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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region

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    Dusky Mudbug | Cambarus (Jugicambarusadustus 
     Thoma, Fetzner, Stocker & Loughman, 2016  

    FIGURE 4. Cambarus (Jugicambarus) adustus, new species, from the type locality showing natural coloration.
     locality: roadside ditch serving as a tributary to Big Branch of Salt Lick Creek, NE of Glen Springs, Lewis County, Kentucky.


    A new species of burrowing crayfish, Cambarus (Jugicambarusadustus, is described from Lewis County in northeastern Kentucky, USA. The new species is most similar morphologically to C. dubiusCambarus adustus coloration differs from C. dubius by lacking red, orange and blue hues, and instead is brown over the entire body surface. Morphological differences between C. dubius and C. adustus exist in the form I male gonopod, with C. adustus possessing a caudal knob, while C. dubius does not. In addition, the lateral carapace of Cadustus is distinctly tuberculate, whereas in C. dubius the carapace lacks extensive tuberculation. Cambarus (J.) adustus appears to have an extremely small geographic range (~19.5 km2), and as such we suggest its consideration for both state and federal levels of protection.

    Keywords: Crustacea, Appalachian Mountains, Cambaridae, Cambarus, crayfish, Decapoda, new species

    Life history. Collections have been made in May, June, August, September, and October. First form males, second form males, and females have been observed in all months sampled. No ovigerous females or young-of year have been observed.

    Crayfish associates. Cambarus thomai and Cambarus ortmanni are found burrowing in adjacent areas. In streams of the area there is a member of the Orconectes subgenus Procericambarus present. It is not clear if these populations represent an undescribed species or are just a geographic variant of Orconectes raymondi Thoma and Stocker 2009.

    Relationships. Cambarus adustus is assigned to the subgenus Jugicambarus based on the presence of a cristiform row of tubercles on the mesial margin of the chelae. It appears to be most closely related to C. dubius, C. pauleyi, and other members of the C. aff. dubius complex. It is hypothesized that the species had become established in the preglacial Portsmouth River prior to the onset of the Quaternary. Cambarus adustus displays a caudal knob similar to, but smaller than, Cambarus bouchardi Hobbs 1970. This character state is not thought to reflect a close relationship between the two species.

    Etymology. The species epithet (adustus = L. brown) is chosen to recognize the overall coloration of this species. The suggested vernacular name is Dusky Mudbug.

    Conservation status. Cambarus (J.) adustus, new species, is narrowly distributed, with a current extent of occurrence of 19.5 km2  in Lewis County, Kentucky. It is best classified as Endangered following Taylor et al. (2007), Endangered (B2ab(iii), ver. 3-1) using IUCN criteria (IUCN 2001), G1 using NatureServe. It should be listed as S1 by the state of Kentucky, and Endangered by the USFWS.

    Range and specimens examined. This species has only been found in Lewis County, Kentucky in the Quicks Run, Salt Lick Creek and the eastern edge of Cabin Creek basins. Adjacent areas in Kentucky and Ohio have been searched but no other populations have been found. Taylor and Schuster (2004) did not report C. dubius from Lewis County, KY. Their closest record was a single site reported from Rowan County, KY in the Licking River basin.

    Roger F. Thoma, James W. Jr. Fetzner, G. Whitney Stocker and Zachary J. Loughman. 2016. Cambarus (Jugicambarusadustus, A New Species of Crayfish from northeastern Kentucky delimited from the Cambarus (J.) aff. dubius species complex.
     Zootaxa. 4162(1); 173–187. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4162.1.9

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    • We study the level of molecular vs. morphological divergence within a lizard species complex
    • We detected strong genetic divergence, but morphological differences are not that clear
    • Differential selection pressures was detected implying some level of morphological stasis

    Currently, Liolaemus is the second most species-rich reptile genus in the world (257 species), and predictions of its real diversity suggest that it may be the most diverse genus. Originally, Liolaemus species were described as widely distributed and morphologically variable taxa, but extensive sampling in previously unexplored geographic areas, coupled with molecular and more extensive morphological studies, have discovered an unexpectedly high number of previously undetected species.

    Here, we study the level of molecular vs. morphological divergence within the L. rothi complex, combining a total of 14 loci (2 mitochondrial and 12 nuclear loci) for 97 individuals, as well as morphological data (nine morphometric and 15 color pattern variables), that represent all six described species of the L. rothi complex, plus two candidate species. We use the multi-coalescent species delimitation program iBPP and resolve strong differences in molecular divergence; and each species is inferred as an independent lineage supported by high posterior probabilities. However, morphological differences are not that clear, and our modeling of morphological characters suggests differential selection pressures implying some level of morphological stasis. We discuss the role of natural selection on phenotypic traits, which may be an important factor in “hiding” the real diversity of the genus.

    Keywords: natural selection; species tree; iBPP; divergence times; Patagonia

    Melisa Olave, Luciano J. Avila, Jack W. Sites Jr and Mariana Morando. 2016. Hidden Diversity within the Lizard Genus Liolaemus: Genetic vs Morphological Divergence in the L. rothi complex (Squamata: Liolaeminae).
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.  DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2016.09.009 

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    Laticauda saintgironsi 
    Cogger & Heatwole, 2006



    The sea krait Laticauda colubrina is the most widespread member of its genus, extending from the Bay of Bengal through much of Asia and the Indo-Malayan Archipelago to New Guinea and many islands of the western Pacific Ocean. Unconfirmed records of the species may extend the range to the western coast of Central America. The species is subject to marked geographic variation in a number of morphological and meristic characters that have to date defied finer taxonomic resolution. Two members of this complex previously subsumed under the specific name colubrina are here formally elevated to full species status. One species — Laticauda saintgironsi n.sp. — consists of those populations of L. colubrina s.l. found around the coast and in the coastal waters of the main island of New Caledonia. The second species — Laticauda frontalis (de Vis, 1905) — is a dwarf species found in sympatry and syntopy with Laticauda colubrina in Vanuatu and the Loyalty Islands of New Caledonia.


