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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region

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    Histiophryne narungga 
    Arnold & Pietsch, 2018

    DOI:   10.1643/CI-18-112 
    Photo: Scott W. Michael

    An undescribed species of the frogfish genus Histiophryne, of the teleost order Lophiiformes, family Antennariidae, is described on the basis of 60 specimens collected from shallow inshore waters of Western and South Australia. Previously confused with its morphologically similar congener H. cryptacanthus, it differs from the latter and from all other members of the genus in having the following combination of features: illicium tiny but easily discernible without aid of a microscope; esca present, a small tuft of filaments, easily distinguished from illicium; skin covered with tiny dermal spinules, especially on head, cutaneous filaments and appendages absent; dorsal-fin rays 15–16; pectoral-fin rays 9 (rarely 8); vertebrae 22–23; head, body, and fins typically off white, sometimes peppered with numerous small, close-set ocelli. Genetic divergence from its congeners in the nuclear recombination activation gene-2 (RAG2) and cytochrome oxidase-I (COI) genes is at least 8.9%. The new species is diagnosed, described, and compared with its congeners. A revised key to the species of the genus is also provided.

    Fig. 2. Histiophryne narungga, new species, uncollected specimen, Edithburgh, South Australia.
    Photo: Scott W. Michael

    Histiophryne narungga, new species
    New Nharangga name: Nharangga Warrga Guuya 
    New English name: Narungga Frogfish

    Etymology.— The specific epithet narungga honors a tribe of Indigenous Australians, the Narungga (otherwise known as the Narangga), whose traditional lands are located throughout Yorke Peninsula, from near Port Wakefield in the east to Port Broughton in the west, and all the way down to the southern tip of the Peninsula (Sutton, 1899; Tindale, 1936).

    Rachel J. Arnold and Theodore W. Pietsch. 2018. Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them: A New Species of the Frogfish Genus Histiophryne Gill (Lophiiformes: Antennariidae: Histiophryninae) from Western and South Australia, with A Revised Key to Congeners. Copeia. 106(4); 622-631. DOI:   10.1643/CI-18-112

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    Halicmetus westraliensis 
     Ho & Last. 2018

    A taxonomic review of species of the Indo–Pacific batfish genus Halicmetus occurring in the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone is provided. Treatments of six species in the region, including diagnoses of the widespread Halicmetus niger Ho, Endo & Sakamaki, 2008, H. reticulatus Smith & Radcliffe, 1912 and H. ruber Alcock 1891, a reclassification of the poorly known H. marmoratus Weber, 1913, and descriptions of two new speciesHalicmetus westraliensis n. sp. (an Australian endemic) and H. drypus n. sp. (from the northern sector of the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone off Norfolk Island). The Australian species can be distinguished from each other and regional congeners by a combination of morphometrics, meristics and colouration. A key is provided for all known species of the genus.

    Keywords: Pisces, taxonomy, review, Halicmetus, new species, Australia

    Halicmetus Alcock 
    Halicmetus Alcock, 1891:27. 

    Type species: Halicmetus ruber Alcock, 1891, by monotypy.

    Valid species. Halicmetus is represented in the Indo–Pacific by six valid nominal taxa: 
    H. drypus n. sp., H. marmoratus Weber, 1913, H. niger Ho, Endo & Sakamaki, 2008, H. reticulatus Smith & Radcliffe, 1912, H. ruber Alcock, 1891, and H. westraliensis n. sp., and one undescribed species, H. cf. ruber (sensu Ho et al., 2008).

    Halicmetus westraliensis sp. nov.,
    CSIRO CA3647, holotype, 68.4 mm SL. 

    Halicmetus westraliensis sp. nov. 
    Vernacular name: West Australian Shortnose Seabat.

    Etymology. The name westraliensis is a reference to the type locality, Western Australia.

    Halicmetus drypus sp. nov. 
    Vernacular name: Pink Shortnose Seabat  

    Etymology. From the Greek drypus, referring to the pink plant genus Drypis of the Tribe Drypideae, family Caryophyllaceae.

    Halicmetus marmoratus Weber, 1913 
    Vernacular name: Marbled Shortnose Seabat

    Halicmetus ruber Alcock, 1891 
    Vernacular name: Red Shortnose Seabat

    Halicmetus reticulatus Smith & Radcliffe, 1912
    Vernacular name: Reticulated Shortnose Seabat

    Halicmetus niger Ho, Endo & Sakamaki, 2008 
    Vernacular name: Black Shortnose Seabat

    Hsuan-Ching Ho and Peter R. Last. 2018. Review of the Batfish Genus HalicmetusAlcock, 1891 from Australian Waters, with Descriptions of Two New Species (Lophiiformes: Ogcocephalidae). Zootaxa. 4508(2);  179–196. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4508.2.2

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    Megophrys (Panophrysfansipanensis
    Tapley, Cutajar, Mahony, Nguyen, Dau, Luong, Le,  Nguyen, Nguyen, Portway, Lương & Rowley, 2018

    Mount Fansipan horned frog || DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4508.3.1 

    Megophrys are a group of morphologically conserved, primarily forest-dependent frogs known to harbour cryptic species diversity. In this study, we examined populations of small-sized Megophrys from mid- and high elevation locations in the Hoang Lien Range, northern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological, molecular and bioacoustic data, individuals of these populations differed from all species of Megophrys known from mainland Southeast Asia north of the Isthmus of Kra and from neighbouring provinces in China. Further, the newly collected specimens formed two distinct species-level groups. We herein describe two new speciesMegophrys fansipanensis sp. nov. and Megophrys hoanglienensis sp. nov. Both new species are range restricted and likely to be highly threatened by habitat degradation. These discoveries highlight the importance of the Hoang Lien Range for Vietnam’s amphibian diversity.

    Keywords: Amphibia, Bioacoustics, Hoang Lien, Megophryinae, Megophrys fansipanensis sp. nov., Megophrys hoanglienensis sp. nov., Panophrys, Southeast Asia, sympatric, Xenophrys

    Megophrys (Panophrysfansipanensis sp. nov.  in situ, unvouchered calling male.

    Megophrys (Panophrysfansipanensis sp. nov.

    Etymology: Specific epithet “fansipanensis” is a toponym in reference to the type locality of the species, meaning “from [Mount] Fansipan”. 

    Suggested vernacular name: Mount Fansipan horned frog (English), Ếch sừng phan xi păng (Vietnamese).


    unvouchered Megophrys (Panophryshoanglienensis sp. situ,
     Tam Duong District, Lai Chau Province, Vietnam.

    Megophrys (Panophryshoanglienensis sp. nov.

    Etymology: Specific epithet “hoanglienensis” is a toponym in reference to the type locality of the species, meaning “from Hoang LienRange

    Suggested vernacular name: Hoang Lien horned frog (English), Ếch sừng hoàng liên (Vietnamese).

     Love Waterfall [1898 m asl], Hoang Lien National Park,
    Sa Pa District, Lao Cai Province, Vietnam. 


     Benjamin Tapley, Timothy Cutajar, Stephen Mahony, Chung T. Nguyen, Vinh Q. Dau, Anh M. Luong, Dzung T. Le, Tao T. Nguyen, Truong Q. Nguyen, Christopher Portway, Hào V. Lương and Jodi J. L. Rowley. 2018. Two New and Potentially Highly threatened Megophrys Horned Frogs (Amphibia: Megophryidae) from Indochina’s Highest Mountains. Zootaxa. 4508(3); 301–333.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4508.3.1  


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    Micrurus boicora 
    Bernarde, Turci, Abegg & Franco, 2018

    SALAMANDRA. 54(4)

    A new species of elapid snake of the genus Micrurus is described herein, from the states of Rondônia and Mato Grosso, in the western Brazilian Amazon. The new species has a single anal plate, a unique characteristic shared with members of the M. hemprichii species group. It can be distinguished from the other members of this group by having a parietal reddish band in juveniles (absent in adults) and the absence of brownish or orange-yellow dorsal body bands. In addition, this species is distinguished from M. hemprichii by its lower number of body triads, and from M. ortoni by its lower numbers of ventrals and subcaudals scales.

    Key words: Squamata, Serpentes, Elapidae, Amazon rainforest, colour pattern, external morphology, Neotropical region.

    Body dorsum (A) and venter (B) of Micrurus boicora sp. n. (IBSP 77.772, paratype) from the municipality of Cacoal, Rondônia, Brazil. 

    Figure 4. Photographs of live individuals in the Micrurus hemprichii group.
    Body dorsum (A) and venter (B) of Micrurus boicora sp. n. (IBSP 77.772, paratype) from the municipality of Cacoal, Rondônia, Brazil;
    body dorsum (C) of Micrurus hemprichii (unvouchered, photographed by M. A. Passos) from the municipality of Itaituba, Pará, Brazil; body dorsum (D) of Micrurus ortoni (the “rondonianus” form, unvouchered) from the municipality of Cacoal, Rondônia, Brazil. 

