearing population of R. hosii from Sarawak in terms of morphometrics, colour-pattern, and to a lesser degree, male advertisement call. Therefore, we describe the Peninsular Malaysian populations as a new species (Rentapia flavomaculata, new species) and provide a discussion on morphological variation among Bornean populations. 

Key words. bioacoustics, integrative taxonomy, morphology, systematics

Fig. 1. Distribution of samples used in this study. Inset photographs depict the distinct phenotypes present within the Rentapia hosii complex [Photo credit: Alexander Haas (Sarawak); Robert F. Inger (Sabah) ©Field Museum of Natural History]. FMNH 248199. Created by Field Museum of Natural History, Amphibian and Reptile Collection and licensed under CC-BY-SA 4.0.

 amplecting Rentapia flavomaculata, new species, displaying (A) normal and (B) stressed colouration.

Rentapia flavomaculata, new species
Yellow-spotted Tree Toad
Nectophryne hosii Boulenger, 1892: 508.
Pedostibes hosii Barbour, 1938: 192.
Rentapia hosii Chan et al., 2016: 9.

Diagnosis. Rentapia flavomaculata, new species, can be differentiated from other congeners by the following combination of characters: adult females large (up to 105 mm SVL); dorsum relatively smooth; no distinct tubercles on dorsal aspect of nuchal region; in life, dorsal colour light green, ventral colour greyish-green; bright yellow spots on back, side of head, flanks, dorsal surface of limbs, gular, ventrolateral region, and chest; spots absent on top of head and sparser (sometimes absent) on back. In males, dorsal colouration uniform brown to reddish-brown with no distinct markings; venter light grey with no distinct markings; gular sac blackish; nuptial pad present on dorsal surface of thumb; single, internal subgular vocal sac.

Distribution. Rentapia flavomaculata, new species, is confirmed to occur throughout Peninsular Malaysia and southern Thailand (south of the Isthmus of Kra).

Natural history. All species in the Rentapia hosii group are typically arboreal and occur in lowland forests from 20–525 m a.s.l. (Inger, 1966). Females are encountered much less frequently than males and are usually observed during breeding, where they descend from treetops to breed in pools of water along small to moderately sized forest streams. Females have been observed perched on branches up to 25 m above ground in the forest canopy near fast-flowing rivers. Males call from elevated perches and multiple individuals can usually be heard along a single stretch of stream. In females, base colour changes relatively rapidly from light green to dark grey when handled, stressed, and preserved (Fig. 7A, B). Males can change from light to a darker shade of brown.

Etymology. The specific epithet is constructed from the Latin adjectives flavo (= yellow) and maculata (= spotted) in reference to the species’ diagnostic yellow spots.

Fig. 7. Live photographs of: amplecting Rentapia flavomaculata, new species, displaying (A) normal and (B) stressed colouration;
(C) female R. hosii s.s. from Sarawak (Photo by Alexander Haas);
(D) female R. cf. hosii from Tawau, Sabah (Photo by Robert F. Inger; ©Field Museum of Natural History. FMNH 248199. Created by Field Museum of Natural History, Amphibian and Reptile Collection and licensed under CC-BY-SA 4.0); and (E) uncollected female from Tawau, Sabah (Photo by A. Haas).

Kin Onn Chan, Robin K. Abraham and Baizul Hafsyam Badli-Sham. 2020. A Revision of the Asian Tree Toad Complex Rentapia hosii (Anura: Bufonidae) with the Description of A New Species from Peninsular Malaysia. RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY. 68; 595–607.  

[Paleontology • 2020] Schleitheimia schutzi • A derived Sauropodiform Dinosaur and other Sauropodomorph Material from the Late Triassic of Canton Schaffhausen, Switzerland


Schleitheimia schutzi
Rauhut, Holwerda & Furrer, 2020

Illustration: Beat Scheffold

Although sauropodomorph dinosaurs have been known for a long time from the Late Triassic of central Europe, sauropodomorph diversity and faunal composition has remained controversial until today. Here we review sauropodomorph material from the Canton Schaffhausen, Switzerland. The material comes from three different but geographically close localities and represents at least three different taxa. Apart from the common genus Plateosaurus, the material includes remains of two different large, robustly built sauropodomorphs. One of these is described as a new taxon, Schleitheimia schutzi n. gen. et sp., on the basis of an unusual ilium and associated axial and appendicular material. Schleitheimia represents a derived basal sauropodiform and possibly the immediate outgroup to Sauropoda, and thus is the most derived sauropodomorph known from the Late Triassic of Europe. These results thus highlight the diversity of sauropodomorphs in the Late Triassic of central Europe and further indicate widespread sauropodomorph survival across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.

Keywords: Late Triassic, Switzerland, Sauropodomorpha, Sauropod origins

Posterior cervical vertebra of Schleitheimia schutzi n. gen., n. sp., PIMUZ A/III 538. a, b left and right lateral views; c dorsal view; d anterior view; e posterior view; f ventral view.
aas, anterior articular surface; na, neural arch; ld, lateral depression; nc, neural canal; pap, parapophysis; vk, ventral keel; vlr, ventrolateral ridge. Scale bar equals 5 cm

Systematic palaeontology
Dinosauria OWEN, 1842.
Sauropodomorpha HUENE, 1932.
Sauropodiformes SERENO 2007 (sensu McPhee et al. 2014).

Schleitheimia n. gen.

Type species. Schleitheimia schutzi sp. nov.

Etymology. Genus name refers to the type locality at Schleitheim, Canton Schaffhausen, Switzerland.

Schleitheimia schutzi sp. nov.

Etymology. Species epithet honours the collector of the type material, Emil Schutz (1916–1974).

Holotype. PIMUZ A/III 550, partial right ilium.

Type locality and horizon. The type locality is Santierge (Fig. 1), a hill situated 900 m south of the church of Schleitheim in the Swiss Canton Schaffhausen (47° 44′ 30″ N, 8° 29′ 13″ S). The material, collected in the Bratelen Bonebed (“Rhät-Bonebed”), was most probably derived from the uppermost part of the ‚Zanclodonmergel‘(= Knollenmergel), now called Gruhalde Member of the Klettgau Formation, uppermost Norian (Jordan et al. 2016).

Diagnosis. The new taxon can be diagnosed by the following autapomorphies: medial brevis shelf of ilium developed as dorsoventrally broad, rounded ridge just below the mid-height of the iliac blade on the medial side that ends in a large, round expansion at the posterior end of the ilium; fourth trochanter of the femur very robust and arises gradually out of the posterior surface of the bone at about its mid-width towards its apex at the posteromedial margin; crista tibiofibularis of the femur exceptionally broad and only very slightly offset medially from the lateral margin of the shaft, so that no posteriorly facing shelf is present lateral to the crista.

Time-calibrated cladogram of basal sauropodomorph relationships (based on the unweighted analysis), showing the survival of numerous lineages (including sauropods) across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary

Fragmentary sauropodomorph remains from the probably Late Norian of Schaffhausen, Switzerland, that were long considered to represent the common central European genus Plateosaurus can be shown to represent a separate taxon of non-sauropodan sauropodomorphs, Schleitheimia schutzi. The recognition of this new taxon, together with an evaluation of other sauropodomorph material from the Late Triassic of Schaffhausen shows that at least three different basal sauropodomorph taxa were present in the Norian of Switzerland. Schleitheimia is a derived sauropodiform and might even represent the immediate outgroup to sauropods. In the context of a phylogenetic analysis, the new taxon indicates that the Triassic/Jurassic extinction event probably only had a minor effect on sauropodomorph evolution, and that the ascent of sauropods was delayed until the late Early Jurassic, when other basal sauropodomorph lineages perished in the Pliensbachian/Toarcian extinction event and gave way to an explosive radiation of that clade.