     Harold G. Cogger and Harold F. Heatwole. 2006. Laticauda frontalis (de Vis, 1905) and Laticauda saintgironsi n.sp. from Vanuatu and New Caledonia (Serpentes: Elapidae: Laticaudinae) — A New Lineage of Sea Kraits?
    Records of the Australian Museum. 58: 245–256. 

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    Figure 1. (A) Phylogenetic reconstruction of Strophurus species-level relationships with representative photographs of each species in life (size standardized), as well as maps of the geographic distributions of the four major clades and a general map indicating the modern extent of the Australian arid zone. A solid, black circle indicates nodal support values ≥70% for maximum likelihood bootstraps (BS) and ≥0.95 for Bayesian inference posterior probabilities (PP). A white circle represents PP ≥0.95, but BS <70%.

    The geckos in the genus Strophurus (Diplodactylidae) are one of only two squamate lineages with specialized caudal defensive glands. Many species in this genus also have distinctive caudal ornamentation combined with bright and/or contrasting colour pattern elements on the iris, tail and especially the lining of the mouth that are hypothesized to be adaptations for specialized (e.g. deimatic) defensive functions. We present the first multilocus, phylogenetic analysis of the biogeography and evolution of all recognized taxa of Strophurus. Contrary to previous phenotypic and ecological assessments, our phylogenetic analyses delineate four divergent lineages. Three lineages are relatively small (snout-vent length [SVL] 40–60 mm), species-poor (<5 recognized taxa), cryptically coloured (either striped or spotted) and lack precloacal pores (a secondary sexual trait) and putative deimatic elements. In contrast, the remaining lineage is comparatively species rich (at least 14 taxa), attains a larger body size (SVL 60–90 mm), possesses precloacal pores and shows extensive variation in caudal ornamentation and often bright and/or contrasting eye, tail and mouth colouration. The three less diverse lineages have smaller distributions and tend to be associated with spinifex (e.g. Triodia) hummock grasses or rocks, whereas the fourth lineage is much more widespread (including multiple biomes) and consistently reported to utilize more exposed diurnal microhabitats on shrubs and trees. Biogeographical analyses also indicate that – in contrast to many other Australian radiations – the arid biome is the ancestral area of occupation for Strophurus, with multiple inferred shifts into surrounding sclerophyll and monsoon biomes. This study emphasizes that – independent of caudal defensive glands – it appears to be a shift in microhabitat use that correlates with the accumulation of bright and contrasting colouration elements, secondary sexual characters and the widest geographic distribution.

    Figure 1. (A) Phylogenetic reconstruction of Strophurus species-level relationships with representative photographs of each species in life (size standardized), as well as maps of the geographic distributions of the four major clades and a general map indicating the modern extent of the Australian arid zone. A solid, black circle indicates nodal support values ≥70% for maximum likelihood bootstraps (BS) and ≥0.95 for Bayesian inference posterior probabilities (PP). A white circle represents PP ≥0.95, but BS <70%. And (B) gene networks for phased haplotype sequences from two nuDNA markers, RAG-1 and PRLR. Subclades are distinguished by colour: yellow, taeniatus group; brown, wilsoni group; orange, elderi group; and green, strophurus group. Red stars indicate lineages we interpret as representing possible mitochondrial introgression (see text).

    Figure 2. Time-calibrated cladogram illustrating relationships within sampled Pygopodoidea and coloured by ancestral reconstruction of habitat. Bayesian posterior probabilities ≥0.95 subtending each node are noted with an asterisk. Species-specific character states for all traits for which we performed ancestral state reconstruction are symbolized by dots. For single-state traits, a black dot indicates presence; for multistate traits, dots are either black or white (and in one instance, blue or orange), representing the character state (see text for details). Inset photographs illustrate some of the scored traits. The top panel displays variation in caudal adornment (left to right: lacking adornment and either lacking [Strophurus michaelseni] or possessing bright/contrasting colouration [S. taenicauda]; with adornment [tubercles: S. strophurus; prominent spines: S. williamsi, S. wellingtonae] and variations of bright/contrasting colour elements), and the bottom panel variation in iris colour/pattern and oral mucosa colour (L to R: ‘normal’ pink oral mucosa [Diplodactylus vittatus], iris with fine reticulations and orange oral mucosa (S. jeanae) and blue oral mucosa with irises that are brightly coloured and with either boldly contrasting patches or reticulated [S. wellingtonae and S. taenicauda, respectively]). The Strophurus clade is indicated, and the colours below the names of the species indicate the major group to which they belong (see Fig. 1).

    Our phylogenetic analyses delineate four eco-morphologically divergent lineages within the chemically defended Australian gecko genus Strophurus that show differing patterns of taxonomic diversity. The three less diverse lineages generally lacking putative deimatic colour elements tend to be associated with spinifex hummock grasses or rocks, while the fourth lineage is consistently reported to utilize more exposed diurnal microhabitats on shrubs and trees. Thus, we suggest that it is this shift in microhabitat use that correlates with an accumulation of bright and contrasting colour elements, the possession of secondary sexual characters, and an extensive geographic distribution.

    Stuart V. Nielsen, Paul M. Oliver, Rebecca J. Laver, Aaron M. Bauer and Brice P. Noonan. 2016. Stripes, Jewels and Spines: Further Investigations Into the Evolution of Defensive Strategies in A Chemically Defended Gecko Radiation (Strophurus, Diplodactylidae). Zoologica Scripta.  45(5); 481–493. DOI: 10.1111/zsc.12181

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    Sinobatis andamanensis 
     Last & Bussarawit. 2016


    A new legskate, Sinobatis andamanensis sp. nov. is described from a small collection of specimens taken off Phuket (Thailand) during an exploratory survey of the Andaman Sea. It is the first species of Sinobatis and the only legskate known from the northern Indian Ocean. Sinobatis andamanensis sp. nov. has an especially long and narrowly pointed snout (preorbital length exceeding 23% TL) with an interorbital distance 7–9.5 in snout length (up to 6.7 in other Sinobatis species). Molecular data are unavailable for most members of the genus, but based on morphology it shares with S. caerulea bluish dorsal and ventral surfaces when fresh and a long ventral head (length 36–42% TL). As well as differing in several morphometric differences, Sinobatis andamanensis sp. nov. seems to be a much smaller legskate (males adult from 186 mm DW vs. still immature at 540 mm DW in S. caerulea). Sinobatis bulbicauda also has an expanded posterior tail, but S. andamanensis sp. nov. differs from that species in having a narrower disc (width at anterior orbit 3.7–4.9 vs. 5.2–7.8 times mouth width) and anterior pelvic-fin lobes (base width 2.7–5.0 vs. 1.7–3.2 in distance between pelvic-fin origins), and shorter and less-conical tooth cusps and fewer vertebrae (total centra 126–133 vs. 148–171).