    Micrurus boicora sp. n.
     Micrurus hemprichii nec (Jan, 1858) – Bernarde & Abe, 2006 

    Micrurus hemprichii nec (Jan, 1858) – Turci & Bernarde, 2008 
    Micrurus sp. nov. – Bernarde et al. 2012

    Diagnosis and comparisons: Micrurus boicora can be distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: cloacal plate single; narrow parietal reddish band in juveniles present (absent in adults); body triads 5; brownish or orange-yellow dorsal body bands absent; white body rings equidistantly arranged, more than 11 ventral scales apart; red gular region; with red spots on belly triads; ventrals 155–166; subcaudals 19–23.

    Etymology: The specific epithet boicora is a Tupi-Guarani name (mbóî = snake; corá = coral), employed herein as a noun in apposition alluding to the coral coloration of the new species. Many Amerindians and peasants in Brazil collectively name true coralsnakes and their mimics as “Boicorá”.

    Paulo Sérgio Bernarde, Luiz Carlos Batista Turci, Arthur Diesel Abegg and Francisco Luís Franco. 2018. A Remarkable New Species of Coralsnake of the Micrurus hemprichii species group from the Brazilian Amazon. SALAMANDRA. 54(4); 249-258.

    Resumo:Uma nova espécie de serpente elapídea do gênero Micrurusé descrita aqui, proveniente dos estados de Rondônia e Mato Grosso, no oeste da Amazônia Brasileira. A nova espécie possui placa anal simples, uma característica unicamente compartilhada entre os membros do grupo de espécies M. hemprichii. Ela é diagnosticável dos outros membros desse grupo por possuir banda parietal avermelhada em juvenis (ausente em adultos) e ausência de bandas dorsais corporais amareladas ou laranjas. Além disso, essa espécie distingue-se de M. hemprichii pelo menor número de tríades corporais, e de M. ortoni pelo menor número de escamas ventrais e subcaudais. 
    Palavras-chave. Squamata, Serpentes, Elapidae, Floresta Amazônica, padrão de coloração, morfologia externa, Região Neotropical.

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    Brookesia antakarana Raxworthy & Nussbaum, 1995

    in Scherz, Glaw, Rakotoarison, et al, 2018. 
      SALAMANDRA. 54(4)

     We examine the taxonomic status of two Malagasy leaf chameleon taxa, Brookesia antakarana Raxworthy & Nussbaum, 1995 and B. ambreensis Raxworthy & Nussbaum, 1995, integrating morphological and genetic evidence. Specimens assigned to these species occur in syntopy in Montagne d’Ambre, northern Madagascar, and were originally described based on differences in the shape of their pelvic shields. We found that the shape of these shields falls on a continuous spectrum, and detected only weak differences between the two taxa in a few other morphological features, all of which were correlated with shield length. Members of the two taxa (as assigned based on pelvic shield morphology) also showed extensive haplotype sharing in one nuclear and one mitochondrial marker. We conclude that at present there is no convincing evidence that these species are distinct, and act as first revisers in the sense of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to place B. ambreensis into the synonymy of B. antakarana.

     Key words: Squamata, Chamaeleonidae, morphology, molecular genetics, taxonomy, Amber Mountain, Antsiranana.

    Figure 4. Specimens of Brookesia antakarana/ambreensis photographed in Montagne d’Ambre between 1994 and 2012.
    (A) Probably ZSM 2091/2007 (FGZC 1073); (B) unidentified individual photographed in 2007; (C) unidentified individual photographed in 2003; (D) probably ZSM 2030/2003 (FGMV 2002-3086); (E–F) uncollected individuals photographed in 1994; (G–H) unidentified individual photographed in 2012.

    Mark D. Scherz, Frank Glaw, Andolalao Rakotoarison, Melina Wagler and Miguel Vences. 2018. Polymorphism and Synonymy of Brookesia antakarana and B. ambreensis, Leaf Chameleons from Montagne d’Ambre in north Madagascar. SALAMANDRA. 54(4); 259-268. 

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    Chiasmocleis schubarti  Bokermann, 1952

    in de Sá, Tonini, Huss, et al., 2018. 

    • Comprehensive phylogeny of the most species-rich genus of Neotropical microhylids.
    • Species discovery analysis suggests a high number of cryptic species.
    • Small-sized species evolved independently three times in the clade and miniaturized species form a clade restricted to Amazonia.
    • Miniaturization results in loss of digits, phalanges, and pectoral girdle elements.
    • Biogeography of Chiasmocleis was shaped by multiple connections between Amazonia and Atlantic Forest.

    Chiasmocleis is the most species-rich genus of Neotropical microhylids. Herein, we provide the first comprehensive multilocus phylogeny for the genus, including all but 3 of the 34 recognized species and multiple individuals per species. We discuss cryptic speciation, species discovery, patterns of morphological evolution, and provide a historical biogeographic analysis to account for the current distribution of the genus. Diversification of Chiasmocleis from other New World microhylids began during the Eocene, app. 40 mya, in forested areas, and current diversity seems to be a product of recurrent connections between the Atlantic Forest and Amazonia. Small-sized species evolved independently three times in Chiasmocleis. Furthermore, the extremely small-bodied (i.e. miniaturized) species with associated loss of digits, phalanges, and pectoral girdle cartilages evolved only once and are restricted to Amazonia. Using the phylogeny, we recognized three subgenera within Chiasmocleis: Chiasmocleis Méhely, 1904, Relictus subg. nov., and Syncope Walker, 1973. The recognition of the subgenus Syncope informs future research on patterns of miniaturization in the genus, and the subgenus Relictus highlights isolation of an endemic and species-poor lineage to the Atlantic Forest, early (about 40 mya) in the history of Chiasmocleis.

     Keywords: Phylogeny, Chiasmocleis, Species discovery, Morphology, Miniaturization, Biogeography

    female Chiasmocleis schubarti has scars on its back from males trying to initiate amplexus.

     Rafael O. de Sá, João Filipe Riva Tonini, Hannahvan Huss, Alex Long, Travis Cuddy, Mauricio C. Forlani, Pedro L.V. Peloso, Hussam Zaher and Célio F.B. Haddad. 2018. Multiple Connections between Amazonia and Atlantic Forest shaped the Phylogenetic and Morphological Diversity of Chiasmocleis Mehely, 1904 (Anura: Microhylidae: Gastrophryninae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 130; 198-210. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2018.10.021

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    Anolis dracula  
    Yánez-Muñoz, Reyes-Puig, Reyes-Puig, Velasco, Ayala-Varela & Torres-Carvajal, 2018

    A new species of Anolis lizard from the Andean slopes of southwestern Colombia and northwestern Ecuador, from between 1187 and 2353 m in elevation, is described. The new species can be distinguished from other Anolis in squamation, cranial osteology, hemipenial morphology, and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. The new species is sister to Anolis aequatorialis, and it is suggested that previous records of A. aequatorialis in Colombia correspond to the new species described herein.

    Keywords: Anolis dracula sp. n., diversity, morphology, phylogeny, Squamata, taxonomy

    Figure 2. Comparison of Anolis dracula sp. n. with similar species.
    From top to bottom: male of A. dracula, Holotype DHMECN 12579, 91 mm SVL; male of A. aequatorialis, not collected; male of A. fitchi DHMECN 11628, 74 mm SVL, male of A. podocarpus QCAZ 10126, 87 mm SVL.
    Photographs, from top to bottom, by Mario Yánez-Muñoz, Carolina Reyes-Puig, Mario Yánez-Muñoz, and Fernando Ayala Varela. 

    Figure 3. Head and throat region of Anolis aequatorialis (top, individual not collected) and Anolis dracula sp. n. (bottom left, DHMECN 12579, holotype, bottom right QCAZ 4365).
    Photographs by Mario Yánez Muñoz, Carolina Reyes-Puig, and Santiago Ron.

    Figure 4. Dewlap of Anolis dracula sp. n. and three similar species.
    A male of A. dracula, paratype DHMECN 12579, 90.9 mm SVL B female of A. dracula, paratype DHMECN12587, 80.2 mm SVL C subadult female of A. dracula, DHMECN 12584, 53.4 mm SVL
    D male of A. aequatorialis, QCAZ11605, E male of A. fitchi, QCAZ8770, 90.5 mm SVL F male of A. podocarpus, QCAZ10126, 87.0 mm SVL
    Photographs by Mario Yánez-Muñoz (A, B, C), Omar Torres-Carvajal (D), Luis Coloma (E), and Santiago Ron (F). 

    Figure 5. Color variation in Anolis dracula sp. n. From top to bottom: Holotype, male DHMECN 12579; male paratype DHMECN 12580; female paratype DHMECN 12760, 72.3 mm SVL; subadult male DHMECN 12578, 70.4 mm SVL.
    Photographs by Mario Yánez-Muñoz.