Oliver W. M. Rauhut, Femke M. Holwerda and Heinz Furrer. 2020. A derived Sauropodiform Dinosaur and other Sauropodomorph Material from the Late Triassic of Canton Schaffhausen, Switzerland.  Swiss Journal of Geosciences [Swiss J Geosci]113, 8.  DOI: 10.1186/s00015-020-00360-8

[Herpetology • 2020] Tylototriton phukhaensis • A New Species of Tylototriton (Urodela: Salamandridae) from Nan Province, Northern Thailand


กระท่างน้ำดอยภูคา  ||  Tylototriton phukhaensis 
Pomchote, Khonsue, Thammachoti, Hernandez, Suwannapoom et Nishikawa

in Pomchote, Khonsue, ... et Nishikawa, 2020. 

A new species of the genus Tylototriton, obtained from Doi Phu Kha National Park, Nan Province, northern Thailand,is described based on molecular and morphological evidenceand named herein as Tylototriton phukhaensis sp. nov. The new speciesis morphologically distinct from thefour known Thai Tylototriton species(T. panhai, T. uyenoi, T. anguliceps and T. verrucosus),in having a prominent, narrow, and straight sagittal ridge on the head that distinguishes itfrom the other Thai species.The molecular analysis also indicated that the new species is a distinct lineage and sister to T. anguliceps and T. uyenoi.The knowledge obtained in this study will greatly contributeto conductingthe future conservation of Thai Tylototriton.

KEY WORDS: molecular phylogeny, morphology, new species, Thailand, Tylototriton

FIGURE 4. Male Tylototriton phukhaensis sp. nov. in its habitat.
Photo by Porrawee Pomchote. 

Tylototriton phukhaensis Pomchote, Khonsue, Thammachoti, Hernandez, Suwannapoom et Nishikawa sp. nov.

(Thai name: กระท่างน้ำดอยภูคา - Kra Tang Nam Doi Phu Kha)
(English name: Doi Phu Kha newt)

Tylototriton  errucosus: Nabhitabhata and Chan-ard (2005): 181.
Tylototriton uyenoi: Hernandez (2016): 168.

Diagnosis: The new species is placed in the genus Tylototriton by having the combination of dorsal  granules present; dorsolateral bony ridges on head present; knob-like warts (rib nodules) on dorsolateral body present; quadrate spine absent. Tylototriton  phukhaensis sp. nov. differs from  other congeners by having the following morphological characters: medium size, adult SVL 64.3 mm in male and 68.9–70.2 mm in females; skin rough with fine granules; sagittal ridge on head narrow, long, and distinct; vertebral ridge distinct and weakly segmented; rib nodules prominent; limbs long and thin;tips of forelimb and hindlimb overlapping when adpressed along body; tail thin.

Etymology: The specific epithet phukhaensisis derived from the name of Doi Phu Kha National Park, where the species occurs.

Distribution: The distribution of Tylototriton phukhaensis sp. nov.is currently only known from a single locality in atemporary  swamp in  the Doi Dong Ya  Wai  Mountain, Doi Phu Kha National Park,  Nan Province, northern Thailandat an elevation of 1,795 m  amsl (Fig. 7). The  Phu  Kha Mountain or Doi Phu Kha is one of the mountains located along the Luang Prabang Range that  consists of a series of high mountain ranges from Thailand to Laos (Fig.1). Thus, the range distribution of this species is expected to be wider.

Porrawee Pomchote, Wichase Khonsue, Panupong Thammachoti, Axel Hernandez, Parada Peerachidacho, Chatmongkon Suwannapoom, Yasuho Onishi and Kanto Nishikawa. 2020. A New Species of Tylototriton (Urodela: Salamandridae) from Nan Province, Northern Thailand. Tropical Natural History. 20(2); 144-161. tci-thaijo.org/index.php/TNH/article/view/240064

[Fungi • 2020] Amanita brunneofolia • A New Species and Two New Records of Amanita (Amanitaceae; Basidiomycota) from South Korea


Amanita brunneofolia J.W. Jo, H.S. Kim, Y.-N. Kwag & C.S. Kim

in Jo, Kwag, Kim, ... et Kim, 2020. 

A new species of Amanita sect. RoanokensesA. brunneofolia, from South Korea, is described based on morphological and molecular evidences. The species is characterized by medium- to large-sized basidiomata, a greenish white pileus covered with brownish, floccose pyramidal volval remnants, an appendiculate margin, reddish brown lamellae, a long radicating stipe, and ellipsoid to elongate amyloid basidiospores. Based on both nrLSU and combined dataset (nrLSU, rpb2 and tef1-α), A. brunneofolia formed a monophyletic clade and clearly separated from other Amanita species. In addition, we describe two other Amanita species in A. sect. Roanokenses, namely, A. caojizong and A. sphaerobulbosa. This is the first report of these species for South Korea.

Keywords: Amanitaceae, morphology, new taxon, phylogeny, taxonomy, Fungi

Amanita brunneofolia, KA19-0899-1.

Amanita brunneofolia J.W. Jo, H.S. Kim, Y.-N. Kwag & C.S. Kim, sp. nov.

Diagnosis:— Characterized by a yellowish white to greenish white pileus with brownish floccose pyramidal volval remnants; brownish lamellae; a long radicating stipe; a fragile and fugacious, greenish white partial veil; ellipsoid to elongate, amyloid basidiospores; clamps present in all parts of the basidioma. Associated with Quercus acutissima

Type:— SOUTH KOREA. Incheon-si: Ganghwa-gun, Ganghwa-eup, ..., elev. 163 m, under Quercus acutissima, 30 August 2019, JO 190315 (KA19-0899-1, holotype!), GenBank accession numbers: MT385144 (nrLSU), MT412397 (rpb2), MT412403 (tef1-α). 

Etymology:— brunneofolia’, from brunneus = brown, and folia = leaf, referring to the characteristic brown lamellae of the species.

Jong Won Jo, Young-Nam Kwag, Hyung So Kim, Hyun Lee, Sang-Kuk Han, Jae-Gu Han, Seung Hwan Oh and Chang Sun Kim. 2020. A New Species and Two New Records of Amanita (Amanitaceae; Basidiomycota) from South Korea. Phytotaxa. 451(1); 21–33. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.451.1.2

[Botany • 2020] Lintersemina chucuriensis (Rubiaceae: Condamineeae) • A New and Enigmatic Genus from the Magdalena Medio Region of Colombia


Lintersemina chucuriensis H. Mendoza-Cifuentes, A. Celis & M.A. González

in Mendoza-Cifuentes, ... et González, 2020. 

A new genus, Lintersemina (Condamineeae, Rubiaceae), with a single species, L. chucuriensis is here described, based on recent collections made during a biological exploration to the Magdalena Medio Region of Santander Department, central portion of Colombia. This region is of high interest for both the high endemicity of its flora and fauna and the critical conservation status of this biodiversity due to high levels of deforestation. Lintersemina is unique within the tribe Condamineeae for the following combination of characters: axillary, long-pedunculate inflorescences, loculicidal capsules with 1-2 seeds per locule, and large navicular seeds. Based on phylogenies obtained using plastid and nuclear sequence data, the genus is positioned in the Condamineeae (subfamily Ixoroideae), as a sister group to the genera Simira and Parachimarrhis. This new genus is only known from two localities at the foothills of the Yariguíes National Park, in the municipalities of El Carmen de Chucurí and Zapatoca, at 400–800 m elevation, in forest undercanopy, near streams. Threats of deforestation and a very low population density were assessed, and this species classified as Critically Endangered (CR) following IUCN criteria. Full description and illustrations are also included.

Keywords: Conservation, flora of Colombia, Santander, Tropical humid Forest, Eudicots

FIGURE 3. Lintersemina chucuriensis.
A, Habit; B, Terminal stipule; C, Inflorescence; D, Bract; E, Apical flowering branch; F. floral bud; G, flower, side view; H, corolla, top view; I, flower, longitudinal section; J, Stamen; K, hypanthium and ovary, longitudinal section; L, hypanthium and ovary, horizontal section; M, fruit; N, Seeds.
Based on Mendoza et al. 20165. Drawn by Suaty Daniela Torres.