    Keywords: Pisces, Anacanthobatidae, Sinobatis andamanensis, new species, legskate, Andaman Sea, northeastern Indian Ocean

    Peter R. Last and Somchai Bussarawit. 2016. A New Legskate, Sinobatis andamanensis (Rajiformes: Anacanthobatidae), from the Andaman Sea (northeastern Indian Ocean).
     Zootaxa.  4168(1); 161–170. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4168.1.9

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    Yia geminispina Enghoff, 2016

    Fig. 5. Yia geminispina gen. et sp. nov., holotype. A. Part of midbody showing the characteristic course of the suture and the position of the ozopore (highlighted in red on one body ring). B–D. Left gonopod coxa. B. Anterior-mesal view. C. Posterior view. D. Mesal view, close-up. E. Limbus. 

    Abbreviations: cu = cucullus, lp = lateral coxal process, mf = metaplical flange, mp = metaplica, ms = metaplical shelf, msp = metaplical spine, pp = proplica, prl = proplical lobe. Scales: A = 1 mm; B–D = 0.1 mm; E = 0.005 mm.  DOI:  10.5852/ejt.2016.221

     Three new genera of Odontopygidae are described, all based on new species from the
    Udzungwa mountains, Tanzania, and all monotypic: Casuariverpa gen. nov. (type species: C. scarpa gen. et sp. nov.), Yia gen. nov. (type species: Y. geminispina gen. et sp. nov.), and Utiliverpa gen. nov. (type species: U. decapsulatrix gen. et sp. nov.). Similarities and differences between the new genera and other genera are discussed.

    Keyword. Eastern Arc, taxonomy, new genera, new species.

    Henrik Enghoff. 2016. A Mountain of Millipedes V: Three New Genera of Odontopygidae from the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida, Odontopygidae). European Journal of Taxonomy. 221: 1–17. DOI:  10.5852/ejt.2016.221

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    Placosoma limaverdorum 
    Borges-Nojosa, Caramaschi& Rodrigues,  2016 


    A new species of Placosoma Tschudi, 1847, until now restricted to the Atlantic Forest areas of southeastern Brazil is described based on specimens obtained about 1700 km north to the current distribution of the genus.Placosoma limaverdorum spec. nov. is apparently endemic to three “brejos-de-altitude”, relictual forest mountains surrounded by dry Caatingas, in the State of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. It differs from their congeners by the presence of an undivided transparent palpebral disk, a divided nasal scale with a central nostril, a deep tympanic recess, a distinctive and thin light vertebral stripe on the dorsal surface of the head, body and tail, femoral pores present only in males (21–26), preanal pores absent and additionally by having 21–24 rows of transverse ventral scales, 34–38 dorsals, dorsal, lateral and ventral scales smooth, dorsal scales quadrangular, longer than wide, except in the neck region, where they are wider than long.

    Keywords: Reptilia, Placosoma limaverdorum spec. nov., Brejos-de-altitude, Northeastern Brazil

    Etymology. The species honors Prof. Dr. José Santiago Lima-Verde, an important collaborator of herpetological studies in the State of Ceará, who started the Herpetological Collection of the Universidade Federal do Ceará (CHUFC) and the Núcleo Regional de Ofiologia da UFC (NUROF-UFC). This description is also a tribute to the agronomist Wilson Luiz Lima-Verde, owner of the cottage (Sítio Olho d’Água dos Tangarás) where the holotype was obtained.

    Distribution and natural history. The type series of Placosoma limaverdorum indicate that the species occurs in the forested mountains of Serra de Baturité (4o05’–4o40’S/38o30’–39o10’W), and Serra de Maranguape (3o54’–4o03’S/38o32’–38o40’W) in the state of Ceará, northeastern Brazil from where it is apparently endemic (Figure 4). Another record, although without voucher (P.C.M.D. Mesquita, personal information and photo) confirm its occurrence at Serra da Aratanha (3º55’–3º58’S/38º38’–38º36’W), another nearby forest region. These areas, the called “brejos de altitude”, are forest islands isolated in the semiarid Caatingas. Placosoma limaverdorum was always found inside the forest. Most specimens were spotted on the leaf litter of the primary and secondary vegetation, or in banana plantations (Lima 2005), in sympatry with the gymnophthalmids Leposoma baturitensis Rodrigues & Borges, 1997, Colobosauroides cearensis Cunha, Lima-Verde & Lima, 1991 and Stenolepis ridleyi Boulenger, 1887. Two specimens were found in tree trunks, one on a central part of the trunk of a thin tree, about 1.3 m high, and the other in a vertical branch, about 1.2 m from the ground, between epiphytes and lichens. Three specimens were taken from the stomach contents of the snake Drymoluber dichrous (Peters, 1863) from Serra de Maranguape (Borges-Nojosa & Lima 2001).

     Diva Maria Borges-Nojosa, Ulisses Caramaschi and Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues. 2016. A New Species of Lizard Placosoma Tschudi, 1847 (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Relictual Forest Mountains of the State of Ceará, Brazil.
     4169(1); 160–170. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4169.1.8

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    FIGURE 2. AB. Benstonea ihuanaC. Benstonea rostellataD. Benstonea papuanaE. Benstonea permicron.
    A. Photo: P. Homot. B. Photo: T. Laman. C. From Heatubun1253 (Photo: C. Heatubun). D. Heatubun et al. 1017 (Photo: C. Heatubun). E. Mustaqim et al. 1529 (Photo: W. Mustaqim) 

    New Guinea is one of the centres of diversity of Benstonea (Pandanaceae), a genus distributed from India to Fiji. Ten species were previously recognised on this island and further field observations, accompanied by the study of available herbarium material have brought new insights into species delimitations within a group of caespitose species with a solitary terminal infructescence. The taxonomical identity of Benstonea odoardoi is elucidated and is considered here as a synonym of Benstonea lauterbachii. Three new combinations and a new name—based on names of Pandanus species previously treated as synonyms of Benstonea odoardoi—are proposed for four distinct species belonging to this group of caespitose species and restricted to Indonesian New Guinea and Papua New Guinea. Finally, Pandanus bintuniensis is here considered as a synonym of Benstonea permicron.