    Anolis dracula sp. n.
     Proposed standard English name: Dracula Anole 
    Proposed standard Spanish name: Anolis dracula

    Diagnosis: We assign Anolis dracula to the Dactyloa clade within Anolis (Poe 2004, Poe et al. 2017) based on the following combination of characters: sexual size dimorphism; large body with high numbers of lamellae; more than 20 scales across the snout; Alpha type caudal vertebrae; prefrontal bone separated from nasal; lengthened dentary and loss of angular.

    Anolis dracula is most similar in morphology and coloration to A. aequatorialis (character states in parentheses), but differs from it in the following characters: large and robust hemipenes, 14 mm (4.7 mm; W = 0; p = 0.004), with a well-developed spermatic sulcus (hemipenis small; Figure 8); well-developed parietal crests, bowed outwards and projected laterally (relatively straight parietal crests, without laterally extending edges) (Figure 9); pineal foramen large, oval (rounded and small), and contacting fronto-parietal fissure (pineal foramen not contacting fronto-parietal fissure; Figure 9); rugose (smooth) basioccipital and sphenoccipital tubercles; jugal and squamosal in contact (separated by postorbital; Figure 10); posterior edge of dentary extending over more than a quarter of supra-angular (1/8 the size of supra-angular; Figure 10); dewlap scales cream (green or yellowish green) and in seven (10) rows in males, yellow or turquoise (green or yellowish green) and in five (six) rows in females (Figure 4); edge of dewlap cream (green or yellowish green); dewlap background brown or reddish brown (yellowish green to black), with orange (yellowish green, turquoise or yellowish orange) spots in males; dewlap background reddish brown to black (dark brown to black) in females; throat and chin cream splashed with dark brown (yellowish green); some males exhibit a lateral dark brown ocellus on neck, similar in size to eye (green, turquoise or brown, larger than eye); some females bear a dorsal, longitudinal brown stripe (absent; Figure 3); dark transverse bands on limbs of females weakly defined or absent (limb bands well defined in females, Figs 5, 6); smaller body size, 76.2 ± 8.5 mm SVL, (82.9 ± 9.2 mm; t = 2.96; p = 0.00431); shorter head, 20.6 ± 2.2 mm head length (21.5 ± 1.9; t = 2.18; p = 0.03328); narrower head, 11.1 ± 1.2 mm head width (12.0 ± 1.2 mm; t = 2.99; p = 0.004); shorter forelimbs, 41.4±4.3 mm (45.6 ± 5.4 mm; t = 3.44; p = 0.001); shorter hind limbs, 73.0 ± 7.7 mm (79.1 ± 8.3 mm; t = 2.999; p = 0.004); larger interparietal scale, 1.48 ± 0.25 mm in length (1.22 ± 0.2 mm; t = -4.439; p = -3.85 e-05); narrower tympanum, 2.6 ± 0.3 mm in length (2.8 ± 0.4 mm; t = 2.29; p = 0.027) (Figure 11; Tables 3–4).

    Figure 13. Distribution of Anolis dracula sp. n. and A. aequatorialis.
    White star represents the type locality of A. dracula and the black star the type locality of A. aequatorialis. The blue line corresponds to the Mira River Basin. The black triangles indicate samples used in the phylogeny for each species. The source of the raster layer for the map is from

    Figure 12. Phylogeny of Dactyloa including Anolis dracula sp. n., 50% majority-rule consensus tree obtained from a Bayesian analysis of 117 specimens, two mitochondrial genes (COI, ND2) and one nuclear gene (RAG1). Numbers above branches correspond to Bayesian posterior probability (PP) values; asterisks represent PP ≥ 0.95; scale bar corresponds to the mean number of nucleotide substitutions per site.
    Photographs from top to bottom: Anolis podocarpus (Santiago R. Ron-BIOWEB), A. fitchi (Juan C. Sánchez-BIOWEB), A.aequatorialis (Diego Quirola-BIOWEB), A. dracula (Mario Yánez-Muñoz). 

    Etymology: The specific epithet dracula it is a noun in apposition that refers to the Dracula Reserve, located within the distribution of the new species and near its type locality. The Dracula Reserve is an initiative of the EcoMinga Foundation, sponsored by the Orchid Conservation Alliance, Rainforest Trust, University of Basel Botanical Garden, and their individual donors. The Reserve protects an area with a high diversity of orchids of the genus Dracula.

     Mario H. Yánez-Muñoz, Carolina Reyes-Puig, Juan Pablo Reyes-Puig, Julián A. Velasco, Fernando Ayala-Varela and Omar Torres-Carvajal. 2018. A New Cryptic Species of Anolis Lizard from northwestern South America (Iguanidae, Dactyloinae). ZooKeys. 794: 135-163. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.794.26936


    Resumen: Describimos una nueva especie de Anolis de las estribaciones de los Andes del suroccidente de Colombia y noroccidente de Ecuador, entre los 1187 y 2353 metros de elevación. La nueva especie puede ser distinguida de otros Anolis por caracteres de escamación, osteología craneal, morfología hemipenial, y ADN nuclear y mitocondrial. La nueva especie es hermana de A. aequatorialis, por lo que sugerimos que los registros previos de A. aequatorialis en Colombia corresponden a la nueva especie descrita en este artículo.

    Palabras clave: Anolis dracula sp. n., diversidad, filogenia, morfología, Squamata, taxonomía

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    Begonia yenyeniae  J.P.C.Tan

    in Tan, Tam & Kiew, 2018.

    Begonia yenyeniae is a new species of horticultural value known only from the Endau Rompin National Park, Peninsular Malaysia. It is similar to Begonia rajah with which it had previously been confused in the number of tepals and leaf characters. The new species is compared with three similar species, B. foxworthyi, B. rajah and B. reginula and photographs of all four species and descriptions of B. yenyeniae and B. rajah are provided. Molecular analysis using the ndhF-rpl132 chloroplast marker confirms the four species as distinct. Amongst native species, the three variegated species, B. yenyeniae, B. rajah and B. reginula, are some of the most popular Malaysian begonias in cultivation. Based on its restricted distribution, Begonia yenyeniae, under the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, is assessed as Critically Endangered.

    Keywords: new species, Begonia yenyeniae, Begonia rajah, Begonia reginula, ornamental, conservation

    Figure 2. Begonia yenyeniae  J.P.C.Tan, sp. nov. A Side and front view female flower B Back and front view of male flower C Stamen mass D Anthers E Habitat: moss-covered rocky slope by waterfall F Young fruit with stigma still attached G Transverse section of fruit H Seeds I Mature leaf J Upper leaf surface (moderately bullate) K Veins completely prominent on lower leaf surface L Petiole M Young blade N Stipules O–Q Upper, lower and side view of leaf margin R A pair of bracts and bracteole at peduncle and rachis; hairs scarcely on ventral surface of outer tepals.
    (Photographs by E Y.Y. Sam, D P.T. Ong)

    Begonia yenyeniae J.P.C.Tan, sp. nov.
    Section Jackia M.Hughes

    Diagnosis: Similar to Begonia rajah Ridl. (1894:213) in its handsome leaves, striking brownish-pink to brownish-red with greenish-yellow veins in young leaves becoming bronzy variegation at maturity; in its creeping growth habit, number of tepals in male (4 tepals) and female flowers (3), palmate leaf venation and many-flowered cymes, but several notable characters distinguish the new species, including its orbicular-reniform leaf blades (vs. subrotund with an abruptly acute apex in B. rajah), smaller stipules, 9–12 × 3–4 mm, three times longer than wide (vs. 15–20 × 10–12 mm, less than twice as long as wide), smaller ovate or obovate bracts 2–3 × 1.5–2 mm (vs. bracts bowl-shaped, wide ovate, 5–8 × 7.5–8 mm), margin shallowly crenate (vs. margin angular), bullate leaf surface (vs. conspicuously pronounced bullate). Furthermore, the leaf colour of cultivated B. rajah is more vivid and, in contrast, its tepals, stipules and bracts are also a deeper shade of pink, compared to those of B. yenyeniae.

    It is also similar to B. reginula Kiew (2005: 218) in its habit, leaf colour, less pronounced bullate blade, palmate venation, bracts, ovary with 3 equal wings of similar shape, but B. yenyeniae is different in its relatively smaller and narrower tepals 5–7 × 6 mm (vs. 6–10 × 9–11 mm in B. reginula), 3 in male or 4 tepals in female flowers (vs. 2 tepals in both male and female flowers) and rounded base (vs. subcordate), stipules with prominently keeled (vs. keel absent), and apex rounded (vs. apex attenuate).