Lintersemina H. Mendoza-Cifuentes & A. Celis & M.A. González, gen. nov. 

Type species:— Lintersemina chucuriensis H. Mendoza-Cifuentes, A. Celis & M.A. González 

Diagnosis:— This new genus is unique within the tribe Condamineeae by the following combination of characters: axillary, long-pedunculate inflorescences, ovary with 1–2 ovules per locule, loculicidal capsules, and large, terete, navicular (boat-shaped) seeds. Treelet. Leaves opposite, decussate, petiolate; petioles slightly thickened at the base; blade venation brochidodromous, with secondary veins ascending and arcuate. Stipules interpetiolar, readily caducous, only found at apical buds and youngest nodes, with colleters in adaxial surface, resinous. Inflorescences axillary, subterminal, corymbose cymes, pedunculate, many-flowered; with two types of bracts, the basal ones subtending the inflorescence leaf-like, the distal ones triangular. Flowers hermaphroditic, protandrous, 5- or 6-merous, actinomorphic, pedicellate, erect. Calyx persistent in fruit. Corolla aestivation left-contorted. Stamens included; anthers opening by longitudinal slits. Ovary 2-locular, placentation axile, ovules 1 or 2 in each locule; style included, with two stigmatic branches. Fruit a loculicidal capsule. Seeds >1 cm long, terete, navicular, with membranaceous structures along the raphe. A monospecific genus, endemic to Magdalena Medio Region of Colombia, growing in tropical rainforest. 

Etymology:— The name of this genus refers to its navicular (boat-shaped) seeds. 

FIGURE 4. Lintersemina chucuriensis.
A, habit; B, flowering branch; C, flower, front view; D, fruits; E, leaf margin (from dry material); F, warty bodies on abaxial leaf surface (from dry material); G, Stipule, adaxial surface (from dry material).
Photos A, B, C, D by Angela Celis; E, F, G by Humberto Mendoza. From Mendoza et al. 20165.

Lintersemina chucuriensis H. Mendoza-Cifuentes, A. Celis & M.A. González, spec. nov.

Habitat:— Lintersemina chucuriensis grows in shady undercanopy of tropical forest, near streams (Figure 7). 

Distribution:— Lintersemina chucuriensis is known from two localities in the Santander Department, Colombia, between 400 and 800 m elevation, in the lower part of the western foothills of the Cordillera Oriental, area associated with the ecoregion known as the Magdalena Medio (Figure 6). The forest at the site comprises the last remains of lowland inter-Andean rainforests in the Colombian Magdalena River valley region, and its condition consists of fragments in the matrix of paddocks and cocoa crops; most of the trees valuable for timber have been harvested (Figure 7).

Humberto Mendoza-Cifuentes, Angela Celis, Eduardo Tovar, Mailyn A. González. 2020. Lintersemina (Rubiaceae: Condamineeae), A New and Enigmatic Genus from the Magdalena Medio Region of Colombia. Phytotaxa. 451(1); 1–20. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.451.1.1

[Herpetology • 2020] Pseudopaludicola coracoralinae • Reassessment of the Taxonomic Status of Pseudopaludicola parnaiba (Anura, Leptodactylidae, Leiuperinae), with the Description of A New Cryptic Species from the Brazilian Cerrado


Pseudopaludicola coracoralinae
 Andrade, Haga, Lyra, Carvalho, Haddad, Giaretta & Toledo, 2020

The Neotropical frog genus Pseudopaludicola includes 25 species distributed throughout South America. Herein we review the taxonomic status of P. parnaiba relative to P. canga and the specific identity of the population treated in previous studies as Pseudopaludicola sp. 3 from Barreirinhas in the Brazilian state of Maranhão. The lack of differentiation in advertisement call, morphology, and mitochondrial markers from topotypes and different populations rejects the status of P. parnaiba and Pseudopaludicola sp. 3 from Barreirinhas as distinct species. For these reasons, we suggest to formally consider P. parnaiba as a junior synonym of P.canga. We also found that a population previously reported as P. facureae from central Brazil (Palmeiras de Goiás, Goiás) corresponds to a cryptic species that we describe here as a new species. Lastly, we provide for the first time the phylogenetic positions of P. giarettai, P. llanera and P. pusilla.

Keywords: integrative taxonomy; Pseudopaludicola canga; mitochondrial DNA; morphologically cryptic species

Fig. 5. Holotype and five paratypes of Pseudopaludicola coracoralinae sp. nov. in life.
A. ZUEC 24704 (holotype, adult ♂ and call voucher), SVL = 13.1 mm. B. ZUEC 24703 (adult ♂ and call voucher), SVL = 13.2 mm. C. ZUEC 24707 (adult ♂), SVL = 12.5 mm. D. ZUEC 24712 (adult ♀), SVL = 16.0 mm. E. ZUEC 24705 (adult ♀), SVL = 16.8 mm. F. ZUEC 24706 (adult ♀), SVL = 17.0 mm.

Class Amphibia Linnaeus, 1758 
Order Anura Fischer von Waldheim, 1813 
Family Leptodactylidae Werner, 1896 (1838) 
Subfamily Leiuperinae Bonaparte, 1850 

Genus Pseudopaludicola Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926 

Pseudopaludicola coracoralinae sp. nov. 

Pseudopaludicola facureae from Palmeiras de Goiás, GO 
— Carvalho et al. 2015a: 267, 271, table 4, appendix 1–2. 

Diagnosis:Pseudopaludicola coracoralinae sp. nov. is assigned to Pseudopaludicola by having a hypertrophied antebrachial tubercle (see Lynch 1989; Lobo 1995) and by its phylogenetic position within the genus. The new species is characterized by the following combination of characters: (1) upper eyelids smooth, without enlarged palpebral tubercles; (2) heel smooth, without conical tubercle; (3) single, subgular vocal sac, cream-colored with white or off-white warts; (4) terminal phalanges knobbed, without T-shaped terminal phalanges or expanded toe tips; (5) relative short hind limbs (tibio-tarsal articulation just reaching the corner of the mouth); (6) trilled advertisement call pattern, composed of 2–6 welldefined series of tonal notes, having each series of 7–116 notes, emitted at rates of 1485–2077 notes per minute. 

Etymology: The specific name honors Anna Lins dos Guimarães Peixoto Bretas, better known by her pseudonym Cora Coralina. She was a simple woman, a Brazilian candy maker, writer and poetess. She was born and raised on the banks of the Vermelho River, in the municipality of Goiás, GO, and lived apart from urban centers. Cora Coralina studied until the third year of elementary school and did a typing course at the age of 70, due to a requirement of the publisher that would publish her first book. She is considered one of the most influential Brazilian writers. Although Cora Coralina wrote her first verses during her adolescence, she had her first book (Poemas dos Becos de Goiás e Estórias Mais) published in June 1965, when she was 75 years old. In 1984, the Brazilian Union of Writers awarded her the “literary personality of the year”. Following that honor, Carlos Drummond de Andrade, another distinguished Brazilian poet, said: “I admire Cora Coralina and her mastery of living in a state of grace with her poetry. Her verse is like running waters, her lyricism has the power and delicacy of the natural world.”

Felipe Silva de Andrade, Isabelle Aquemi Haga, Mariana Lúcio Lyra, Thiago Ribeiro de Carvalho, Célio Fernando Baptista Haddad, Ariovaldo Antonio Giaretta and Luís Felipe Toledo. 2020. Reassessment of the Taxonomic Status of Pseudopaludicola parnaiba (Anura, Leptodactylidae, Leiuperinae), with the Description of A New Cryptic Species from the Brazilian Cerrado. European Journal of Taxonomy.  679; 1-36. DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2020.679

[Paleontology • 2020] Protocinctus mansillaensis • Potential Evolutionary Trade‐off Between Feeding and Stability in Cambrian Cinctan Echinoderms


 Protocinctus mansillaensis 
Rahman & Zamora, 2009

Reconstruction of the cinctan Protocinctus mansillaensis in life position.

in Rahman, O'Shea, Lautenschlager & Zamora, 2020. 
 Illustration: Óscar Sanisidro. 