     Key words: taxonomy, Indonesian New Guinea, Pandanus, Papua New Guinea

    Benstonea odoardoi is a synonym of the large tree B. lauterbachii
    • Benstonea lauterbachii (Schumann & Warburg in Warburg 1900: 81) Callmander & Buerki in Callmander et al.(2012: 335).

    Three new combinations, a new name and a new synonymy within caespitose species of Benstonea with solitary terminal syncarps

    • Benstonea eumekes (H. St. John ex B.C. Stone) Callm. & Buerki, comb. nov. 
    • Benstonea ihuana (Martelli) Callm. & Buerki, comb. nov.
    • Benstonea rostellata (Merr. & L.M. Perry) Callm. & Buerki, comb. nov.

    • Benstonea papuana Callm. & Buerki, nom. nov.

     Martin W Callmander, Ary P Keim, Charlie D. Heatubun, Peter Homot and Sven Buerki. 2016. Lifting the Curtain on Our Knowledge of New Guinean Benstonea (Pandanaceae).
    Phytotaxa. 275(2); 168-174. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.275.2.8

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    Durio johoricus  Salma 


     A new species of Durio, D. johoricus Salma, sp. nov. and one new variety,D.
    singaporensis Ridl. var. jerangauensis Salma, var. nov. are described.

    Keywords : Durio, Bombacaceae, Peninsular Malaysia, new species

    Durio johoricus, flowers at base of trunk

    •  Durio johoricusSalma sp. nov.  
    Diagnosis:Durione malaccensi floribus rubris, petalis intus pilis densis stellatis, tubo staminali
    intus pilis stellatis squamis fimbriatis, fructibus rubris, arillis semina totus obtectis differt.

    Distribution: Endemic in Peninsular Malaysia, known only from Johor. Living specimens have also been observed in the Endau-Rompin FR, Selai FR and Segamat FR.

    Ecology: In mixed dipterocarp forest, on hill slopes and rocky hills up to 170 m a.s.l.

    Etymology: The species is named after the Johor state, the locality where it was found.

    •  Durio singaporensis Ridl. var. jerangauensis Salma var. nov.  

    Diagnosis:A varietate typica petalibus maioribus (7.7-9 cm longis nec 5-7 cm longis), epicalyce non persistenti, fructibus magnis (10-13 cm longis nec 4-9 cm) ellipsoideis apice acuto differt.

     I. Salam. 2015. A New Species and A New Variety of Durio Adans. (Malvaceae) from
    Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal. 67(4); 421-418.

    Salma Idris. 2016. Diversity and Utilization of Durian in Malaysia. 

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    Hynobius unisacculus 
    Min, Baek, Song, Chang & Poyarkov, 2016


    We describe a new species of lentic-breeding Hynobius salamander from the Naro Islands, near the village of Bongrae-myeon, Goheung-gun, Jeollanam-do, South Korea, on the basis of results of morphological, ecological and genetic analyses. Hynobius unisacculus sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following morphological attributes: (1) comparatively small size (adult SVL up to 61 mm; range 38.3–60.3 mm in males and 37.5–59.9 mm in females); (2) relatively slender short limbs; tips of fore- and hindlimbs adpressed on body never meeting, but separated by a large gap (gap of -3.0 to -1.5 costal folds in males and -3.5 to -1.5 in females); (3) comparatively short tail (TL/SVL ratio in adult males varying from 0.54–0.98, in adult females from 0.55 to 0.89), tail flattened and with a low dorsal fin extending to the posterior one-third of tail length; (4) usually 11 (occasionally 12) costal grooves; (5) in adults, dark brown dorsum with indistinct bronze or dark copper spots, lighter greyish-white or pinkish belly; (6) well developed fifth toe; (7) comparatively shallow vomerine tooth series with 13–23 vomerine teeth; (8) small, pigmented ova, located in one, occasionally two, strings in a small, curved egg sac with folded envelope, lacking distinct mucous stalks or whiptail-like structures on both ends. The molecular differentiation among Korean Hynobius is high; Hynobius unisacculus sp. nov. is genetically highly divergent from the morphologically similar H. leechii, H. yangi and H. quelpaertensis: pairwise distances are 9.7%, 9.1% and 8.0% of sequence divergence at the COI mtDNA gene respectively, and 10.9%, 10.9% and 9.4% of sequence divergence at the cyt b mtDNA gene, respectively. At present, the new species is known from coastal areas and offshore islands in southeastern part of Jeollanam-do in South Korea. We suggest the species should be considered as Vulnerable (Vu2a) in accordance with IUCN’s Red List categories. Our study supports the presence of undiagnosed taxonomic diversity among Korean Hynobius.

     Keywords: Amphibia, Hynobius unisacculus sp. nov., H. leechii, H. quelpaertensis, H. yangi, egg sacs, lentic-breeding species, mtDNA, morphology

    Mi-Sook Min, Hae-Jun Baek, Jae -Young Song, Min Ho Chang and Nikolay A. Poyarkov. Jr. 2016. A New Species of Salamander of the Genus Hynobius (Amphibia, Caudata, Hynobiidae) from South Korea. Zootaxa. 4169(3); 475–503. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4169.3.4

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    Desmoxytes pinnasquali 
     Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, 2016    
    DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4170.1.4


    Four new dragon millipede species of the genus Desmoxytes from northern Thailand are described and illustrated: Desmoxytes des sp. n. from Chiang Mai Province, Desmoxytes breviverpa sp. n. from Phrae Province, Desmoxytes takensis sp. n. from Tak Province and Desmoxytes pinnasquali sp. n. from Phitsanulok Province. The new species were compared with type specimens of closely related species and were all found to exhibit explicit morphological differences from these. They can be distinguished from other members of Desmoxytes by the shape of the gonopods, the sternal process between male coxae 4, the pattern of spines or tubercles on the metaterga, and the shape of the paraterga. The coloration of all new species is clearly aposematic: ranging from purple-pink to red. The new species are discussed in relation to their congeners, and a distribution map is provided.