    Although molecular data indicate a close relationship to B. foxworthyi ((1925: 311), the latter species is morphologically distinct in its conspicuously oblique leaf with an acute to acuminate apex (vs. orbicular-reniform with a rounded apex), its entire margin (vs. crenate) and plain green, non-bullate leaf surface (vs. purplish-green to brownish-purple and bullate) and its male flowers with 2 tepals (vs. 4 tepals). In addition, it usually grows on limestone substrates (vs. confined to granite substrates.

    Distribution: Endemic in Peninsular Malaysia, Johor, Mersing District, Endau-Rompin National Park, Sungai Selai. It is apparently a rare species as it is known only from the type locality in Endau Rompin National Park.

    Etymology: Named after Dr Sam Yen-Yen, Malaysian botanist, specialist in Zingiberaceae who first discovered the species and recognised its potential as an ornamental plant.
    Ecology: In primary lowland mixed dipterocarp forest, growing on moss-covered rocks, rarely epiphytic, near a waterfall in deep shade.

    Joanne Pei-Chih Tan, Sheh May Tam and Ruth Kiew. 2018. Begonia yenyeniae (Begoniaceae), A New Species from Endau Rompin National Park, Johor, Malaysia. PhytoKeys. 110: 23-37. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.110.25846


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    Myanmarothrips pankowskiorum 
    Ulitzka, 2018

        DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4486.4.8 

    Burmite, a Cretaceous amber coming from the north of Myanmar, is known to preserve a great diversity of fossil arthropods, particularly insects. Many inclusions of different taxa in several insect orders have been well analysed, but this is the first study focussed on the Thysanoptera found in Burmite. In the sub-order Terebrantia, family Merothripidae, Myanmarothrips pankowskiorum gen. n., sp. n. is recognized in various amber samples from a total of 34 females but only one male. In the sub-order Tubulifera, Rohrthrips burmiticus sp. n. is based on a single female with a tubular tenth abdominal segment. This is an exceptionally well-preserved specimen, and details of the mouth parts indicate that the gnathal apparatus of modern Tubulifera was already developed in the Cretaceous. Due to plesiomorphic characters with respect to extant Tubulifera, the genus Rohrthrips is transferred to Rohrthripidae fam. n., and this family is clearly differentiated from extant Phlaeothripidae.

    Key words: Burmite, Cenomanian, Myanmarothrips gen. n., Merothripidae, new species, new genus, new family, Rohrthripidae fam. n.

    FIGURES 1–8. Myanmarothrips pankowskiorum gen. n., sp. n.
    (1) female (MU-Fos-62/1), dorsal view; (2) female (MU-Fos63/1), dorsal view; (3) female (MU-Fos-63/1), head and prothorax; (4) female (MU-Fos-62/2), lateral view; (5) male (MU-Fos62/3b), dorsal view; (6) female (MU-Fos-63/1), trichobothria on abdominal tergite X (indicated); (7) fore wing (MU-Fos-62/ 3a), cross veins (indicated); (8) hind wing (MU-Fos-62/3b), membrane smooth with microthrichia present only at tip (indicated).

    Manfred R. Ulitzka. 2018. A First Survey of Cretaceous Thrips from Burmese Amber including the Establishment of A New Family of Tubulifera (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Zootaxa. 4486(4); 548–558.   DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4486.4.8

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    Semi-aquatic paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Spinosaurus dinosaur during early Late Cretaceous:
    Spinosaurus; (B) Mawsonia coelacanth fishes

    in Candeiro, Gil & de Castro, 2018. 
     (drawing Luciano Vidal)

    The Early Cretaceous of North Africa has Spinosaurinae dinosaur remains such as Spinosaurus recorded in Algeria (Guir Basin, Kem Kem beds), Egypt (Bahariya Formation), Morocco (Kem Kem beds), and Tunisia (Ain El Guettar Formation). Until now, three possible Spinosaurus species were identified: Spinosaurus aegyptiacus, Spinosaurus sp. and Spinosaurus “B”. The occurrence of this genus in the Albian-Cenomanian rocks of Africa suggests that the temporal and geographic distribution of these spinosaurines is the largest one among all genera and species of megapredators from the middle Cretaceous of Africa. The fossil record of Spinosaurus from the Albian to the Cenomanian shows a 20 million year persistence of this genus in Gondwanan ecosystems.

    Keywords: theropod dinosaur, distribution, Early Cretaceous, Africa

    Fig. 3 Most complete Spinosaurus species skulls from early Late Cretaceous formations from Northern Africa.
     Spinosaurus aegyptiacus (from Stromer, 1915), BSP 1912 – dentary, A in lateral and B in dorsal views.
    Spinosaurus cf. aegyptiacus (from Buffetaut and Ouaja, 2002), BM231 – rostral part of left dentary, C, in lateral and in D dorsal views.
     Spinosaurus marrocanus (nomen dubium) (Taquet and Russell, 1998) MNHM SAM 124 – left maxilary, E in lateral and F dorsal views.
    Spinosaurus cf. S. aegyptiacus (from Dal Sasso et al., 2005) MSNM V4047 – left maxilary, G in lateral in dorsal view.

    Fig. 5. Semi-aquatic paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Spinosaurus dinosaur during early Late Cretaceous: (A) Spinosaurus; (B) Mawsonia coelacanth fishes; (C) Araripemys turtle (drawing Luciano Vidal).

    The middle Cretaceous strata of North Africa preserved an important record of the theropod Spinosaurus. Although their fossil remains are usually fragmented, most specimens show diagnostic characters of the genus Spinosaurus that are especially present in their conical and non-serrated teeth. The fossil record of this genus in North Africa shows a restricted geographic distribution between the Albian and the Cenomanian periods. Yet, when we consider their temporal distribution, it suggests that Spinosaurus had a significant geological history of nearly 20 million years, a lifespan unknown for other African megapredators species (e.g., Carcharodontosaurus – 18.5 mya [Candeiro et al., 2018]). The geological evidences indicate that Africa was an island during the main period of occurrence of this genus. The faunal composition of the spinosaurinae that inhabited the eastern coast of Africa is broadly comparable with the Cenomanian fossil records from western Africa, supporting the relative homogeneous composition of the taxon in these areas during this period. Additional studies and future field prospections in other localities could eventually reveal a wider distribution of this genus in other regions of Africa (e.g., Niger, Sudan) or even in western Europe and northern South America.

    Carlos Roberto A. Candeiro, Lívia Motta Gil and Pedro Ernesto Pontes de Castro. 2018. Large-sized Theropod Spinosaurus: An Important Component of the Carnivorous Dinosaur Fauna in southern Continents During the Cretaceous. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France. 189 (4-6): 15.  DOI: 10.1051/bsgf/2018010

    Résumé – Spinosaurus (théropode de grande taille) : une composante importante de la faune de dinosaures carnivores des continents méridionaux au cours du Crétacé. Le Crétacé inférieur d’Afrique du Nord renferme des restes de dinosaures spinosaurinés, tels que Spinosaurus répertorié en Algérie (Bassin du Guir, Kem Kem beds), en Égypte (Formation Bahariya), au Maroc (Kem Kem beds) et en Tunisie (Formation Ain El Guettar). Jusqu’à ce jour, trois espèces de spinosaure sont reconnues : Spinosaurus aegyptiacus, Spinosaurus sp. et Spinosaurus “B”. La présence de ce genre dans les terrains albocénomaniens d’Afrique suggère que la répartition temporelle et géographique de ces spinosaurinés est la plus étendue de tous les genres et espèces de méga-prédateurs du Crétacé moyen d’Afrique. Le registre fossile de Spinosaurus, depuis l’Albien jusqu’au Cénomanien, indique une présence de 20 millions d’années pour ce genre dans les écosystèmes gondwaniens. 
    Mots clés : théropode dinosaure / distribution / Crétacé inférieur / Afrique

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    Hedychium viridibracteatum X.Hu

    in Hu, Huang, Tan, Wu & Chen, 2018. 

    Hedychium viridibracteatum X.Hu, a new species from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, South China, is described and illustrated. Hedychium viridibracteatum X.Hu is included in the short-anther group of Hedychium and is most similar to Hedychium villosum Wall. var. tenuiflorum Voigt ex Baker, H. villosum Wall. var. villosum Wall., and H. chingmeianum N. Odyuo & D. K. Roy.

    Keywords: Hedychium, Zingiberaceae, new species, Guangxi Autonomous Region

    Hedychium viridibracteatum X.Hu, sp. nov.

    Diagnosis: Hedychium viridibracteatum X.Hu, sp. nov. is morphologically similar to H. villosum Wall. var. tenuiflorum Voigt ex Baker by having sagittate anther, long filament, relatively thick and small leaves, more than two flower per-bract, but can be easily distinguished from it by its green (vs. brown) shorter bracts (1.3–1.5 × 0.4–0.5 cm vs. 2.7–2.9 × 1.1–1.2 cm) and bracteoles (1.0–1.1 × 0.3–0.4 cm vs. 2.1–2.2 × 0.7–0.75 cm), pure white flowers (vs. white with red stamen), dentate (vs. acute) tips to the lateral staminodes, and the apex of the labellum incised to the middle (vs. deeply divided).