Reconstructing the function and behaviour of extinct groups of echinoderms is problematic because there are no modern analogues for their aberrant body plans. Cinctans, an enigmatic group of Cambrian echinoderms, exemplify this problem: their asymmetrical body plan differentiates them from all living species. Here, we used computational fluid dynamics to analyse the functional performance of cinctans without assuming an extant comparative model. Three‐dimensional models of six species from across cinctan phylogeny were used in computer simulations of water flow. The results demonstrate that cinctans with strongly flattened bodies produced much less drag than species characterized by dorsal protuberances or swellings, suggesting the former were more stable on the seafloor. However, unlike the flattened forms, cinctans with high‐relief bodies were able to passively direct flow towards the mouth and associated food grooves, indicating that they were capable of more efficient feeding on particles suspended in the water. This study provides evidence of a previously unknown evolutionary trade‐off between feeding and stability in Cambrian cinctan echinoderms.

Keywords: echinoderm, cinctan, Cambrian, computational fluid dynamics, function, evolutionary trade‐off

Imran A. Rahman, James O'Shea, Stephan Lautenschlager and Samuel Zamora. 2020. Potential Evolutionary Trade‐off Between Feeding and Stability in Cambrian Cinctan Echinoderms. Palaeontology. DOI: 10.5061/dryad.12   

[Paleontology • 2020] A Revision of the Early Jurassic Ichthyosaur Hauffiopteryx (Reptilia: Ichthyosauria), and Description of A New Species from southwestern Germany


Hauffiopteryx typicus (von Huene, 1931)

in Maxwell & Cortés, 2020.
 DOI: 10.26879/937  

Hauffiopteryx typicus is an Early Jurassic ichthyosaur species from Europe, for which geographically partitioned morphological variation between specimens from England and Germany has been described. We provide a complete anatomical description of the German material to address this taxonomical issue. We also identify and describe a new species of Hauffiopteryx from the southwest German Basin, Hauffiopteryx altera sp. nov., differring from H. typicus in the morphology of the arrangement of cranial elements surrounding the external nares. A phylogenetic analysis recovers the German and English material referred to H. typicus as sister taxa, suggesting that these are indeed conspecific. H. typicus forms a monophyletic group with H. altera and a specimen from the Pliensbachian of Switzerland previously referred to Leptonectes tenuirostris but consistent with H. typicus. We conclude that Hauffiopteryx represents a valid genus, defined by a set of synapomorphies from both the skull and postcranium. Parsimony analysis recovers Hauffiopteryx as sister taxon to Stenopterygius + Ophthalmosauridae.

Keywords: Hauffiopteryx; new species; Posidonienschiefer Formation; Germany; Toarcian; Early Jurassic

ICHTHYOSAURIA Blainville, 1835
PARVIPELVIA Motani, 1999


Type species. Hauffiopteryx typicus (von Huene, 1931)

Revised generic diagnosis. A small- to mid-sized ichthyosaur, 2-3 m in length, with relatively short and slender antorbital rostrum; slight overbite present (unlike Eurhinosaurus, Excalibosaurus in which a substantial overbite is present); prefrontal participating in margin of external naris (unlike Eurhinosaurus, Leptonectes, Stenopterygius); nasals with a greater contribution to the dorsal midline of the rostrum anterior to the external narial opening than the premaxillae (unlike Stenopterygius); prefrontal with larger external exposure on dorsal skull roof than the postfrontal (unlike Stenopterygius); parietal foramen situated anterior to the supratemporal fenestra (situated at the same level as the anterior edge of the supratemporal fenestra in Stenopterygius); supratemporal fenestra small and circular in dorsal view (similar to Eurhinosaurus but unlike Stenopterygius); supratemporal palmate in posterodorsal view (similar to Eurhinosaurus, unlike Stenopterygius); teeth with smooth enamel (unlike Suevoleviathan); gastralia extending posteriorly to the thirty-fifth presacral vertebra (unique feature among Toarcian ichthyosaurs); rib tuberculum and capitulum widely separated in the dorsal region (unlike Temnodontosaurus, Suevoleviathan, Eurhinosaurus); glenoid end of scapula anteriorly expanded (unlike in Temnodontosaurus); coracoid with anterior notch, foramen between humerus, radius, and ulna absent (unlike Suevoleviathan, Temnodontosaurus trigonodon); anterior digit in both fore- and hindfins with notches on the anterior edge (unlike in Suevoleviathan); proximal limb elements angular and forming a tightly articulated mosaic; ischium and pubis thin and styloidal, fused laterally but widely separated medially (autapomorphic); fibula larger than the tibia; hindfin digits converging distally.

FIGURE 1. Hauffiopteryx typicus. A, lectotype, GPIT 1491/4; B, SMNS 51552; C, SMNS 80226. Part 1B © SMNS / M. Wahler.

FIGURE 2. Hauffiopteryx typicus, cranial morphology.
A–G, overview of cranial morphology. A, lectotype, GPIT 1491/ 4; B, SMNS 51552; C, MHH 9; D, SMNS 80226. E, basioccipital in ventral view (SMNS 80226); F, maxillary and posterior dentary teeth (GPIT 1491/4); G, anterior mandible with displaced teeth (SMNS 80226). Scale bars in cm (parts B, D, E).

 Abbreviations: an, angular; bo, basioccipital; de, dentary; hc, hyoid corpus; hy, hyoid element; en, external narial opening; ex, exoccipital; f, frontal; j, jugal; la, lacrimal; lj, lower jaw; mx, maxilla; n, nasal; op, opisthotic; pa, parietal; pal, palatine; pf, prefrontal; pl, palate; pm, premaxilla; po, postorbital; pof, postfrontal; pt, pterygoid; Q, quadrate; qj, quadratojugal; sa, surangular; scr, sclerotic ring; sp, splenial; sq, squamosal; st, supratemporal; s, stapes; utf, supratemporal fenestra.

FIGURE 4. Postcranial morphology of Hauffiopteryx typicus.
 A, anterior neural spines of the lectotype GPIT 1491/4, note the broad axial neural spine of the same height as the neural spine of C3 but twice as wide. B, Fused atlas-axis complex (SMNS 80226); C, gastralia in the mid-dorsal region of SMNS 80226, the arrow indicates the boomerangshaped medial element (see also inset);
D, reconstruction of Hauffiopteryx typicus; the shape and position of the dorsal and caudal fins are based on the lectotype. Anterior is to the left in all parts. Scale bars in cm (parts B, C).
 Abbreviations: at-ax, atlas-axis complex; ns2, neural spine (axis).

Hauffiopteryx typicus (von Huene, 1931)

Hauffiopteryx altera sp. nov. 
 2005 Eurhinosaurus longirostris (Mantell, 1851): Jäger, p. 29, fig. 23. 

 Etymology. The specific epithet is derived from the Latin altera, which means different from/other and refers to the anatomical divergence from the type species, H. typicus.

We found no evidence that the English and German material referred to the genus Hauffiopteryx represent separate species; however, we do find evidence that two species of Hauffiopteryx were present in the Early Jurassic of the Southwest German Basin: H. typicus and H. altera sp. nov. These two taxa are differentiated primarily based on characters pertaining to the lacrimal, prefrontal, and jugal. In addition, we refer a specimen previously considered to be Leptonectes tenuirostris to Hauffiopteryx typicus, extending the range of the genus into the Pliensbachian. This result is supported by phylogenetic analysis, which recovers Hauffiopteryx as a sister group to Stenopterygius + Ophthalmosauridae. Hauffiopteryx represents a valid genus, defined by a suite of synapomorphies involving both the skull and postcranium. However, the functional and paleoecological significance of these characters differentiating Hauffiopteryx from the superficially similar genus Stenopterygius are unclear.