    Keywords: Myriapoda, taxonomy, aposematic, endemism

    Family Paradoxosomatidae Daday, 1889
    Tribe Orthomorphini Brölemann, 1916
    Genus Desmoxytes Chamberlin, 1923

    • Desmoxytes des Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha sp. n.

    Etymology. The species epithet is a noun in apposition and refers to the shape of the paraterga which reminds us of an ancient Egyptian flint knife (des).

    • Desmoxytes breviverpa Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha sp. n.

    Etymology. The name is a Latin noun in apposition, meaning “short intromittent organ”, and referring to the short, flagelliform solenomere. 

    • Desmoxytes takensis Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha sp. n.

    Etymology. The name is Latin adjective referring to the province where the type locality occurs. 

    Desmoxytes pinnasquali sp. n. — mating couple. 

    • Desmoxytes pinnasquali Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha sp. n.

    Etymology. The name is a Latin noun in apposition, meaning “shark fin” and referring to the shape of a process on lamina medialis. 

    Ruttapon Srisonchai, Henrik Enghoff, Natdanai Likhitrakarn and Somsak Panha. 2016. Four Colorful New Species of Dragon Millipedes, Genus Desmoxytes Chamberlin, 1923, from northern Thailand (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae).
     Zootaxa. 4170(1); 93–113.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4170.1.4


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    Jeddaherdan aleadonta 
    Apesteguía, Daza, Simões&  Rage, 2016 



    The fossil record shows that iguanian lizards were widely distributed during the Late Cretaceous. However, the biogeographic history and early evolution of one of its most diverse and peculiar clades (acrodontans) remain poorly known. Here, we present the first Mesozoic acrodontan from Africa, which also represents the oldest iguanian lizard from that continent. The new taxon comes from the Kem Kem Beds in Morocco (Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous) and is based on a partial lower jaw. The new taxon presents a number of features that are found only among acrodontan lizards and shares greatest similarities with uromastycines, specifically. In a combined evidence phylogenetic dataset comprehensive of all major acrodontan lineages using multiple tree inference methods (traditional and implied weighting maximum-parsimony, and Bayesian inference), we found support for the placement of the new species within uromastycines, along with Gueragama sulamericana(Late Cretaceous of Brazil). The new fossil supports the previously hypothesized widespread geographical distribution of acrodontans in Gondwana during the Mesozoic. Additionally, it provides the first fossil evidence of uromastycines in the Cretaceous, and the ancestry of acrodontan iguanians in Africa.

    KEYWORDS: Acrodonta, biogeography, Cretaceous, Gondwana, phylogeny, Squamata

    Figure 1. The estimated silhouette of the skull of MNHN.F.MRS51.1 is based on Uromastyx aegyptia (FMNH 78661).
    Scale bar equals 5 mm.    DOI:  10.1098/rsos.160462 

    Systematic palaeontology

    Squamata Oppel, 1811
    Iguanomorpha Sukhanov, 1961
    Iguania, Cope, 1864

    Acrodonta, Cope, 1864

    Jeddaherdan gen. nov.

    Type species: †Jeddaherdan aleadonta sp. nov.

    Included species: †Jeddaherdan aleadonta

      Etymology: Jeddaherdan refers to its close relationships with Uromastyx, meaning in the Amazigh berber language from Morocco, grandfather (jeddiof Uromastyx (aherdan); ‘aleadonta’, meaning ‘dice teeth’ in reference to the cube-like dentition.

     Holotype: MNHN.F.MRS51.1: isolated left partial mandible with teeth (figures 1 and 3).

      Type locality and stratigraphy: Cenomanian (Late Cretaceous) beds from the Kem Kem region of Southeastern Morocco, Gara Tabroumit (figure 2). These deposits have superbly preserved fossils, including fishes, amphibians, crocodyliforms and dinosaurs [56–59].The expeditions carried on by René Lavocat (1909–2007) resulted in hundreds of specimens collected from 1948 to 1951, preserved in the collections of the MNHN. They belong to the three Kem Kem localities worked by Lavocat, (Gara Tabroumit, Kouah Trick and Gara Sbaa). The material described herein was among the fossils collected from the first locality, and had been originally misinterpreted as a fish jaw in the collection. No specific data for the age of Gara Tabroumit is available, so the age for the specimen can range between the base of the Cenomanian to the Early Turonian (ca 90–100.5 MYA).

    Life reconstruction of Jeddaherdan aleadonta.
    PaleoArt: Jorge González. 

    Sebastián Apesteguía, Juan D. Daza, Tiago R. Simões and Jean Claude Rage. 2016. The First Iguanian Lizard from the Mesozoic of Africa.
     Royal Society Open Science.  DOI:  10.1098/rsos.160462 

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    Rativates evadens 
    McFeeters, Ryan, Schröder-Adams & Cullen, 2016 

    A partial ornithomimid skeleton, ROM 1790, from the lower Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta was previously referred to Struthiomimus altus, but lacks diagnostic characters of that species. It is here described as the holotype of a new species,Rativatesevadens, gen. et sp. nov., diagnosed by the form of the maxilla-jugal contact, the reduction of the mid-caudal neural spines, the convex fusion of the left and right ischial shafts, the straight-edged distal end of the third metatarsal, and possibly the relatively enlarged medial condyle of the tibia. A histological section of the femur confirms that the type specimen is not a juvenile, despite its relatively small size (approximately 50% the size of large individuals of Struthiomimus altus). Phylogenetic analysis recovers Rativates as a member of a derived ornithomimid clade that includes Ornithomimus, Struthiomimus, and the Asian taxa Anserimimus and Qiupalong. Fusion of the proximal tarsals to the tibia in some ornithomimid specimens was observed to be more complete than previously recognized, increasing the suite of features that these non-avian dinosaurs share homoplastically with birds.

