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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region

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    Euthygomphus schorri   
    Kosterin, 2016  


    In the current sense, Merogomphus Martin, 1904, is an artificial genus. It includes two unrelated groups of species: those with lyrate cerci with or without an outer spine and those with simple cerci, plus two species with large and broad epiproct branches placed in Merogomphus obviously in error. At the same time a number of species similar and obviously related to the former group were described from China in the genus Anisogomphus Selys, 1857. To resolve this taxonomic tangle, the genus Merogomphus is restricted to include only species with lyrate cerci: M. pavici (Martin, 1904) (the type species), M. longistigmus (Fraser, 1922), M. vandykei (Needham, 1930), M. femoralis (Laidlaw, 1931), M. vespertinus (Chao, 1999) and M. torpens (Needham, 1930). A new genus Euthygomphus(type species: Leptogomphus martini Fraser, 1922) is erected to contain species with simple cerci and moderately divergent epiproct branches, formerly attributed to either Merogomphus or Anisogomphus: Euthygomphus parvus (Krüger, 1899) comb. nov., E. martini (Fraser, 1922) comb. nov., E. koxingai Chao, 1954 comb. nov., E. chaoi Liu 1991 comb. nov., E. jinggangshanus Liu, 1991 comb. nov., E. yunnanensis Zhou et Wu, 1992 comb. nov.Euthygomphus schorri  Kosterin, 2016, sp. nov. is described (type locality: Cambodia, Mondulkiri Province, 3.5–3.8 km ESE of Sen Monorom, holotype in RMNH), A new synonymy Merogomphus chaoi Yang & Davies, 1993 = Anisogomphus pinratani Hämäläinen, 1991, and a new combination Anisogomphus tamdaoensis (Karube, 2001) comb. nov. are proposed. The published records of ‘Merogomphus parvus’ from Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and Vietnam are reidentified as Euthygomphus yunnanensis, and new records and illustrations of this species from Cambodia are provided.

    Keywords: Odonata, Gomphidae, Merogomphus, Anisogomphus, Euthygomphus, Euthygomphus schorri, new genus, new species, Cambodia, classification

     Oleg E. Kosterin. 2016. Reconsideration of the Genera Merogomphus Martin, 1904, and Anisogomphus Selys, 1857, including Erection of A New Genus, with A New Species and Discussion of Additional Specimens from Cambodia.
    Zootaxa. 4171(1); 51–76. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4171.1.2

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    Litoria bella 
    McDonald, Rowley,  Richards & Frankham, 2016.


    We describe a new species of treefrog from northern Australia. Litoria bella sp. nov. is morphologically and genetically most similar to frogs in the L. gracilenta and L. chloris groups but is distinguished from all members in these groups by a combination of a moderately large male body size (34.5–41.8 mm SVL), near-immaculate green dorsum, orange venter, bright orange digits and webbing, bluish purple lateral surfaces of the thighs, no pale canthal stripe, white bones, and a highly-pulsed, single-note, male advertisement call with a pulse rate of 56–64 pulses/s and dominant frequency of 2.6–2.8 kHz. Litoria bella sp. nov. has a patchy distribution across the Cape York Peninsula, inhabiting rainforest and monsoon vine thicket in close association with watercourses. The new species’ affinities lie with L. auae from southern New Guinea rather than with L. gracilenta from eastern Australia. Molecular data suggest that the L. gracilenta group should be expanded to include L. chloris and L. xanthomera, two moderately large green treefrogs from eastern Australia.

    Keywords: Amphibia, Anura, treefrog, new species, Queensland

    Etymology. The specific name “bella” (Latin), meaning pretty or lovely, is used as an adjective in reference to the beautiful coloration of this species.

    Suggested common name. Cape York Graceful Treefrog.

    Keith R. McDonald, Jodi J. L. Rowley,  Stephen J. Richards and Greta J. Frankham. 2016. A New Species of Treefrog (Litoria) from Cape York Peninsula, Australia.
     Zootaxa. 4171(1);   153–169.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4171.1.6

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    Gastrodia cooperae and G. molloyi 
    Lehnebach & J.R.Rolfe 
    DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.277.3.2


    Two new species of GastrodiaGastrodia cooperae and G. molloyi are described. These species are endemic to New Zealand and can be distinguished from other New Zealand Gastrodia by the length of the column and the colour of the labellum tip. Gastrodia cooperae is known from only three localities and it is ranked as Threatened: Nationally Critical.