Erin E. Maxwell and Dirley Cortés. 2020. A Revision of the Early Jurassic Ichthyosaur Hauffiopteryx (Reptilia: Ichthyosauria), and Description of A New Species from southwestern Germany. Palaeontologia Electronica. 23(2); a31. DOI: 10.26879/937 

Plain Language Abstract: Hauffiopteryx is a small ichthyosaur, 2–3 meters in length, with small, pointed teeth and large eyes. It is known from the Early Jurassic (~182 million years ago) of southwestern Germany and England, but is most abundant in the Posidonia Shale of southwestern Germany, a world famous Early Jurassic fossil locality. Hauffiopteryx contains only one named species, H. typicus; however, there has been some debate as to whether the German and English finds are actually different species. We examined the anatomy of the German Hauffiopteryx specimens in detail in order to answer this question. This study revealed a second species of Hauffiopteryx from Dotternhausen, Germany, Hauffiopteryx altera sp. nov., differing from H. typicus in skull characteristics. We found no evidence that the English and German specimens referred to Hauffiopteryx typicus represent different species. Additionally, we identified the oldest record of Hauffiopteryx from the Pliensbachian of Switzerland, more than two million years older than the German and English finds. Hauffiopteryx is closely related to Stenopterygius + Ophthalmosauridae, the lineage of ichthyosaurs that includes some of the last representatives of the group.

[Entomology • 2020] Remarks on the Genus Tachycines Adelung, 1902 (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae: Aemodogryllinae) with Description of Eight New Species from Caves in southern China


Tachycines (Gymnaetaparadoxus 
Zhu, Chen & Shi, 2020

This paper describes eight new cave-dwelling species of the genus Tachycines from Guizhou, Hunan, Guangxi and Sichuan, i.e. Tachycines (Gymnaeta) liboensis sp. nov., Tachycines (Gymnaeta) bifolius sp. nov., Tachycines (Gymnaeta)tuberus sp. nov., Tachycines (Gymnaetaparadoxus sp. nov., Tachycines (Gymnaeta) umbellus sp. nov., Tachycines (Gymnaeta) nulliscleritus sp. nov., Tachycines (Gymnaeta) taenus sp. nov. and Tachycines (Gymnaeta) latiliconcavus sp. nov. The females of T. (G.) ferecaecus (Gorochov, Rampini & Di Russo, 2006) and T. (G.) proximus (Gorochov, Rampini & Di Russo, 2006) are first recorded. Moreover, we consider T. (G.) aspes (Rampini & Di Russo, 2008) as a valid species instead of a synonym of T. (G.) proximus (Gorochov, Rampini & Di Russo, 2006) according to obviously different reduction of fastigium verticis and eyes, higher number of spines on the hind tibia and the shape of male genitalia. Furthermore, Eutachycinescrenatus (Gorochov, Rampini & Di Russo, 2006) should be retransferred to the subgenus Tachycines (Gymnaeta) due to the diagnosis of genus Eutachycines: dorsal sclerite of male genitalia with a protuberance in the upper part. Therefore, it should still belong to the subgenus Tachycines (Gymnaeta). In addition, morphological photographs of the eight new species and five known species are provided, including eyeless species.

Keywords: Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae, Tachycines, new species, caves, China

Qidi Zhu, Huiming Chen and Fuming Shi. 2020. Remarks on the Genus Tachycines Adelung, 1902 (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae: Aemodogryllinae) with Description of Eight New Species from Caves in southern China. Zootaxa. 4809(1); 71–94.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4809.1.4

[Paleontology • 2020] Kongonaphon kely • A Tiny Ornithodiran Archosaur from the Triassic of Madagascar and the Role of Miniaturization in Dinosaur and Pterosaur Ancestry


Kongonaphon kely 
Kammerer, Nesbitt, Flynn, Ranivoharimanana & Wyss, 2020

Illustration: Alex Boersma 

Early members of the dinosaur–pterosaur clade Ornithodira are very rare in the fossil record, obscuring our understanding of the origins of this important group. Here, we describe an early ornithodiran (Kongonaphon kely gen. et sp. nov.) from the Mid-to-Upper Triassic of Madagascar that represents one of the smallest nonavian ornithodirans. Although dinosaurs and gigantism are practically synonymous, an analysis of body size evolution in dinosaurs and other archosaurs in the context of this taxon and related forms demonstrates that the earliest-diverging members of the group may have been smaller than previously thought, and that a profound miniaturization event occurred near the base of the avian stem lineage. In phylogenetic analysis, Kongonaphon is recovered as a member of the Triassic ornithodiran clade Lagerpetidae, expanding the range of this group into Africa and providing data on the craniodental morphology of lagerpetids. The conical teeth of Kongonaphon exhibit pitted microwear consistent with a diet of hard-shelled insects, indicating a shift in trophic ecology to insectivory associated with diminutive body size. Small ancestral body size suggests that the extreme rarity of early ornithodirans in the fossil record owes more to taphonomic artifact than true reflection of the group’s evolutionary history.

Keywords: body size, evolution, Dinosauria, Triassic, phylogeny

Anatomy of the maxilla of Kongonaphon kely gen. et sp. nov. (UA 10618).
Right maxilla in right lateral and palatal views. 

Systematic Paleontology
Archosauria Cope, 1869 
Avemetatarsalia Benton, 1999 
Lagerpetidae Arcucci, 1986 
sensu Nesbitt et al., 2009 

Kongonaphon kely gen. et sp. nov. 

Etymology. Name meaning “tiny bug slayer,” derived from kongona (Malagasy, “bug”) and φoν (variant of ancient Greek φoνeύς, “slayer”), referring to the probable diet of this animal; kely (Malagasy, “small”), referring to the diminutive size of this specimen.

Illustration of Kongonaphon kely, a newly described reptile near the ancestry of dinosaurs and pterosaurs, in what would have been its natural environment in the Triassic (~237 million years ago).
Illustration: Alex Boersma 

Reptiles of the Mesozoic Era are known for their remarkable size: dinosaurs include the largest known land animals, and their relatives, the pterosaurs, include the largest creatures to ever fly. The origins of these groups are poorly understood, however. Here, we present a species (Kongonaphon kely) from the Triassic of Madagascar close to the ancestry of dinosaurs and pterosaurs, providing insight into the early evolution of those groups. Kongonaphon is a surprisingly small animal (estimated height, ∼10 cm). Analysis of ancestral body size indicates that there was a pronounced miniaturization event near the common ancestor of dinosaurs and pterosaurs. Tiny ancestral body size may help explain the origins of flight in pterosaurs and fuzzy integument in both groups.

Christian F. Kammerer, Sterling J. Nesbitt, John J. Flynn, Lovasoa Ranivoharimanana and André R. Wyss. 2020. A Tiny Ornithodiran Archosaur from the Triassic of Madagascar and the Role of Miniaturization in Dinosaur and Pterosaur Ancestry. PNAS. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916631117

[Paleontology • 2020] The First Juvenile Dromaeosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from Arctic Alaska


 the Prince Creek Formation, DMNH 21183 comes from the juvenile dromaeosaurid on the branch close to the adult

in Chiarenza, Fiorillo, Tykoski, et al., 2020.
Illustration: Andrey Atuchin

Compared to the osteological record of herbivorous dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous Prince Creek Formation of northern Alaska, there are relatively fewer remains of theropods. The theropod record from this unit is mostly comprised of isolated teeth, and the only non-dental remains known can be attributed to the troodontid cf. Troodon and the tyrannosaurid Nanuqsaurus. Thus far, the presence of members of Dromaeosauridae has been limited to isolated teeth. Here we describe a symphyseal portion of a small dentary with two ziphodont teeth. Based on tooth shape, denticle morphology, and the position of the Meckelian groove, we attribute this partial dentary to a saurornitholestine dromaeosaurid. The fibrous bone surface, small size, and higher number of mesial denticles compared to distal ones point to a juvenile growth stage for this individual. Multivariate comparison of theropod teeth morphospace by means of principal component analysis reveals an overlap between this dentary and Saurornitholestinae dromaeosaurid morphospace, a result supported by phylogenetic analyses. This is the first confirmed non-dental fossil specimen from a member of Dromaeosauridae in the Arctic, expanding on the role of Beringia as a dispersal route for this clade between Asia and North America. Furthermore, the juvenile nature of this individual adds to a growing body of data that suggests Cretaceous Arctic dinosaurs of Alaska did not undergo long-distance migration, but rather they were year-round residents of these paleopolar latitudes.