    Rativates evadens  
    Illustration: Andrey Atuchin 


    THEROPODA Marsh, 1881
    ORNITHOMIMOSAURIA Barsbold, 1976

    ORNITHOMIMIDAE Marsh, 1890

    RATIVATES, gen. nov.

    Etymology—Latin ‘ratis’ meaning raft, in reference to the ratite birds; and Latin ‘vates’ meaning seer or foreteller. The name Rativates (‘ræt-aɪ-veɪ-tiz’) alludes to the paradox of an ‘ostrich mimic’ that existed before ostriches.

    Diagnosis—As for the type species, R. evadens.


    Etymology— Latin ‘evadere’ meaning to evade, in reference to this swift-footed dinosaur’s ability to evade predators in the Late Cretaceous, as well as recognition as a new species in the 80 years following the discovery of the holotype.

    Holotype— ROM 1790, incomplete skull and postcranial skeleton.

    Type Locality— Quarry no. Q028 (Currie and Koppelhus, 2005) in the lower Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) near Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta, Canada.


    A new ornithomimid, Rativates evadens, is described on the basis of a partial skull and skeleton collected in 1934 from the lower Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta. Previous referrals of the type specimen ROM 1790 to Struthiomimus altus are unjustified. Rativates evadens is diagnosed by a suite of derived cranial, axial, and appendicular characters, despite regions of the skeleton (primarily the posterior skull, forelimbs, and distal caudals) critical to taxonomic and phylogenetic placement of other ornithomimids being unknown. The phylogenetic relationships of R. evadens, S. altus, and O. edmontonicus remain unresolved, but the consensus tree is consistent with the hypothesis of these species representing a single radiation of derived ornithomimids that entered Laramidia during the Campanian. Rativates evadens is among the oldest named ornithomimid species in North America and increases the diversity of approximately contemporaneous ornithomimid taxa in the lower part of the Dinosaur Park Formation. Reevaluation of previously collected material from other Upper Cretaceous formations in North America may identify additional overlooked ornithomimid species.

    Bradley McFeeters, Michael J. Ryan, Claudia Schröder-Adams and Thomas M. Cullen. 2016. A New Ornithomimid Theropod from the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2016.1221415 


    An international group of researchers led by Bradley McFeeters, currently a Ph.D. student at Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada, has announced the discovery of a new ostrich-mimic dinosaur, Rativates evadens, from the lower Dinosaur Park Formation near Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta. The new species lived about 76 million years ago during the Late Cretaceous Period. Research describing the new species is published online in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology.

    Congratulations to Brad McPheeters & Curator Dr. Michael Ryan on co-describing a new dinosaur! Welcome, #Rativates!  ‏@CMNHVertPaleo

    New Ostrich-Mimic Dinosaur From Alberta Named for Its Ability to Evade Predators

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    Schistura notasileum   
    Endruweit, Yang & Liu, 2016


    Nemacheilid loaches are a common element of fish assemblages of Southeast Asian streams. In particular, streams in tropical and subtropical regions with a gravelly to rocky substrate and a swift current are typically inhabited by several species of nemacheilid loaches. Up to six different species are reported to occur syntopically (Kottelat 1990). The vast majority of these loaches are allocated within the diverse genus Schistura, which accommodates about 200 valid species (Kottelat 2012). River loaches of the genus Schistura are defined as having the mouth moderately arched; the lower lip medially notched, not forming lateral labial pads; air bladder without a secondary chamber, and a maximum size between 25 mm and 120 mm SL (Kottelat 1990).

    Numerous species of Schistura are reported from the Mekong drainage. The upper part of the Mekong, referred to as Lancangjiang in Chinese, shelters merely 10 species of Schistura, namely S. amplizona, S. bannaensis, S. breviceps, S. conirostris, S. kengtungensis, S. kloetzliae, S. latifasciata, S. macrocephalus, S. porthos, and S. sexnubes (Zhu 1989; Kottelat 1990, 2000, 2001; Chen et al. 2005; Endruweit 2011, 2014a, 2014b). This may be due to the rather complex taxonomy of this group of fishes as well as to unfavorable climatic conditions, since a large part of the upper Mekong lies in temperate to alpine regions with low water temperatures. At higher elevations, Schistura are gradually replaced by Triplophysa. Eight of the 10 species of Schistura inhabiting the Lancangjiang are distributed in the very south of Yunnan Province, subtropical Xishuangbanna and adjacent Puer Prefecture (Zhu 1989; Kottelat 1990, 2001; Chen et al. 2005; Endruweit 2011, 2014b). The remaining two species were reported from the temperate Lincang Prefecture (Zhu 1989; Endruweit 2014a). During a recent ichthyofaunistic survey of the Mekong basin in Dali Prefecture, which is located north of Lincang Prefecture, 10 specimens of Schistura were obtained from baited traps left over night in the Mekong main channel. River loaches of the genus Schistura were hitherto unknown from the Mekong so far upstream. These specimens, which could not be allocated to any species reported from the Mekong or adjacent drainages, are herein described. 


    Distribution. Known only from the type locality.

    Ecology. The type series of Schistura notasileum was obtained by using baited traps that were left over night in a water depth of about 10 m on the ground of the Mekong main channel. Coexisting fish species were Triplophysa brevicauda, Schizopyge lissolabiata, Schizothorax lantsangensis, Abbottina rivularis, Pseudorasbora parva, and Glyptothorax zanaensis. The turbid, green-brownish, slowly moving water had a temperature of 11 ºC, a pH of 8.3, and a conductivity of 510 µS/cm. Schistura notasileum was absent in typical Schistura habitats like small gravelly tributaries or along the banks of the main channel.

    Etymology. Named after the kingdom of Nanzhao that was centered in Dali and flourished during the 8th and 9th centuries. The specific epithet is derived from the Greek notio vasileio, a transcription of Southern Kingdom or Nanzhao; latinized; a noun in apposition. 