    Keywords: AFLP, conservation, myco-heterotrophy, new species, orchid, threatened flora, Monocots

    Carlos A. Lehnebach, Jeremy R. Rolfe, Jasmine Gibbins and Peter Ricthie. 2016. Two New Species of Gastrodia (Gastrodieae, Orchidaceae) endemic to New Zealand.
     Phytotaxa. 277(3); 237–254. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.277.3.2

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    Synophis niceforomariae  
    Pyron, Arteaga, Echevarría, & Torres-Carvajal, 2016  

    DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4171.2.4


    The genus Synophis contains a number of enigmatic species, distributed primarily in the Andean highlands of northern South America. Their extreme crypsis and rarity has precluded detailed study of most species. A recent flurry of collection activity resulted in the accession of many new specimens, and the description of 4 new species in 2015, doubling the number of described taxa. However, lingering questions remain regarding the assignment of many new and historical specimens, the morphological limits and geographical ranges of the species, and their phylogenetic relationships. We analyze new and existing morphological and molecular data to produce a new molecular phylogeny and revised morphological descriptions. We validate the previously unavailable tribe name Diaphorolepidini Jenner, Pyron, Arteaga, Echevarría, & Torres-Carvajal tribe nov., describe a 9th species Synophis niceforomariae Pyron, Arteaga, Echevarría, & Torres-Carvajal sp. nov., and offer new Standard Names in English and Spanish for the group: Andean Shadow Snakes and Culebras Andinas de la Sombra, respectively. A variety of features such as vertebrae and hemipenes show an interesting range of variation in the group, which should be evaluated in future studies, to refine species limits and diagnoses further. Cryptic and undiscovered diversity undoubtedly remains, and we hope this summary provides a robust basis for future work.

    Keywords: Reptilia, species delimitation, taxonomy, phylogeny, morphological, molecular, systematics, Diaphorolepidini, SynophisSynophis niceforomariae, Andean Shadow Snakes

    Pyron, R. A., Alejandro Arteaga, Lourdes Y. Echevarria and Omar Torres-Carvajal. 2016.
    A Revision and Key for the Tribe Diaphorolepidini (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) and Checklist for the Genus SynophisZootaxa. 4171(2); 293–320. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4171.2.4

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     Stenaelurillus lesserti   Reimoser, 1934  
    male from Kuchimudi
    photo: K. S. Nafin. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4171.2.5


    Stenaelurillus digitus sp. nov. and Stenaelurillus gabrieli sp. nov. are described from India. New distributional records for Stenaelurillus albus Sebastian et al., 2015 and Stenaelurillus lesserti Reimoser, 1934 and maps for these species are given.

    Keywords: Araneae, jumping spiders, Oriental region, taxonomy, systematics

    Prajapati, Dhruv A., Prashanthakumara S. Murthappa, Pradeep M. Sankaran and Pothalil A. Sebastian. 2016. Two New Species of Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886 from India (Araneae: Salticidae: Aelurillina). Zootaxa. 4171(2); 321–334. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4171.2.5

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     Puntius euspilurus 
    Plamoottil, 2016 

     Puntius euspilurus, a new fish species of the family Cyprinidae, is described from Wayanad of Kerala, India. It is distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of characters: body elongated, rounded and slender, barbels feeble and never reach orbit or nostrils; last simple dorsal fin ray feebly osseous and flexible, 23- 24 lateral line scales, 2½ scales between lateral line and ventral fin and elongated pectoral fin which reaches to ventral fin.

    Keywords: Western Ghats, Taxonomy, Mananthavady River, Puntius nigronotus

    Distribution: Currently known to occur only at its type locality in Kerala, India.

    Etymology: The specific epithet ‘euspilurus’ is a Greek word, (eu- well; spilos- blot; urus- tail), referring to distinct black basal spot on caudal fin.

    Puntius euspilurus is an edible freshwater fish residing in the water bodies of Wayanad. It may be a unique fish showing similarity with [Puntiusmahecola barbs. Elongated body with feebly osseous\ last simple dorsal ray separates this fish from other fishes of the family. It prefers rapidly flowing shallow and clear waters. According to local fishermen it appears in great numbers in paddy fields during the onset of southwest monsoon. The new species is said to occur only in unpolluted areas. Protection of water bodies is inevitable for the survival of the new species. 