    Figure 1. Hedychium viridibracteatum X.Hu, sp. nov., holotype.
    A upper leaves and inflorescence B flower C bract D ovary and glands E calyx tube F floral tube with calyx tube wrapped outside G corolla lobe H lateral staminodes I labellum J stamen K anther L stigma.
    Drawings Y. X. Liu.

    Figure 3. Hedychium viridibracteatum X.Hu sp. nov. 
    A habit (growing on rocks) B rachis and bracts (pubescent) C ligule (glabrous) D inflorescence at anthesis E leaf blade surface (adaxial view) F leaf blade surface (abaxial view) G rhizome H portions of inflorescence (2–4 flowers per bract).

     Figure 2. Hedychium viridibracteatum X.Hu, sp. nov., flowers and their parts:
    A bract B bracteole C ovary D calyx tube E floral tube F corolla lobe G lateral staminodes H labellum I labellum claw J filament K anther. 

    Etymology: The new species is named after its green bracts and pure white flowers which are highly diagnostic.

    Habitat: This species is currently found on limestone rocks in Guangxi Autonomous Region (Napo, Longzhou and Jingxi Counties) mainly growing under forest at altitudes of 600–800 m.

    Xiu Hu, Jia-qi Huang, Jia-chuan Tan, Yong-qing Wu and Juan Chen. 2018. Hedychium viridibracteatum X.Hu, A New Species from Guangxi Autonomous Region, South China. PhytoKeys. 110: 69-79. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.110.28710


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    Confuciusornis sp.

    in Li, Clarke, Gao, et al​., 2018. 
      DOI:  10.7717/peerj.5831 
    Reconstruction by Velizar Simeonovski.

    Integumentary patterns and colors can differentiate species, sexes, and life changes and can inform on habitat and ecology. However, they are rarely preserved in the fossil record. Here, we report on an extremely well-preserved specimen of the Cretaceous bird Confuciusornis with unprecedented complexity, including small spots on the wings, crest, and throat. Morphological and chemical evidence suggest that these patterns are produced by melanin, but unusual preservation prevents assignment of specific colors. Based on comparisons with extant birds, these patterns were likely used for camouflage, although other functions including sexual signaling cannot be ruled out. Our data show that even more elaborate plumage patterns than the spangles in Anchiornis and stripes in Sinosauropteryx were present at a relatively early stage of avian evolution, showing the significance of coloration and patterning to feather evolution.

    Figure 1: Evidence of plumage diversity in the Confuciusornithidae from the new specimen (CUGB P1401). (A–D) The primary slab of CUGB P1401 showing details of the plumage including crest ornamentation on the (B) top and (C) back of the head as well as on the (D) secondary and (E) gular feathers. Dots indicate locations sampled for Raman and morphological analyses. Colored dots correspond to locations of SEM images and Raman spectra in Fig. 2. 

    Figure 6: Reconstruction of the plumage in CUGB P140. Morphological data and probable eumelanin signatures are consistent darker preserved regions as associated with dark colors in the fossil (sampling regime explained in Fig. 1).
    Reconstruction by Velizar Simeonovski.

    The elaborate spotting on this specimen exceeds that found in exceptionally-preserved troodontids and compsognathids and rivals that in modern birds, suggesting that plumage patterns evolved greater complexity through avian evolution. This hypothesis remains to be tested as more exceptionally-preserved specimens are described.

    Quanguo Li, Julia A. Clarke, Ke-Qin Gao, Jennifer A. Peteya and Matthew D. Shawkey​. 2018. Elaborate Plumage Patterning in A Cretaceous Bird.  PeerJ. 6:e5831.   DOI:  10.7717/peerj.5831

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    Lavocatisaurus agrioensis 
    Canudo, Carballido, Garrido & Salgado, 2018

    Illustration: Gabriel Lio. 

    Rebbachisaurids are a group of basal diplodocimorph sauropods that diversified in Gondwana at the end of the Early Cretaceous and the beginning of the Late Cretaceous. It is a group of great palaeobiogeographical interest, for it  clearly illustrates various processes of dispersal throughout Gondwana and to Laurasia prior to the breakup of Africa and South America. However, the relationships within the group are still under discussion owing to the scarcity of cranial material that would help clarify them. In the present paper we describe the new rebbachisaurid Lavocatisaurus agrioensis gen. et  sp. nov. from the Aptian–Albian (Lower Cretaceous) of Neuquén (Argentina). Remains have been recovered belonging to an adult specimen (holotype) and two immature specimens (paratypes). Taken together, almost all the bones of the taxon are represented, including most of the cranium. Lavocatisaurus agrioensis gen. et sp. nov. is the first rebbachisaurid from Argentina with an almost complete cranium, making it possible to recognize differences with respect to other rebbachisaurids, such as the highly derived Nigersaurus. Among its most notable characters are the presences of a large preantorbital fenestra and maxillary teeth that are significantly larger than those of the dentary. Our phylogenetic study places Lavocatisaurus amongst basal rebbachisaurids, as the sister lineage to Khebbashia (the clade formed by Limaysaurinae + Rebbachisaurinae). This position, which is somewhat more derived than that previously suggested for Comahuesaurus and Zapalasaurus (the Argentinean rebbachisaurids closest in geographical and geological terms), reaffirms the presence of different basal rebbachisaurid lineages in the Early Cretaceous of Patagonia.

    Key words: Dinosauria, Rebbachisauridae, phylogeny, Cretaceous, Rayoso Formation, Argentina.

    Fig. 2. Rebbachisaurid sauropod Lavocatisaurus agrioensis gen. et sp. nov. from Agrio del Medio (Argentina), Aptian–lower Albian. A. MOZ-Pv1232, axis in lateral view (A1, photograph; A2, drawing); eight cervical vertebrae in lateral view view (A3, photograph; A4, drawing, ); anterior caudal vertebra in lateral view (A5); middle caudal vertebra in lateral view (A6); posterior caudal vertebra in lateral view (A7); posteriormost caudal vertebra in lateral view (A8); left tibia in lateral view (A9). B. MOZ-Pv 1255, left scapula from a juvenile specimen, in lateral view. C. Skeletal reconstruction based on the holotype and paratype specimens. Scale bars 10 cm. 

    Saurischia Seeley, 1887
    Sauropoda Marsh, 1878
    Diplodocoidea Marsh, 1878 sensu Upchurch, 1995
    Diplodocimorpha Calvo and Salgado, 1995
    Rebbachisauridae Bonaparte, 1997

    Genus Lavocatisaurus nov.

    Etymology: In honour of the French researcher René Lavocat (1909–2007), who described Rebbachisaurus, the first known representative of Rebbachisauridae.

    Lavocatisaurus agrioensis sp. nov.

    Etymology: In reference to the locality of Agrio del Medio, from which the new species was found

    Illustration: Gabriel Lio.  

    Lavocatisaurus agrioensis is the first of the South American rebbachisaurids that preserves the rostral region of the cranium, which has allowed us to undertake a reliable enough reconstruction of the skull. The skull has a combination of morphological characters that justifies its definition as a new taxon within Rebbachisauridae along with the less derived rebbachisaurids from the Early Cretaceous of Argentina such as Zapalasaurus and Comahuesaurus. Our phylogenetic study situates Lavocatisaurus as the sister lineage of Khebbashia (Fig. 5). Lavocatisaurus is the most derived basal rebbachisaurid known to date, providing reliable information on the evolutionary steps that occurred just prior to the diversification of Rebbachisaurinae.

    José I. Canudo, José L. Carballido, Alberto Garrido and Leonardo Salgado. 2018. A New Rebbachisaurid Sauropod from the Aptian–Albian, Lower Cretaceous Rayoso Formation, Neuquén, Argentina. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. in press. DOI: 10.4202/app.00524.2018 

    Scientists discover a new species of dinosaur 110 million years old in Argentina

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    Crittendenceratops krzyzanowskii 
     Dalman, Hodnett, Lichtig & Lucas, 2018

    Life reconstruction by Sergey Krasovskiy. 