    Marco Endruweit, Junxing Yang and Shuwei Liu. 2016. A New River Loach from the main channel of the upper Mekong in Yunnan (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae).
    Zootaxa. 4168(3); 594–600. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4168.3.13

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     Haniffia santubongensis  
     S.Y. Wong & P.C. Boyce    
     DOI: 10.1186/s40529-014-0051-9

    Haniffia Holttum is a genus of three described species of terrestrial gingers hitherto restricted to Peninsular Thailand and various localities in Peninsular Malaysia.

    With generic placement confirmed using nrITS, trnK and matK plastid sequence data, Haniffia santubongensis S.Y. Wong & P.C. Boyce is described as a taxonomically novel species representing a new generic record for Borneo, to where it is endemic to Mount Santubong, Kuching Division, NW Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. An identification key to all species is given and H. santubongensis is illustrated from living plants.

    Haniffia santubongensis is the fourth species of Haniffia so far described, and the first occurring on sandstone.

    Keywords: Haniffia santubongensis; Mount Santubong; Phylogeny; Taxonomy

    Figure 2. Haniffia santubongensis S.Y. Wong & P. C. Boyce.
    A. Plant in habitat. B. Detail of ligule; note the blackish colour of the free portion. C. Inflorescence. D. Single flower; note the bifid tips to the lateral staminodes and the yellow callus in the middle of the labellum. E. Infructescence. F. Detail of single fruit; note the semi-glossy slightly warty surface, and the prominent floral remains.

    Sin Yeng Wong, Im Hin Ooi and Peter C Boyce. 2014. A New Haniffia Species (Zingiberaceae) and A New Generic record from Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo.
    Botanical Studies. 55:51  DOI: 10.1186/s40529-014-0051-9

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    Cyrtodactylus varadgirii 

    Agarwal, Mirza, Pal, Maddock, Mishra & Bauer, 2016

    A new species of Cyrtodactylus (Geckoella) from the C. collegalensis complex is described based on a series of specimens from western and central India. Morphological and molecular data support the distinctiveness of the new form, which can be diagnosed from other Cyrtodactylus (including other Geckoella) species by its small body size (snout to vent length to 56 mm), the absence of precloacal and femoral pores, no enlarged preanal or femoral scales, and a dorsal scalation consisting wholly of small, granular scales. The new species is most closely related to C. collegalensis, C. speciosus and C. yakhuna, from which it differs by the presence of a patch of enlarged roughly hexagonal scales on the canthus rostralis and beneath the angle of jaw, its relatively long limbs and narrow body, and a dorsal colour pattern of 4–6 pairs of dark spots.

    Keywords: Reptilia, Cyrtodactylus, Geckoella, Geckoella speciosus, India, cyt b, ND2

    Agarwal, Ishan, Zeeshan A. Mirza, Saunak Pal, Simon T. Maddock, Anurag Mishra and Aaron M. Bauer. 2016. A New Species of the Cyrtodactylus (Geckoellacollegalensis (Beddome, 1870) complex (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Western India.
    Zootaxa. 4170(2): 339–354.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4170.2.7

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    Figure 1. Map of Malesia (A) with the distribution of Johannesteijsmannia drawn in green, following Dransfield et al. (2008). (B) The beautiful leaves of J. magnifica are pictured in the upper left–hand corner (Photograph: John Dransfield). Sampling localities for all species (C).

    Four species are recognized in the understorey palm genus Johannesteijsmannia (Arecaceae), all of which occur in close geographical proximity in the Malay Peninsula. We hypothesize that overlapping distributions are maintained by a lack of gene flow among species and that segregation along morphological trait or environmental axes confers ecological divergence and, hence, defines species limits. Although some species have sympatric distributions, differentiation was detected among species in morphological and genetic data, corroborating current species delimitation. Differences in niche breadth were not found to explain the overlapping distribution and co-existence of Johannesteijsmannia spp. Four species formed over the last 3 Mya, showing that diversity accumulated within a short time frame and wide range expansion has not occurred, potentially due to a lack of time for dispersal or the evolution of traits to facilitate movement. An assessment of genetic diversity is presented and, as expected, the widest distribution in the genus harbours the highest genetic diversity.

    Keywords: Malesia; niche; Palmae; phylogenetics; speciation

    Christine D. Bacon, Su Lee Look, Natalia Gutiérrez–Pinto, Alexandre Antonelli, Hugh T. W. Tan, Prakash P. Kumar, Saw Leng Guan, John Dransfield and William J. Baker. 2016. Species Limits, Geographical Distribution and Genetic Diversity in Johannesteijsmannia (Arecaceae).  Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 182(2) [Special Issue: Palms – emblems of tropical forests];  318–347. DOI: 10.1111/boj.12470 

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    Schistura shuensis 
     Bohlen & Šlechtová, 2014 

    Schistura shuensis, new species, is described from Shu stream on the eastern slope of the Rakhine range in Myanmar. It reaches up to 39.1 mm SL and is diagnosed by a combination of the following characters: males with suborbital flap, bearing tubercles on its posterior part, females with suborbital groove; caudal fin deeply forked (mean length of median caudal-fin rays 57 % of length of upper caudal lobe); caudal peduncle shallow (depth 11-12 % SL and 49-63 % of body depth); and presence of 6-9 indistinct dark brown bars on body.

     Joerg Bohlen and Vendula Šlechtová. 2014. Schistura shuensis, A New Species of Loach from Myanmar (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae).  Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters. 24(3): 217-223.

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    Aequidens superomaculatum  
      Hernández-Acevedo, Machado-Allison & Lasso, 2015 


    A new species, Aequidens superomaculatum, is described from the Casiquiare Canal drainage and the upper reaches of the Orinoco and Negro rivers (Venezuela). This new species shares with others of the genus a vermiculated color pattern on the cheek, snout and preopercle and a high vertebral count, but it differs from congeners in having a continuous lateral stripe, and in having the lateral dark pigment blotch positioned high on both sides of the body.

    Key words. Fishes, Taxonomy, Aequidens, Orinoco Basin, Amazon Basin.