    Mathews Plamoottil. 2016. Puntiuseuspilurus, A New Fish Species (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from Kerala, India. International Journal of Research Studies in Biosciences (IJRSB). 4(9); 1-6. DOI:  10.20431/2349-0365.0409001

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    Idiocnemis schorri  
     Gassmann, Richards & Polhemus, 2016  

      DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4171.3.5 


    Idiocnemis schorri sp. nov. is described from the Hindenburg and Muller Ranges and the Kikori River Basin of southern Papua New Guinea. The new species differs from all congeners by, among other characters, a unique colour pattern on the thorax. Characters of males and females are illustrated and compared to those of similar species from the Idiocnemis bidentata group. The new species is found along small, shallow rainforest streams and is currently known only from the Trans-Fly Foreland and Papuan Gulf Foreland areas of endemism.

    Keywords: Odonata, Zygoptera, new species, Hindenburg Range, Muller Range, Kikori River Basin, Papua New Guinea

    Dirk Gassmann, Stephen J. Richards and Dan A. Polhemus. 2016. Idiocnemis schorri sp. nov., A New Damselfly Species from southern Papua New Guinea (Odonata: Platycnemididae). 
    Zootaxa. 4171(3); 491–504. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4171.3.5

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    Etmopterus alphus  
      Ebert, Straube, Leslie & Weigmann, 2016   

       DOI: 10.2989/1814232X.2016.1198275 


    A new species of lanternshark, Etmopterus alphus (Squaliformes: Etmopteridae), is described from the south-western Indian Ocean. The new species resembles other members of the ‘Etmopterus lucifer’ clade in having linear rows of dermal denticles and most closely resembles E. molleri from the south-western Pacific. The new species is fairly common along the upper continental slopes off central Mozambique, at depths between 472 and 558 m, and is also found on the southern Madagascar Ridge in 650–792 m depth. It can be distinguished from other members of the E. lucifer clade by a combination of characteristics, including arrangement of flank and caudal markings, dimension of flank markings and shape, size and arrangement of dermal denticles along the body. Molecular analysis further supports the distinction of E. alphus from other members of the E. lucifer clade.

    Keywords: Chondrichthyes, elasmobranch, Etmopterus lucifer clade, Madagascar Ridge, molecular analysis, Mozambique, new species, 

    Ebert, D.A., Straube, N., Leslie, R.W. and Weigmann, S. 2016. Etmopterus alphus n. sp.: A New Lanternshark (Squaliformes: Etmopteridae) from the south-western Indian Ocean.
     African Journal of Marine Science.   DOI: 10.2989/1814232X.2016.1198275

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    In this illustration set 212 million years ago in what is today New Mexico, a Drepanosaurus rips away tree bark with its massive claw and powerful arm.
    Painting by Victor Leshyk  @VictorLeshyk 

    - Three-dimensional fossils of the Triassic diapsid Drepanosaurus are described
    - Fossils support hypothesis that the forelimb is unique among tetrapods
    - The radius and ulna are unequal in length, and two carpals are longer than the radius
    - Forelimb range of motion and large claws suggest specialized hook-and-pull digging

    In Brief
    Pritchard et al. describe new fossils of the Triassic diapsid Drepanosaurus. Previously known from a single crushed skeleton, the new three-dimensional fossils show a unique forelimb with asymmetric radii and ulnae and elongate carpals. The forelimb and enlarged second manual ungual suggest a digging similar to modern anteaters.

    The tetrapod forelimb is one of the most versatile structures in vertebrate evolution, having been coopted for an enormous array of functions. However, the structural relationships between the bones of the forelimb have remained largely unchanged throughout the 375 million year history of Tetrapoda, with a radius and ulna made up of elongate, paralleling shafts contacting a series of shorter carpal bones. These features are consistent across nearly all known tetrapods, suggesting that the morphospace encompassed by these taxa is limited by some sort of constraint(s). Here, we report on a series of three-dimensionally preserved fossils of the small-bodied (<1 m) Late Triassic diapsid reptile Drepanosaurus, from the Chinle Formation of New Mexico, USA, which dramatically diverge from this pattern. Along with the crushed type specimen from Italy, these specimens have a flattened, crescent-shaped ulna with a long axis perpendicular to that of the radius and hyperelongate, shaft-like carpal bones contacting the ulna that are proximodistally longer than the radius. The second digit supports a massive, hooked claw. This condition has similarities to living ‘‘hook-and-pull’’ digging mammals and demonstrates that specialized, modern ecological roles had developed during the Triassic Period, over 200 million years ago. The forelimb bones in Drepanosaurus represent previously unknown morphologies for a tetrapod and, thus, a dramatic expansion of known tetrapod forelimb morphospace.