Fig 3. DMNH 21183.
Anterior portion of a dromaeosaurid dentary in lateral (A), medial (B), dorsal view (C) views and close up of the interdental plates and 3rd tooth in medial view (D). Curved arrows represent features hidden on that view.
Abbreviations: a2, 2nd alveolus; a3, 3rd alveolus; rdt2, 2nd dentary tooth; rdt3, 3rd dentary tooth; rdt4, 4th dentary tooth; ave, antero-ventral process; idp, interdental plate; lr, lateral ridge; mg, Meckelian groove; mf, Meckelian foramina. Scale bar: 2 mm.

Systematic paleontology

Saurornitholestinae indet.

Referred specimen: DMNH 21183. The anterior portion of a right dentary, preserving two teeth and four alveoli (Fig 3).

Fig 10. Life reconstruction of the Alaskan saurornitholestine in its environment.
Artistic restoration by scientific illustrator Andrey Atuchin depicts a riparian setting in the Prince Creek Formation, matching the geological evidence described in this paper. DMNH 21183 comes from the juvenile dromaeosaurid on the branch close to the adult, while a subadult (foreground) stalks an individual of Unnuakomys hutchisoni, a methatherian known from this locality. Individuals of the sympatric ceratopsid Pachyrhinosaurus perotorum rest in the background.

Alfio Alessandro Chiarenza, Anthony R. Fiorillo, Ronald S. Tykoski, Paul J. McCarthy, Peter P. Flaig and Dori L. Contreras. 2020. The First Juvenile Dromaeosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from Arctic Alaska. PLoS ONE. 15(7): e0235078. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0235078


[Fungi • 2020] Species of Agaricus section Agaricus (Basidiomycota: Agaricomycetes) from China


Agaricus argenteus

in Liu, Dai, Zhang, et al., 2020. 

Agaricus section Agaricus is generally recognized as a monophyletic group. In this study, 28 specimens of this section were collected from five provinces of China. Phylogenetic trees were produced based on the ITS sequences using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Based on this phylogenetic approach combined with their morphological examination, five species are identified including two new species named as A. jilinensis and A. zhangyensis, and three new recorded species from China, A. aristocratus, A. griseicephalus and A. argenteus. All species were described and illustrated in detail.

Keywords: Agaricaceae, new species, morphology, phylogeny, ITS, Fungi

An-Qi Liu, Rong-Chun Dai, Ming-Zhe Zhang, Bin Cao, Ya-Li Xi, Sheng-Long Wei and Rui-Lin Zhao. 2020. Species of Agaricus section Agaricus from China. Phytotaxa. 452(1); 1–18. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.452.1.1

[Fungi • 2020] Cortinarius lentus (Agaricales, Cortinariaceae) • A New Species in Section Calochroi


Cortinarius lentus 

in Dovana, Boccardo, Clericuzio & Vizzini, 2020.
 DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.447.1.3 

A new species of Cortinarius sect. CalochroiCortinarius lentus, is described on the basis of morphological and genetic features. It is characterised by a yellow-orange to brown-orange pileus, initially violaceous pink lamellae, a cream to pale yellow universal veil, amygdaliform to almost citriform spores, coarsely verrucose, typically narrow (Qav = 1.9) and habitat preference for chestnut woods on acidophilic soil. It is compared with the closest species from a morphological point of view, in particular with C. leochrous and C. calochrous. In order to assess its relative position within Calochroi, a phylogenetic approach based on RPB1 and ITS regions was performed. The ITS phylogenetic analysis did not resolve the position of C. lentus within sect Calochroi, but in our RPB1 phylogenetic analysis, C.sublilacinopes is closely related.

Keywords: Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota, Taxonomy, Mediterranean, Europe, Castanea sativa, Fungi


Francesco Dovana, Fabrizio Boccardo, Marco Clericuzio and Alfredo Vizzini. 2020. Cortinarius lentus (Agaricales, Cortinariaceae), A New Species in Section CalochroiPhytotaxa. 447(1); 31–41. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.447.1.3

[Botany • 2020] Oxalis shibeishanensis (Oxalidaceae) • A New Species from Yunnan, Southwest China


Oxalis shibeishanensis Huan C. Wang & Y. Tian

in Tian, Yang, Liu & Wang, 2020.
石碑山酢漿草  ||  taiwania.ntu.edu.tw

Oxalis shibeishanensis Huan C. Wang & Y. Tian (Oxalidaceae), belonging to O. subsect. Oxalis, is described and illustrated as a new species endemic to Yunnan, Southwest China. It is most similar to O. obtriangulata, but clearly differs from the latter by its 1.5–3 cm long, 3–9 cm wide leaflets with broadly cuneate base and not emarginate apex, 2-flowered inflorescences, narrowly ovate to broadly lanceolate sepals, and the petals being bifid at the apex.

Keyword: China, endemism, new species, Oxalidaceae, Oxalis, Oxalis obtriangulata

Fig. 2. Oxalis shibeishanensis sp. nov. A. Habit, B. Portion of inflorescence showing bracts, C. Flower with pedicel, D. Flower at front view, E. Young fruit.

Fig. 1. Oxalis shibeishanensis sp. nov. A, B. Habit, C. Top part of rhizome with petioles, D. Adaxial surface of leaflet, E. Abaxial surface of leaflets, F. Upper portion of inflorescence, G. Flower with pedicel, H. Flower at front view, I. Pedicel and sepals, J. Lateral view of flower with two petals and two sepals removed, K. Petal apex.

Oxalis shibeishanensis Huan C. Wang & Y. Tian, sp. nov. 

Type: CHINA. Yunnan Province, Shuangbai County, Anlongbao village, Shibeishan Mountain, ..., 24 March 2019, H. C. Wang, F. Yang, Q.P. Wang & Y. R. Li SB5788 (holotype: YUKU [02070800]!, isotypes: YUKU [02070801, 02070802, 02070803]!)

Diagnosis:Oxalis shibeishanensis is most similar to O. obtriangulata, but clearly differs from the latter by its 1.5–3 cm long, 3–9 cm wide leaflets with broadly cuneate base and not emarginate apex, 2-flowered inflorescences, narrowly ovate to broadly lanceolate sepals, and petals being bifid at the apex.

Distribution and habitat: Oxalisshibeishanensis is known only from two very close localities in Shibeishan Mountain of Shuangbai County, in central Yunnan Province, Southwest China. It usually grows on the moist and shady places near streams or swamps, at altitudes of 1950–2100 m.

 Etymology: The specific epithet refers to the type locality, the Shibeishan Mountain of Shuangbai County, Southwest China.