    Jaime H. Hernández-Acevedo, Antonio Machado-Allison y Carlos A. Lasso. 2015. Aequidens superomaculatum (Teleostei: Cichlidae) una nueva especie del alto Orinoco y Río Negro, Venezuela. Biota Colombiana. 16(2); 96-106.
     Jaime H. Hernández-Acevedo, Antonio Machado-Allison y Carlos A. Lasso. 2015. Aequidens superomaculatum (Teleostei: Cichlidae): A New Species from the upper Orinoco and Río Negro, Venezuela. Biota Colombiana. 16 (2): 96-106.

    Resumen: Se describe una nueva especie, Aequidens superomaculatum, proveniente de la cuenca del Caño o Brazo Casiquiare y la parte alta de las cuencas de los ríos Orinoco y Negro (Venezuela). Esta nueva especie comparte con otras especies del género previamente descritas, la presencia de un patrón de coloración vermiculado en la mejilla, hocico y preopérculo y un conteo vertebral alto, pero se diferencia de estas especies por la presencia de una banda lateral continua y la posición superior de la mancha lateral en ambos lados del cuerpo.

    Palabras clave. Peces. Taxonomía. Aequidens. Orinoquia. Amazonia.

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     Ansonia khaochangensis  
    Grismer, Wood, Aowphol, Cota, Grismer, Murdoch, Aguilar & Grismer, 2016 

    Cave-dwelling Stream-Toad | คางคกห้วยถ้ำ


    Subsequent to the Miocene (approximately 35 Mya), Borneo has served as an insular refuge and a source of colonization for a broad range of species emigrating to others parts of Sundaland. A phylogeny-based historical biogeographical hypothesis for the Stream Toad genus Ansonia supports multiple instances of an out-of-Borneo scenario. An ancestral range estimation indicates that in situ speciation of Ansonia on the island of Borneo during the Late Miocene and Pliocene (approximately 2–13 Mya) eventually resulted in an invasion of the Philippines, Sumatra, and two independent invasions of the Thai-Malay Peninsula. When collecting material for the biogeographical analysis, a new species of Ansonia, Ansonia khaochangensis sp. nov. was discovered in a limestone cave from the Khao Chang karst tower in Phangnga Province, in southern Thailand. Ansonia khaochangensis sp. nov. can be differentiated from all other species of Ansonia by having a unique combination of morphological and colour pattern characteristics. Phylogenetic evidence based on the mitochondrial genes 12S and 16S indicates that it is nested within a clade of other species distributed north of the Isthmus of Kra. The cave lifestyle of this new species is a unique and a significant departure from lotic environments common to most other species of Ansonia. The reproductive biology of this species is unknown.

    Ansonia khaochangensis sp. nov.
    Cave-dwelling Stream-Toad

    Diagnosis. Ansonia khaochangensis sp. nov. can be differentiated from all other species of Ansonia by the combination of the following characters: maximum SVL of 35.5 mm (34.0–35.3 mm) for females and 32.0 mm (31.9–32.0 mm) for males; snout projecting beyond lower jaw; tympanum visible; vocal sac opening on right; no white or yellow tubercle at rictus; no tuberculate, interorbital ridges; finger and toe tips rounded, bulbous but not forming discs; first finger not reaching disc of second; webbing formula on foot I 1, II ½–2, III 1½–2, IV 2–2, V 1; tarsal ridge present; inner and outer metatarsal tubercles present; submandibular tubercles absent; dorsal tubercles present but small, low, and rounded; no dorsolateral row of enlarged tubercles on sides or back; no oblique flap of skin on either side of vent; abdomen and gular region coarsely granular; iris black; no light spots on the gular region or abdomen; no suborbital or postorbital white markings; no light interscapular spot; no light crossbars on hind limbs, no light vertebral stripe. These character states are scored across all species of Ansonia in Table 4.


    Distribution. Ansonia khaochangensis sp. nov. is known only from the type locality at Takua Pa District, Phang Nga Province, southern Thailand (Fig. 1).

    Natural history. Ansonia khaochangensis sp. nov. is only known from the Khao Chang tower karst formation that rises precipitously to an elevation of 125 m and frames the northwest border of the city of Phang Nga (Fig. 6). Along the southeast face of the karst formation is the massive Phung Chang Cave that has a subterranean water system that runs beneath the karst tower. This southeast face is also riddled with several smaller caves. Approximately 0.5 km southwest of the mouth of Phung Chang Cave is a very small opening at the base of the karst tower that winds its way inward for approximately 20 m wherein we found A. khaochangensis sp. nov. (Fig. 6). During the day, specimens were found only within the recesses of the cave on the vertical cave walls as high as 3 m above the cave floor. To escape, toads were able to move sideways up the cave walls in an attempt to wedge themselves into narrow cracks near the celling. Toads were also observed in the cave at night but would venture out to climb on the outside of the karst tower. Some specimens were found as high as 10 m above the forest floor both on the karst and sitting on the leaves of small plants growing out of the karst. The distinctive, virtually monochromatic, brown coloration of this species appears to be a result of substrate matching in that frogs are reasonably well-camouflaged on the limestone substrate. We interpret this as an indication that this microhabitat is not something that is occasionally utilized and that this genus, which has a lotic life style elsewhere, has adapted to this microhabitat over a long period of time in that it split off from its sister lineage approximately 5.5 Mya (Fig. 3).

    The reproductive biology of this species is completely unknown. Most other Ansonia require fast-moving lotic systems and all require water for tadpole development. We assume that there are other sources of underground water that these toads must be using for reproduction because there are no above-ground systems nearby that we could find. Fieldwork is currently being planned to investigate this species’ presumably unique reproductive biology.

    Etymology. The specific epithet khaochangensis is in reference to the type locality of this species in the Khao Chang tower karst formation.

    L. Lee Grismer, Perry L. Wood Jr, Anchalee Aowphol, Michael Cota, Marta S. Grismer, Matthew L. Murdoch, Cesar Aguilar and Jesse L. Grismer. 2016. Out of Borneo, Again and Again: Biogeography of the Stream Toad Genus Ansonia Stoliczka (Anura: Bufonidae) and the Discovery of the First Limestone Cave-dwelling Species.
    Biological Journal of the Linnean Society.  DOI:  10.1111/bij.12886 

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