    Adam C. Pritchard, Alan H. Turner, Randall B. Irmis, Sterling J. Nesbitt and Nathan D. Smith. 2016. Extreme Modification of the Tetrapod Forelimb in a Triassic Diapsid Reptile.  Current Biology. 

    212-Million-Year-Old Reptile Had Anteater-Like Arms | Popular Science via @PopSci

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    Garra arupi  Nebeshwar, Vishwanath & Das, 2009
    Garra bimaculacauda & Garra parastenorhynchus  
    Thoni, Gurung & Mayden, 2016 


    Seven species of Garra are herein accounted for in Bhutan. Three new records of known species, Garra arupiGbirostris, and Glissorhynchus, and two new speciesGarra bimaculacauda sp. nov. and Garra parastenorhynchus sp. nov., are reported from central and southern Bhutan. Garra bimaculacauda sp. nov. is most notably different from its congeners by the presence of two dark spots on the lobes of the caudal fin, having one spot on each lobe. Meristic and morphometric differences from northeastern Indian congeners exist as well. Garra parastenorhynchus sp. nov. is differentiated from its congeners by the presence of a prominent, overhanging, club-shaped proboscis, and a suite of meristic and morphometric characters. Notes on the taxonomy are provided for some species. Notes are provided on the biology and ecology for most species, which have been inferred from field observations. Ranges are expanded for two recently described taxa from Northeast India Garupi, and Gbirostris. A key is provided to the currently known species of Garra within Bhutan.

    Keywords: Pisces, Garrinae, Garra bimaculacauda sp. nov., Garra parastenorhynchus sp. nov.

    Thoni, R. j., Dhan B. Gurung & R. L. Mayden. 2016. A Review of the Genus Garra Hamilton 1822 of Bhutan, including the Descriptions of Two New Species and Three Additional Records (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae). Zootaxa. 4169(1): 115–132.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4169.1.5


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    We utilize robust geographical genetic sampling, and phylogenetic analysis of a new multilocus dataset to provide the first inference of relationships among Philippine Gonocephalus, combined with estimates of putative species diversity, in this almost unknown island radiation. Our results reveal startling levels of undocumented diversity, genetically partitioned at a number of geographical levels across the archipelago. We present the first survey of genetic lineage diversity, coupled with an archipelago-wide clarification of geographical structure in a unique archipelago-endemic radiation. Philippine Gonocephalus have previously escaped the attention of biogeographers as a result of the taxonomic confusion associated with low numbers of preserved specimens in museum collections. With new vouchered material and genetic sampling from a comprehensive, archipelago-wide vertebrate biodiversity inventory, our findings join many recent studies in highlighting the unprecedented faunal diversity in one of the world's most unique biodiversity conservation hotspots.

    Keywords: biogeography; diversification; Islands; lizard; reptile

    Luke J. Welton, Cameron D. Siler, L. L. Grismer, Arvin C. Diesmos, Jack W. Sites and Rafe M. Brown. 2016. Archipelago-wide Survey of Philippine Forest Dragons (Agamidae: Gonocephalus): Multilocus Phylogeny uncovers Unprecedented Levels of Genetic Diversity in A Biodiversity Hotspot.
    Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. DOI: 10.1111/bij.12878 

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    Boiga flaviviridis  
    Vogel& Ganesh, 2013 

    A new species of cat snake, related to Boiga beddomei (Wall, 1909), is described from the dry forests of eastern Peninsular India. It occupies a large geographic range from Berhampore (type locality), near the River Mahanadi in the northeast to Kaigal near the southern Eastern Ghats in the southwest. The new species is diagnosed by having the following combination of characters: 19 dorsal scale rows at midbody, a high number of ventral scales for the genus Boiga (248–259), a yellowish-green dorsal colouration with numerous faint black bands, an uniform, unpatterned yellow-coloured venter and a relatively short tail (0.180–0.200 of the total length).