Ye Tian, Feng Yang, Xiao-Lan Liu and Huan-Chong Wang. 2020. Oxalis shibeishanensis (Oxalidaceae), A New Species from Yunnan, Southwest China. Taiwania. 65(3); 360-363. taiwania.ntu.edu.tw/abstract.php?type=abstract&id=1695


[Botany • 2020] Hoya longicalyx (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) • A New Species of Hoya from Yunnan, China


Hoya longicalyx Wang Hui & E. F. Huang

in Huang, Yang, Xi, et al., 2020. 
長萼球蘭  ||   taiwania.ntu.edu.tw

Hoya longicalyx Wang Hui & E. F. Huang, a new species of Hoya R. Br. (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) from Yingjiang county (Yunnan, China), is described and fully illustrated. The new species is morphologically similar to H. chinghungensis (Tsiang & P.T. Li) M.G. Gilbert, P.T. Li & W.D. Stevens, but can be easily distinguished by its rounded lamina base, longer and linear calyx lobes, ovate and translucent corona lobes. Result from molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that the new species was sister to Hoya engleriana Hosseus.

Keyword: Hoya, new taxon, Phylogenic Analysis, ITS, 5’- ETS, psbA-trnH, trnT-trnL, matK

Fig. 3. Hoya longicalyx. A. Habits of the new species in situ, arrows indicate the plants. B. Inflorescence. C. Leaves. D. Branch and inflorescence. E. Leafy stem. F. Petiole. G. Lamina margin. H. Bracteoles. I. Corona (top view and side view). J. Calyx. K. Corolla (adaxial and abaxial sides). L. Pollinarium. M. Pistils. Photographed by H. Wang and E. F. Huang.

Fig. 2. Hoya longicalyx. A. Branch with inflorescences. B. Leafy stem and leaf. C. Bracteole. D. Calyx and ovaries. E. Corolla (adaxial side). F. Corolla (abaxial side). G. Corona (side view). H. Corona lobe (side view). I. Pollinarium. J. Pistils. Drown by Z. M. Li and H. Dong.

Hoya longicalyx Wang Hui & E. F. Huang, sp. nov. 

Type: CHINA. Yunnan Province: Yingjiang county, A-jiang-po, elev. ca. 1900 m, on arboreal branch covered by moss in mid-montane evergreen forest, 16 May 2019, Huang Er-feng 1905003 (holotype SZG!; isotype PE!, KUN!, TAI!). 

Diagnosis: Morphologically similar to Hoya chinghungensis (Tsiang & P.T. Li) M.G. Gilbert, P.T. Li & W.D. Stevens from which it differs in having longer lamina (1.5–2 cm vs. 1–1.5 cm), acuminate lamina apex (vs. acute to obtuse lamina apex), longer calyx lobes (5– 7 mm vs. 1.5–2 mm), ovate and translucent corona lobes (vs. pink and triangular corona lobes) and oblong and upside apart ovaries (vs. ovate and attached ovaries).

Geographical distribution: Hoya longicalyx is known only from the type locality in Yingjiang county, Yunnan province, southwest China, base on the fieldwork and herbaria investigations in HITBC (Herbarium, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, CAS), IBSC (South China Botanical Garden, CAS), PE (Institute of Botany, CAS) and KUN (Herbarium, Kunming Institute of Botany, CAS). 

Ecology: Epilithic on arboreal branch covered by moss (Trachypodopsis serrulata) under mid-montane evergreen forest. 

Etymology: Hoya longicalyx is named from its long and linear calyx lobes, which is a significant feature to distinguish the new species from relevant species.

 Er-Feng Huang, Lei-Lei Yang, Wang Xi, Yi-Ye Liu and Hui Wang. 2020. Hoya longicalyx, A New Species of Hoya (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) from Yunnan, China. Taiwania. 65(3); 353-359. taiwania.ntu.edu.tw/abstract.php?type=abstract&id=1694

[PaleoMammalogy • 2020] Norisdelphis annakaensis • A New Miocene Delphinid from Japan


Norisdelphis annakaensis
 Kimura & Hasegawa, 2020

llustration: Tatsuya Shinmura

Two well-preserved delphinid crania have been recovered from the Haraichi Formation, Annaka Group, Gunma Prefecture, Japan (earliest late Miocene, Tortonian; 11.29–11.25 Ma). The specimens represent a new genus and species of delphinid, Norisdelphis annakaensis. The new species is characterized by transversely narrow and anteroposteriorly elongated external bony nares, and a wider proximal extremity of the left premaxilla. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that Norisdelphis is the most basal member of the Delphinidae. The previous oldest known described delphinid, Eodelphinus kabatensis, is from the upper Miocene (ca. 9 Ma), and other reliably dated and described fossil delphinids are no older than Pliocene; thus, N. annakaensis is the oldest convincingly dated and well-diagnosed fossil delphinid species yet described. Norisdelphis annakaensis expands the geological range of the family Delphinidae.

 Norisdelphis annakaensis, gen. et sp. nov., GMNH-PV-3463, holotype.
Photographs of the cranium in dorsal (A) and ventral (B) views.


Suborder ODONTOCETI Flower, 1867 
Infraorder DELPHINIDA Muizon, 1984 

Superfamily DELPHINOIDEA Gray, 1821 
Family DELPHINIDAE Gray, 1821 

NORISDELPHIS, gen. nov. 

 Norisdelphis annakaensis, sp. nov. 

Etymology—From Greek, norís, meaning early, and delphis, dolphin


Etymology— Named for Annaka City, Gunma, Japan, where the holotype and the paratype were found.

llustration: Tatsuya Shinmura

Toshiyuki Kimura and Yoshikazu Hasegawa. 2020. Norisdelphis annakaensis, A New Miocene Delphinid from Japan. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. e1762628. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2020.1762628

安中で発見のマイルカ科化石 1130万年前で世界最古&新種と認定

[Mammalogy • 2020] Ancient Divergence Driven by Geographic Isolation and Ecological Adaptation in Forest Dependent Sundaland Tree Squirrels (Genus Sundasciurus)


Sundasciurus spp.

in Hinckley, Hawkins, Achmadi, et al., 2020. 

A surprising amount of hidden phylogenetic diversity exists in the small to medium size, drab colored squirrels of the genus Sundasciurus. This genus is endemic to Sundaland and the Philippines, where it is widespread. An earlier revision of this genus found that the high elevation ‘populations’ of the widespread, lowland slender squirrel (S. tenuis) were different species. Previous phylogenies based on mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences also suggested that the widespread, lowland Low’s squirrel (S. lowii) and the narrow endemic Fraternal squirrel (S. fraterculus) are not reciprocally monophyletic. Additionally, deep divergences have been identified between lineages within Low’s squirrel that date to the early Pliocene. Here we focus on evaluating the relationships and differences within and between populations of these two nominal species using whole mitochondrial genome sequences, nuclear intron sequences, and morphology. We reassess the taxonomy of this group, revalidate the species status of Robinson’s squirrel (Sundasciurus robinsoniBonhote, 1903) support the species level recognition of the Natuna squirrel (Sundasciurus natunensis Thomas, 1895) and identify three other lineages that require further study. We estimate times of divergence and integrate geologic history to find that most of the divergences are pre-Pleistocene, and thus predate the Pleistocene flooding of Sundaland. Biogeographic, and ecological factors may have played a more important role than climatic factors in generating these patterns. While divergence in allopatry seems to be the main process driving speciation in lowland Sundaland squirrels (Sundasciurus), ecomorphological and behavioral adaptations in this clade suggest an important role of niche divergence.

Keywords: Sundasciurus, mammal, Borneo, biogeography, speciation, systematics, rodent, Sciuridae

Sundasciurus lowii from Sepilok, Sabah.
 photo: Mojito La

Figure 6. Dorsal, palatal, and lateral views of the holotype skulls of Sundasciurus lowii (NHM76.5.2.14), Sundasciurus natunensis (NHM94.9.28.40) and Sundasciurus robinsoni (NHM3.2.6.55). Given the highly damaged state of the holotype skull of Sundasciurus fraterculus (NHM95.1.9.12), the type of Sundasciurus fraterculus siberu (NHM47.1488) is shown instead for the sake of comparison. All pictures are at the same scale.