    A new ceratopsid dinosaur, Crittendenceratops krzyzanowskii, is described from the Fort Crittenden Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of southeastern Arizona, and is based on two individuals consisting of partial cranial material recovered from the same stratigraphic unit. A phylogenetic analysis of ceratopsids recovers Crittendenceratops as a member of Nasutoceratopsini, a subclade of Centrosaurinae defined as the stem-based clade of centrosaurine ceratopsids more closely related to Avaceratops lammersi and Nasutoceratops titusi than to Centrosaurus apertus. Reconstruction of the parietosquamosal frill based on two specimens indicates that C. krzyzanowskii is a unique, nasutoceratopsin taxon. The parietosquamosal frill of C. krzyzanowskii had a broad medial ramus and at least five epiparietal loci situated around the margin of the frill, a typical characteristic of Centrosaurinae. The epiparietals are pronounced triangles that are dorsally concave and ventrally convex. Additionally, two large, triangular hook-like flanges, nearly the size of the epiparietal loci, are situated along the dorsomedial margin of the parietal ramus. The left squamosal has a pronounced dorsal ridge with a single dorsal squamosal process and large episquamosal undulations, a typical characteristic of Centrosaurinae. The presence of C. krzyzanowskii in Arizona indicates that the nasutoceratopsins persisted into the late Campanian. The temporal and paleobiogeographic distribution of Nasutoceratopsini further weakens the hypothesis of distinct northern and southern Laramidian provinces.


    ORNITHISCHIA Seeley, 1888
    CERATOPSIA Marsh, 1890
    NEOCERATOPSIA Sereno, 1986

    CERATOPSIDAE Marsh, 1888
    CENTROSAURINAE Lambe, 1915
    NASUTOCERATOPSINI Ryan, Holmes, Mallon, Loewen, and Evans, 2017

     Crittendenceratops, new genus

     Etymology: Derived from “Crittenden” referring to the Fort Crittenden Formation, the stratum from which the specimen came; “ceratops,” meaning a “horned-face” in Latinized Greek. 

    Crittendenceratops krzyzanowskii, new species

    Etymology: The specific epithet honors the late Stan Krzyzanowski, who discovered and collected the specimen.

    Diagnosis: Centrosaurine ceratopsid characterized by the following unique combination of characters: forward-curving, hook-like flanges located along the dorsomedial margin of the parietal lateroposterior ramus; extensive epiparietals located along the lateroposterior margin of the parietal ramus; parietal ramus dorsoventrally thick; dorsal surface of the parietal ramus contains deep elongate fossa; posteroventrolateral concavity pronounced and extensively rugose; squamosal dorsal ridge short, pronounced and located in close proximity to dorsolateral margin of the bone.  

    Crittendenceratops krzyzanowskii is a new genus and species that represents the youngest current record of nasutoceratopsins in North America. The identity of a new member of the Nasutoceratopsini clade in southern Laramidia fills in the evolutionary gap between the slightly older Yehuecauhceratops and the nasutoceratopsins known from the late Campanian in northwestern North America. Furthermore, Crittendenceratops and Yehuecauhceratops add new information to the paleobiogeographic distribution of nasutoceratopsins during the Cretaceous. 

    Life reconstruction of Crittendenceratops krzyzanowskii gen. et sp. nov.

    by Sergey Krasovskiy.

    Sebastian G. Dalman, John-Paul M. Hodnett, Asher J. Lichtig and Spencer G. Lucas. 2018. A New Ceratopsid Dinosaur (Centrosaurinae: Nasutoceratopsini) from the Fort Crittenden Formation, Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) of Arizona. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 79: 141–164.


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    Ultragryllacris triangula 
    Ingrisch, 2018

    New records of Gryllacrididae from South East Asia to New Guinea are reported, new taxa are described and type specimens from European collections redescribed. The wing venation of the tegmina and its variation within the family is discussed. A new key to the 50 genera and subgenera of Gryllacrididae occurring in the area from South East Asia to New Guinea is provided. Six genera and two subgenera are introduced as new: Angustogryllacris gen. nov., Minigryllacris gen. nov., Monseremus gen. nov., Siamgryllacris gen. nov., Paraneanias gen. nov., Plexigryllacris gen. nov., Pseudasarca subgen. nov. of Asarcogryllacris Karny, 1937, Xiphilarnaca subgen. nov. of Metriogryllacris Karny, 1937. Two genera Gigantogryllacris Karny, 1937 and Pardogryllacris Karny, 1937 are reduced to subgeneric status under Gryllacris Audinet-Serville, 1831 and one monotypic genus Cyanogryllacris Karny, 1937 is synonymised with Capnogryllacris Karny, 1937.

            70 species and nine subspecies are described as new: Eugryllacris gandaki sp. nov., Eugryllacris guomashan sp. nov., Eugryllacris crassicauda sp. nov., Eugryllacris crassicauda cambodiana ssp. nov., Eugryllacris serricauda sp. nov., Eugryllacris trabicauda sp. nov., Eugryllacris vermicauda sp. nov., Eugryllacris sulcata sp. nov., Eugryllacris inversa sp. nov., Gryllacris incornuta sp. nov., Gryllacris sok sp. nov., Gryllacris (Pardogryllacris)ovulicauda sp. nov., Gryllacris (Gigantogryllacris) bilineata sp. nov., Gryllacris (Gigantogryllacris) ligulata sp. nov., Lyperogryllacris forcipata sp. nov., Lyperogryllacris ocellata sp. nov., Lyperogryllacris khuntan sp. nov., Ocellarnaca disjuncta sp. nov., Ocellarnaca fusca sp. nov., Otidiogryllacris lawang sp. nov., Otidiogryllacris bamusbama sp. nov., Prosopogryllacris gamta sp. nov., Prosopogryllacris nigra sp. nov., Prosopogryllacris silacea sp. nov., Xanthogryllacris lineata sp. nov., Xanthogryllacris punctata sp. nov., Xanthogryllacris ralum sp. nov., Xanthogryllacris subrecta sp. nov., Aancistroger inarmatus sp. nov., Angustogryllacris bibulbata sp. nov., Aphanogryllacris sinustylata sp. nov., Aphanogryllacris nigritibiae sp. nov., Asarcogryllacris(Asarcogryllacris) brevis sp. nov., Asarcogryllacris (Asarcogryllacrisparapat sp. nov., Asarcogryllacris (Asarcogryllacrisrobusta sp. nov., Asarcogryllacris(Pseudolarnaca) cornualis sp. nov., Asarcogryllacris (Pseudasarca) arborea sp. nov., Australogryllacris guttata sp. nov., Capnogryllacris (C.) erythrocephala fuscifrons ssp. nov., Capnogryllacris (C.) varifrons sp. nov., Capnogryllacris (C.) nigromaculata sp. nov., Capnogryllacris (C.) sakaerat toxica ssp. nov., Celebogryllacris brevitegmina sp. nov., Diaphanogryllacris annamita tenera ssp. nov., Diaphanogryllacris opulenta sp. nov., Diaphanogryllacris recta sp. nov., Diaphanogryllacris sinuata sp. nov., Eremus tigris sp. nov., Furcilarnaca chiangdao sp. nov., Furcilarnaca salit sp. nov., Furcilarnaca trilobata sp. nov., Haplogryllacris bilobulata sp. nov., Homogryllacris armigera sp. nov., Homogryllacris stabilis sp. nov., Larnaca (Larnaca) nigricornis sp. nov., Larnaca (Larnaca) tenuis sp. nov., Larnaca (Larnaca) samkos sp. nov., Larnaca (Larnaca) squamiptera sp. nov., Larnaca (Larnaca) subaptera sp. nov., Melaneremus sikkimensis sp. nov., Minigryllacris perpusilla sp. nov., Monseremus appendiculatus sp. nov., Neanias virens sp. nov., Neolarnaca vera nigrinotum ssp. nov., Phryganogryllacris extensa sp. nov., Phryganogryllacris gialaiensis fovealis ssp. nov., Phryganogryllacris nonangulata sp. nov., Siamgryllacris rufa sp. nov., Ultragryllacris pulchra nan ssp. nov., Ultragryllacris triangula sp. nov., Woznessenskia ampliata sp. nov., Woznessenskia bavi sp. nov., Zalarnaca (Glolarnaca) elegantula sp. nov., Zalarnaca (Glolarnaca) globiceps minor ssp. nov., Zalarnaca (Zalarnaca) maninjau sp. nov., Papuogryllacris diluta baiteta ssp. nov., Papuogryllacris rugifrons sp. nov., Papuogryllacris ligata bundi ssp. nov., Paraneanias striatus sp. nov., Plexigryllacris megastyla sp. nov.

            The following nomenclatural changes had to be done:Gryllacris bancanaKarny, 1930a stat. nov. is raised to full species from subspecies of Gryllacris obscura Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1888; Xanthogryllacris inquinata (Karny, 1928c) comb. & stat. nov. is raised to full species from subspecies under Pardogryllacris dyak (Griffini, 1909); Eremus oberthuriGriffini, 1913a stat. nov. is raised to full species from subspecies under Eremus rugosifrons Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1888; Prosopogryllacris nigrovenosa(Karny, 1928b) stat. nov. is raised to full species from subspecies under Prosopogryllacris horvathi (Griffini, 1909); Xanthogryllacris punctipennis aurantiaca (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1888) stat. reest. and Xanthogryllacris punctipennis dempwolffi (Griffini, 1909b) stat. reest. are treated as valid subspecies under Xanthogryllacris punctipennis (Walker, 1869) instead of being synonyms of the latter;Gryllacris thailandi Gorochov, 2007 and Gryllacris thailandi facemarmigerGorochov et al., 2015 are downgraded to subspecies of Gryllacris vittata Walker, 1869. Gryllacris kledangensis Karny, 1923 and Gryllacris lombokiana Karny, 1926a become new synonyms of Gryllacris peracca Karny, 1923; Brachyntheisogryllacris abbreviata evolutior (Griffini, 1909a) becomes a new synonym of Brachyntheisogryllacris abbreviata (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1888), and Haplogryllacris hieroglyphicoides (Chopard, 1924) a new synonym of Haplogryllacris simplex (Walker, 1871).