    Key words:Boiga flaviviridis sp. nov., B. beddomei, B. ceylonensis, Berhampore, Sriharikota, Kaigal, India

    Vogel, Gernot and S. r. Ganesh. 2013. A New Species of Cat Snake (Reptilia: Serpentes: Colubridae: Boiga) from Dry Forests of eastern Peninsular India. Zootaxa. 3637(2): 158-168.

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    Corydoras hephaestus 
    Ohara, Tencatt & Britto, 2016


    A new species of Corydoras is described from the upper Rio Machado, Rio Madeira basin, Rondônia State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the absence of contact between the posterior process of the parieto-supraoccipital and the nuchal plate; a ventral laminar expansion of the infraorbital 1 conspicuously developed; and the posterior margin of the pectoral-fin spine with serrations along almost of its entire length, only lacking in the distal portion. Additionally, Corydoras hephaestus possesses dorsal and pectoral spines short, and exhibits an unusual color pattern in life. The conservation status of the new species and other endemic species are briefly commented.

    Keywords: Pisces, Amazon, Corydoradinae, Fish, Endemism, Conservation

    Etymology. The specific epithet hephaestus is from the Greek, Ἥφαιστος (or Hēphaistos), the Greek god of fire, metalworking, forges, and blacksmiths. Alluding to the red color of the body and fins. A noun in apposition.

    Ohara, Willian M., Luiz F. C. Tencatt & Marcelo R. Britto. 2016. Wrapped in Flames: Corydoras hephaestus, A New Remarkably Colored Species from the Rio Madeira basin (Teleostei: Callichthyidae). Zootaxa. 4170(3): 539–552. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4170.3.7


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    Thismia puberula 


    Thismia puberula, a new species of Thismiaceae, is described and illustrated. The species was discovered in 2014 during botanical survey of Chu Yang Sin national park (Dak Lak province, Southern Vietnam). Thismia puberula possesses vermiform roots and mitriform inner tepals. It is most similar to T. angustimitraT. mirabilisTmucronata and T. okhaensis. The new species differs from related species mainly by dome-shaped annulus with delimited vertical and horizontal parts covered by hairs, broad mitre with foveae, inner mitre surface covered by papillate trichomes, and presence of interstaminal glands. An updated key to Vietnamese species of Thismia is provided.

    Keywords: Thismia, taxonomy, key, mycoheterotrophic plants, Southern Vietnam, Chu Yang Sin national park, flora, biodiversity, Monocots

    Description of the new species

    Thismia puberula Nuraliev, sp. nov. (Fig. 1–3)

    Thismia puberula differs from related T. angustimitra Chantanaorrapint (2008: 524), T. mirabilis K.Larsen (1965: 171), T. mucronata Nuraliev in Nuraliev et al. (2014: 246) and T. okhaensis Luu, Tich, G.Tran & Q.D.Dinh in Truong et al. (2014: 190) by the domeshaped annulus with delimited vertical and horizontal parts and by the annulus outer surface covered by hairs. This species also differs in the following combination of morphological traits: flower short (1.9 cm long), mitre broader than hypanthium, mitre outer surface with foveae, mitre inner surface covered by papillate trichomes, base of filament occupying the entire height of the inner surface of the annulus, and the presence of interstaminal glands.

    Type:— VIETNAM. Dak Lak province: Lak district, Bong Krang municipality, Chu Yang Sin national park, 12 km S from Krong Kmar village, in the forest, on an islet of a small river, elevation ca. 1100 m a.s.l., N 12° 23’ 41’’, E 108° 20’ 55’’, 28 May 2014, Nuraliev 1000 (holotype MW!, stored in ethanol).

    Maxim Nuraliev, Anton Beer, Andrey Kuznetsov and Svetlana Kuznetsova. 2015. Thismia puberula (Thismiaceae), A New Species from Southern Vietnam.
    Phytotaxa. 234(2); 133–142. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.234.2.3

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    Synchiropus sycorax 
    Tea & Gill, 2016   


    Synchiropus sycorax n. sp. is described from six specimens (22.6–40.1 mm SL) collected from Jolo Island, Sulu Archipelago, Philippines. It appears to be most closely related to S. tudorjonesi, which ranges from the Maldive Islands through Indonesia and the Philippine Islands to southern Japan. The new species differs from S. tudorjonesi and other congeners in live coloration: head and body bright red, bright yellow ventrally, with prominent white spots on head (one spot or blotch over preopercular spine, two elongate spots behind middle of eye, and one spot behind upper part of eye at about 1 o’clock position) and body (in three rows, an uppermost row beginning below soft dorsal, tracking lateral line to caudal peduncle, a lowermost row extending from above anterior anal fin to caudal peduncle, and a middle row extending obliquely from above pectoral fin to anterior part of lowermost series of spots); males with pelvic fin and pelvic-pectoral membrane bright yellow with broad bluish or greenish grey to black submarginal band across distal third of fin.