Figure 1. Map of Sundaland showing the distribution of the different subspecies of the Low-Fraternal squirrel species complex, with dots indicating sample collection locations of specimens included in the morphometric analyses. Samples are colored according to the four highly supported major clades recovered in the mitogenome-based phylogenies of Figures 2, 3. Populations indicated by a red circle have been considered S. l. natunensis but the morphological data in this study suggests they are more similar to S. l. lowii. Populations indicated with a green square have been considered S. l. lowii but the morphological data in this study suggests these they are more similar to S. l. natunensis. Molecular evidence from these populations is needed to clarify their taxonomic status. Populations included in the morphological analyses but not the genetic analyses are indicated in gray.

Sundasciurus robinsoni (Bonhote, 1903) – Robinson’s squirrel

Sciurus robinsoni Bonhote (1903):24.
—Type locality. Bukit Besar, Nawngchik, Patani, Peninsular Thailand, 2500 ft.

Holotype. BMNH, skull, skin, adult female, collected 30 August 1901 by C. H. Robinson and N. Annandale

Subspecific Taxonomy
Sundasciurus robinsoni robinsoni (Bonhote, 1903)
Sciurus robinsoni alacris Thomas, 1908e: 306.—Type locality. Selangor-Pahang border, Malaya, 3000ft.
Sciurus seimundi Thomas and Wroughton, 1909:440.—Type locality. Kundur Island, Riau Islands

Sundasciurus robinsoni balae (Miller, 1903)
Sciurus balae Miller, 1903:14.—Type locality. Tana Bala, Batu Islands, Sumatra
Sciurus piniensis Miller, 1903:14.—Type locality. Pulo Pinie, Batu Islands, Sumatra
Sciurus humilis Miller, 1913:24.—Type locality. Kateman river, East Sumatra

Sundasciurus robinsoni vanakeni(Robinson and Kloss, 1916)
Sciurus vanakeni Robinson and Kloss, 1916:270.—Type locality. Barong Bharu, Korinchi, Sumatra, 4000 ft.

Distribution: Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Batu and Rhio Archipelagos. The subspecies S. r. robinsoni and S. r. balae have been recorded from 0–610 m, on the Malay Peninsula and Rhio and Sumatra and Batu, respectively, while S. r. vanakeni has been recorded between 900–1372 m on Mount Kerinci.

Sundasciurus natunensis (Thomas, 1895)- Natuna squirrel.

Sciurus lowii natunensis Thomas, 1895:26.
—Type locality. “Sirhassen Island” (Serasan), Natuna Islands.

Holotype. BMNH, skull, skin, adult male, collected 23 September 1893 by A. H. Everett.

Distribution: Southern Natuna islands (only recorded in Sirhassen Island), and possibly in west Borneo. Despite discrete characters such as postorbital processes and tail shape of the latter populations closely resemble S. natunensis, we currently consider the taxonomic status of west Borneo populations as incertae sedis given the intermediate phenotypic position of these among S. natunensis and S. lowii shown in the PCA and DAPC and the lack of genetic evidence. Genetic data from these, southern Sumatra and northern Natuna populations is needed to clarify the taxonomy and distribution of this group.

Sundasciurus lowii (Thomas, 1895) - Low’s squirrel.

Sciurus lowii Thomas, 1895: 253.
—Type locality. “Lumbidan, on the mainland opposite Labuan”, Sarawak, Borneo.

Holotype. BMNH 76. 5. 2. 14., skull, skin, adult male, collected by H. Low (unknown date).

Subspecific Taxonomy
Sundasciurus lowii lowii (Thomas, 1895)

Sundasciurus lowii bangueyae (Thomas, 1908)
Sciurus lowii bangueyae Thomas, 1908:387.— Type locality. “Banguey Island” (Banggi)

Sundasciurus lowii lingungensis (Miller, 1901)
Sciurus lingungensis Miller, 1901:123.—Type locality. Lingung Island, Near Bunguran Island, Natuna Islands

Distribution: S. l. lowii is present in Borneo, S. l. bangueyae in Banggi and Balambangan islands, (and possibly Malawali island as well) and S. l. lingungensis in the Northern Natunas (recorded in Bunguran, Lingung and Laut islands).

Taxonomic Notes: 
Corbet and Hill (1992) pointed out that geographical variation in Sundasciurus lowii sensu lato is slight. Many of the currently recognized subspecies are not morphologically distinct from others. We consider Sundasciurus robinsoni balae and Sundasciurus robinsoni vanakeni valid subspecies based on their ventral coloration and craniodental differentiation (Figure 5 and Supplementary Figure S3). We synonymize former Sundasciurus lowii humilis with Sundasciurus robinsoni balae due to external resemblance (ventral grayish coloration in limbs). We also synonymize based on external resemblance (lack of ventral grayish coloration in limbs) Sundasciurus lowii seimundi with Sundasciurus robinsoni robinsoni. Finally, we consider Sundasciurus lowii lingungensis and Sundasciurus lowii bangueyae valid subspecies given their craniodental differentiation (Figure 5 and Supplementary Figure S3).

Molecular species delimitation analyses suggest the presence of three species in Borneo within S. lowii (in Sabah, Sarawak and East Kalimantan). However, phenotypic divergence seems to be slight and the fine scale distribution of the morphs is unknown. The only Sarawak sample included in the PCA was clustered separately but close to Sabah + east Kalimantan, that largely overlapped. Regarding the DAPC, only east Kalimantan samples were differentiated from the remaining overlapping populations. Relative size of interorbital breadth seems to differentiate a small number of Sarawak specimens from the remaining S. lowii, but these samples are clustered very close to the other S. lowii. Sarawak specimens also seem to have darker fur than Sabah and East Kalimantan S. lowii and a lack of blond tips on the tail, which are only observed in Sabah populations. We consider these populations unconfirmed candidate species (Padial et al., 2010) until a better molecular and morphological sampling is performed in terms of geographic coverage and number of specimens included.

As pointed out by Hawkins et al. (2016a) the two subgenera, Aletesciurus and Sundasciurus, proposed by Moore (1958) are not supported as reciprocally monophyletic groups. The discrete characters (presence of sagittal crest, skull size, and shape of anterior-mesial lobe of auditory bullae) described as distinguishing subgenera were not valid for all species. For instance, the Palawan mountain squirrel (Sundasciurus rabori) belongs to Aletesciurus but lacks a sagittal crest and has an intermediate antero-mesial lobe and skull size (40.9-43.6 mm) among both subgenera (Heaney, 1979; Hawkins et al., 2016a). The northern Palawan tree squirrel (Sundasciurus juvencus) shows an antero-mesial lobe that resembles that of the subgenus Sundasciurus despite being assigned to Aletesciurus. Finally, different species of the subgenus Sundasciurus such as S. lowii, S. tahan or S. altitudinis have skulls that reach sizes (41–43 mm) that overlap with those of S. rabori (authors unpublished data). Although these discrete characters do not support the subgenera Aletesciurus and Sundasciurus, Heaney (1979) found support for them in his morphometric analyses. Molecular phylogenies suggest that there are 5–6 major phylogenetic lineages within Sundasciurus, which correspond to monophyly in the subgenus Aletesciurus (which contains 3 divergent clades), and paraphyly in the subgenus Sundasciurus (which also contains 2–3 divergent clades) (Den Tex et al., 2010; Hawkins et al., 2016a). The lack of universally valid diagnostic features and the phylogenetic evidence from this and previous studies demonstrate that current Sundasciurus subgeneric classification is invalid, so we synonymize Aletesciurus with Sundasciurus.

Arlo Hinckley, Melissa T. R. Hawkins, Anang S. Achmadi, Jesús E. Maldonado and Jennifer A. Leonard. 2020. Ancient Divergence Driven by Geographic Isolation and Ecological Adaptation in Forest Dependent Sundaland Tree Squirrels. Front. Ecol. Evol. DOI: 10.3389/fevo.2020.00208