            The following new combinations are proposed: Capnogryllacris(C.) basaliatrata(Griffini, 1909c) comb. nov. from Cyanogryllacris Karny, 1937; Haplogryllacris alienaWalker, 1869 comb. nov. and Haplogryllacris durgensis (Gupta & Chandra, 2017) comb. nov. from Gryllacris Audinet-Serville, 1831; Homogryllacris artinii (Griffini, 1913b) comb. nov., Homogryllacris buyssoniana (Griffini, 1912c) comb. nov., Homogryllacris kurseonga (Griffini, 1913b) stat. & comb. nov. and Homogryllacris ? maindroni (Griffini, 1913a) comb. nov. from Brachyntheisogryllacris Karny, 1937; Larnaca (Larnaca) eugenii (Griffini, 1914b) comb. nov. from Metriogryllacris Karny, 1937; Larnaca (Larnaca) larnacoides (Karny, 1937) comb. nov. and Larnaca (Larnaca) jacobsoni (Griffini, 1913c) comb. nov. from Melaneremus Karny, 1937.

    Keywords: Orthoptera, Gryllacrididae, new species, new genera, revision, distribution records, tegmen venation, morphology, key to genera

    Sigfrid Ingrisch. 2018.  New Taxa and Records of Gryllacrididae (Orthoptera, Stenopelmatoidea) from South East Asia and New Guinea with A Key to the Genera. Zootaxa.  4510(1); 1-278. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4510.1.1

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    Moenkhausia goya 
    Carvalho Deprá, Azevedo-Santos, Vitorino, Dagosta, Marinho & Benine, 2018

    A new species of Moenkhausia is described from the upper rio Tocantins basin, States of Goiás and Tocantins, Brazil. Moenkhausia goya, new species, can be distinguished from its congeners by the shape of the humeral blotch in combination with a uniform dark pigmentation covering the interradial membranes of the dorsal and anal fins. Among congeners, the new species is most similar to M. britskii Azevedo-Santos & Benine, M. grandisquamis (Müller & Troschel) and M. xinguensis Steindachner by presenting a deep body, a large, round humeral blotch and fins without discrete patches of dark pigmentation (i.e., without well-defined blotches or stripes). With the description of M. goya, the number of species endemic to the upper rio Tocantins basin (considered upstream from the mouth of the rio Paranã) is raised to 51. Of these, some are widespread in the upper rio Tocantins basin, while others seem to be restricted to one of its sub-basins.

    Keywords: Pisces, Cerrado, Moenkhausia xinguensis, State of Goiás, Taxonomy

    FIGURE 3. Live coloration of Moenkhausia goya, LBP 23679, 47.8 mm SL,
    Brazil, Goiás, Pirenópolis, rio das Almas basin.

    Moenkhausia goya, new species 

    Etymology.Moenkhausia goya is named after the Goyá, a South American ethnic group that lived in the central region of Brazil, which resisted to the encroachment of their territories until the 19th century. They also originated the name of the state of Goiás, where most of the distribution of the new species lies.

    Gabriel de Carvalho Deprá, Valter M. Azevedo-Santos, Oscar Barroso Júnior Vitorino, Fernando Cesar Paiva Dagosta, Manoela Maria Ferreira Marinho and Ricardo C. Benine. 2018. Moenkhausia goya (Characiformes: Characidae): A New Species from the upper rio Tocantins Basin, Central Brazil. Zootaxa. 4514(1); 87–96.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4514.1.7

    Resumo:Uma nova espécie de Moenkhausia é descrita da bacia do alto rio Tocantins, Estados de Goiás e Tocantins, Brasil. Moenkhausia goya, espécie nova, pode ser distinguida de suas congêneres pela forma da mancha umeral em combinação com uma pigmentação escura uniforme recobrindo as membranas inter-radiais das nadadeiras dorsal e anal. Entre as congêneres, a nova espécie é mais similar a M. britskii Azevedo-Santos & Benine, M. grandisquamis (Müller & Troschel) e M. xinguensis Steindachner por ter um corpo alto, uma mancha umeral grande e redonda e nadadeiras sem áreas de pigmentação escura discretas (i.e., sem manchas ou listras bem definidas). Com a descrição de M. goya, o número de espécies endêmicas à bacia do alto rio Tocantins (considerada à montante da barra do rio Paranã) sobe para 51. Destas, algumas estão amplamente distribuídas na bacia do alto rio Tocantins, enquanto outras parecem estar restritas a uma de suas subbacias.
    Palavras-chave: Cerrado, Estado de Goiás, Moenkhausia xinguensis, Taxonomia

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    Chiloschista pulchella Aver. & K.S. Nguyen

    in Averyanov, Nguyeh & Maisak, 2018.

    The new species, Chiloschista pulchella (Orchidaceae: Aeridinae) was discovered in Hin Nam No Nature Protected Area, Khammoune Province of the central Laos. The paper provides detailed description and illustration of this species, which is identified as a local endemic of karstic rocky limestone of the northern part of the protected area. It differs from all known congeners in the thin lip, median lip lobe dissected into two small subulate lobules, as well as in large purple blotches on the lip side-lobes never found in other species of this genus. The newly discovered plant represents interest for cultivation as an ornamental plant and needs protection in its natural habitats.

    Keyword: Laos, Orchids, Plant diversity, Plant taxonomy, Limestone endemism, Hin Nam No Nature Protected Area

    Fig. 1. Chiloschista pulchella Aver. & K.S. Nguyen.
    Flowering plant, inflorescence, flowers and floral details (fresh living plant prior to preparation of the holotype herbarium specimen, AL 889).
    Photos by Khang Sinh Nguyen and Leonid V. Averyanov, 
    correction and design by L. Averyanov.

    Fig. 2. Chiloschista pulchella Aver. & K.S. Nguyen.
    A. Flowering plant. B. Intact flowers, side views. C. Intact flowers, frontal view. D. Flattened flowers, view from behind and frontal view. E. Intact lip, view from above. F. Intact lip, view from below. G. Intact lip, side view. H. Sagittal section of the lip. I. Anther cap, side view, frontal view and view from below. J. Pollinarium, frontal view, view from behind and side view. K. Halves of pollinium.
     All drawn from the type, AL 889 by L. Averyanov and T. Maisak.

    Chiloschista pulchella Aver. & K.S. Nguyen, sp. nov. 

    Described from central Laos (“Laos, Khammoune Province, Boualapha District, ..., within the territory of Hin Nam No Nature Protected Area, primary dry evergreen and semi deciduous broad-leaved forest on very steep rocky slope near karstic hill top composed with solid, marble-like highly eroded limestone at 350–430 m a.s.l., epiphyte on tall tree, rare) 
    Type (“9 May 2018, L. Averyanov, K. S. Nguyen, T. Maisak, L. Xaiyavongsa, S. Keovankham, AL 889” – LE (holotype).

    Distribution: Central Laos: Khammoune province (Boualapha district, the territory of Hin Nam No Nature Protected Area). Endemic. Habitat, ecology and conservation status: Miniature aphyllous epiphytes growing in primary dry evergreen and semideciduous, broad-leaved forests on karstic rocky limestone, at an elevation of 350–430 m. Rare. Currently, the IUCN Red List status should be ascertained as Data Deficient (DD). 

    Etymology: The specific epithet refers to the attractive, colorful flowers having purple lip side lobes. 

    Notes. Chiloschista pulchella strikingly differs from all its congeners by the flat lip apex (not fleshy), the median lip lobe dissected into two small subulate lobules, and by the presence of large purple blotches on the sidelobes of the lip which is never found in any other species of the genus. This new species belongs to the group of species with a simple operculum (not having any appendages), but has no certain similarity with any other species of this group. Formally, it can be compared with C. exuperei (Guillaumin) Garay, which also has a bilobulate median lip lobe. However, both these species are obviously different in their floral morphology  

    Leonid V. Averyanov, Khang Sinh Nguyeh and Tatiana V. Maisak. 2018. Chiloschista pulchella (Orchidaceae: Aeridinae) New Orchid Species from Lao PDR. Taiwania. 63(4); 389-392. DOI: 10.6165/tai.2018.63.389  


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    Ptychozoon popaense
    Grismer, Wood, Thura, Grismer, Brown & Stuart, 2018

    A molecular phylogenetic analysis of Parachute Geckos (Genus Ptychozoon Kuhl & van Hasselt, 1822) based on the mitochondrial gene ND2 indicates that a newly discovered population from the Mt. Popa volcano—a habitat island in the northern portion of the Bago Yoma mountains, Myanmar—is a new species, Ptychozoon popaense sp. nov. This species is part of a clade that contains P. bannanense Wang, Wang, & Liu, 2016 and P. lionotum Annandale, 1905 of Indochina. Ptychozoon popaense sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to its sister species P. lionotum which manifests considerable geographic substructuring of genetic variation but differs from the nominate taxon by an uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence of 16.0–17.1% and by discrete differences in morphology and color pattern. This discovery highlights the unique, insular nature of the Bago Yoma mountains of the Ayeyarwady Basin, which support other endemic gekkonids. It also underscores the growing diversity in this highly derived clade of cryptic, parachuting, geckos characterized by highly divergent genetic lineages, which may indicate the presence of additional, unrecognized species.

    Keywords: Reptilia, Squamata, Phylogenetic taxonomy, Mt. Popa, Ayeyarwady Basin

    FIGURE 2. Adult male holotype of Ptychozoon popaense sp. nov. (LSUHC 13508) from the type locality, ...., Mt. Popa, Mandalay Region, Myanmar.

    Ptychozoon popaense sp. nov.
     Mt. Popa Parachute Gecko

    Distribution. Ptychozoon popaense is know only from the type locality from ..., Mt. Popa, Mandalay Region, Myanmar (Fig. 1).

    Etymology. The gender of the genus Ptychozoon is neutral, therefore the specific epithet popaense is the adjective used here in reference to the type locality, Mt. Popa, Mandalay Region.

     Natural history. The type material was collected in deciduous dipterocap forest (Fig. 3). Both specimens were found on the walls of a small wooden building while foraging for insects during the evening at approximately 1900 hrs.

    L. Lee Grismer, Perry L. Jr. Wood, Myint Kyaw Thura, Marta S. Grismer, Rafe M. Brown and Bryan L. Stuart. 2018. Geographically Structured Genetic Variation in Ptychozoon  lionotum (Squamata: Gekkonidae) and A New Species from An Isolated Volcano in Myanmar. Zootaxa. 4514(2); 202–214.   DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4514.2.4

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    Chrysosplenium ramosissimum Y.I.Kim & Y.D.Kim

    in Kim, Cho, Lee, Kang, et al., 2018.

    This study describes and illustrates Chrysosplenium ramosissimum, a new plant species from Mt. Seonjaryeong, located in the central region of the Korean Peninsula. The species is most similar to C. valdepilosum but is readily distinguishable by the presence of yellowish-green bracteal leaves during flowering, highly branched sterile branches, shiny silvery dots on sterile branch leaves and larger tubercles on the seed coat.

    Keywords: Chrysosplenium, endemic species, seed morphology, sterile branch, DNA barcode

    Figure 1. Chrysosplenium ramosissimum Y.I.Kim & Y.D.Kim.
    A Flowering individual B fruiting individual C sterile branch habit after fruiting D inflorescence and bracteal leaves E–F flower G stamen at various stages H flower longitudinal section I infructescence and bracteal leaves J capsule with persistent sepals K capsule, sepals removed L capsule, longitudinal section M capsule, before dehiscence (top view) N capsule, after dehiscence (top view) O node of sterile branch, enlarged P seed, side view (left), top view (right) Q seed coat, enlarged. 

    Figure 2. Chrysosplenium ramosissimum Y.I.Kim & Y.D.Kim.
     A Inflorescence with bracteal leaves B sterile branches and basal leaves during flowering with withered basal leaves C sterile branch leaves with shiny silvery spots during flowering D sterile branch after fruiting E plant habit during flowering.

    Chrysosplenium ramosissimum Y.I.Kim & Y.D.Kim, sp. nov.

    Diagnosis: Chrysosplenium ramosissimum is most similar to the sympatric species C. valdepilosum, but the former is readily distinguishable by the presence of yellowish-green (vs. bright yellow) bracteal leaves during flowering, highly branched and elongated sterile branches after fruiting (Fig. 4), shiny silvery dots on sterile branch leaves and larger tubercles on the seed coat (Fig. 3).

    Distribution: Chrysosplenium ramosissimum is only known to exist on Mt. Seonjaryeong in Gangwon-do, Korea, at an elevation of 630–910 m. To date, only one population of approximately 2,000 individuals has been discovered, near a small creek. In the absence of additional data, we presently score it as Data Deficient (DD), according to the IUCN Red List criteria (IUCN 2001).

    Ecology: Chrysosplenium ramosissimum occurs in deciduous forests of mountain valleys, where it grows in humid and semi-shaded areas near small creeks along with Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb., Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance and Acer buergerianum Miq. The flowering period of this species is late March to early May and the fruiting period is late May to early July.

    Etymology: The specific epithet of the new species refers to the highly branched sterile branches after fruiting.

     Yong-In Kim, Seong-Hyun Cho, Jung-Hoon Lee, Dae-Hyun Kang, Jin Hee Park and Young-Dong Kim. 2018. Chrysosplenium ramosissimum Y.I.Kim & Y.D.Kim (Saxifragaceae), A New Species from Korea. PhytoKeys. 111: 1-10.  10.3897/phytokeys.111.27182


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    Stegonotus reticulatus Boulenger, 1895

    in Kaiser, Kaiser & O'Shea, 2018. 

    Since its conceptualization in 1854, 29 species of the colubrid genus Stegonotus have been recognized or described, of which 15 (admiraltiensis, batjanensis, borneensis, cucullatus, derooijae, diehli, florensis, guentheri, iridis, heterurus, melanolabiatus, modestus, muelleri, parvus, poechi) are still considered valid today. Original species descriptions for the members of this genus were published in Dutch, English, French, German, and Italian and, perhaps as a consequence of these polyglot origins, there has been a considerable amount of confusion over which species names should be applied to which populations of Stegonotus throughout its range across Borneo, the Philippines, Wallacea, New Guinea, Australia, and associated archipelagos. In addition, the terminology used to notate characteristics in the descriptions of these forms was not uniform and may have added to the taxonomic confusion. In this paper, we trace in detail the history of the type specimens, the species, and the synonyms currently associated with the genus Stegonotus and provide a basic, species-specific listing of their characteristics, derived from our examination of over 1500 museum specimens. Based on our data, we are able to limit the distribution of S. modestus to the islands of Ambon, Buru, and Seram in the central Moluccas of Indonesian Wallacea. We correct the type locality of S. cucullatus to the Manokwari area on the Bird’s Head Peninsula of West Papua, Indonesian New Guinea and designate a neotype for S. parvus, a species likely to be a regional endemic in the Schouten Archipelago of Cenderawasih Bay (formerly Geelvink Bay), Indonesian New Guinea. We unequivocally identify and explain the problematic localities of the type specimens of S. muelleri and Lycodon muelleri, which currently reside in the same specimen jar. We remove L. aruensis and L. lividum from the synonymy of S. modestus and recognize them as S. aruensis n. comb. and S. lividus n. comb., respectively. We remove S. keyensis and Zamenophis australis from the synonymy of S. cucullatus and recognize them as S. keyensis n. comb. and S. australis n. comb., respectively. We further remove S. reticulatus from the synonymy of S. cucullatus, S. dorsalis from the synonymy of S. diehli, and S. sutteri from the synonymy of S. florensis. We designate lectotypes for S. guentheri, S. heterurus, S. lividus, and S. reticulatus. Lastly, we introduce S. poechi, a valid species not mentioned in the scientific literature since its description in 1924. This brings the diversity in the genus Stegonotus to 22 species. We also caution that in a complex group of organisms like Stegonotus any rush to taxonomic judgment on the basis of molecular and incomplete morphological data sets may perpetuate errors and introduce incongruities. Only through the careful work of connecting type material with museum specimens and molecular data can the taxonomy and nomenclature of complex taxa be stabilized.

    Keywords: Stegonotus, Colubridae, taxonomy, nomenclature, type specimens, neotype, lectotype, synonymy, Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines, Indonesia, Wallacea, New Guinea, Dutch East Indies, Papua New Guinea, Australia

    Stegonotus reticulatus Boulenger, 1895.
     The body of the adult male paralectotype BMNH 1946.1.14.88. 

    Christine M. Kaiser, Hinrich Kaiser and Mark O'Shea. 2018. The Taxonomic History of Indo-Papuan Groundsnakes, Genus Stegonotus Duméril et al., 1854 (Colubridae), with Some Taxonomic Revisions and the Designation of A Neotype for S. parvus (Meyer, 1874). Zootaxa. 4512(1); 1–73.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4512.1.1

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