    Keywords: Pisces, Ichthyology; taxonomy; Jolo Island, Sulu Archipelago

    FIGURE 3. Synchiropus sycorax, female, aquarium specimen from Jolo Island, Philippines. Specimen not retained; approximately 20 mm SL (Y.K. Tea). 

    FIGURE 2. Synchiropus sycorax, male paratype in an aquarium, ZRC 54776, 40.1 mm SL, Jolo Island, Sulu Archipelago, Philippines (Y.K. Tea). 

    Synchiropus sycorax n. sp.
    Ruby Dragonet 

    Holotype. AMS I.47200-001, 39.4 mm SL male, Philippines, Sulu Archipelago, Jolo Island, B. Pagkaliwagan, 29 November 2015.
    Paratypes. AMS I.47200-002, 26.7 mm SL female; CAS 241566 , 34.8 mm SL male; USNM 438956, 35.5 mm SL male; ZRC 54776, 22.6 mm SL female, 40.1 mm SL male (all collected with the holotype). 

    Diagnosis.Synchiropus sycorax differs from congeners in the following live coloration details: head and body bright red, bright yellow ventrally, with prominent white spots on head (one spot or blotch over preopercular spine, two elongate spots behind middle of eye, and one spot behind upper part of eye at about 1 o’clock position) and body (in three rows, an uppermost row beginning below soft dorsal, tracking lateral line to caudal peduncle, a lowermost row extending from above anterior anal fin to caudal peduncle, and a middle row extending obliquely from above pectoral fin to anterior part of lowermost series of spots); males with pelvic fin and pelvic-pectoral membrane bright yellow with broad bluish or greenish grey to black submarginal band across distal third of fin

    Distribution and habitat. Synchiropus sycorax is currently known only from Jolo Island, Sulu Archipelago, Philippines (Figure 5). According to B. Shutman (pers. comm.) it occurs at depths of 20–38m in areas of broken coral rubble interspersed with outcrops of soft and stony corals. 

    Etymology. The species is named after the red-robed and caped Sycorax warriors from the BBC sci-fi series Dr. Who, in showing similarities in both coloration and grandiloquence of their garb. The epithet sycorax is a noun in apposition.

     FIGURE 6.Synchiropus tudorjonesi, male aquarium specimen, collected from Bali, Indonesia. Specimen not retained; approximately 50 mm SL (Y.K. Tea).  

    Tea, Yi-Kai and Anthony C. Gill. 2016. Synchiropus sycorax, A New Species of Dragonet from the Philippines (Teleostei: Callionymidae).
    Zootaxa. 4173(1); 85–93.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4173.1.8

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    Septencoracias morsensis  
    Bourdon, Kristoffersen & Bonde, 2016 

    Figure 3: Life reconstruction of Septencoracias morsensis gen. et sp. nov.
    Salient diagnostic features of the new fossil relative to other rollers include the larger skull and the small, ovoid and dorsally positioned narial openings. Septencoracias is represented with a brownish and bluish plumage, because brownish and/or bluish feathers occur in all species of rollers and most species of ground-rollers, and are probably primitive within the Coracii.

    Plumage pattern and colour are partly based on modifications from: Christian Svane (csv) - Own work, CC BY-SA 2.5, Artwork by Estelle Bourdon.
    DOI: 10.1038/srep34050

    The fossil record of crown group birds (Neornithes) prior to the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary is scarce and fragmentary. Early Cenozoic bird fossils are more abundant, but are typically disarticulated and/or flattened. Here we report the oldest roller (Coracii), Septencoracias morsensis gen. et sp. nov. (Primobucconidae), based on a new specimen from the Early Eocene (about 54 million years ago) Fur Formation of Denmark. The new fossil is a nearly complete, three-dimensionally preserved and articulated skeleton. It lies at the lower end of the size range for extant rollers. Salient diagnostic features of Septencoracias relative to other Coracii include the proportionally larger skull and the small, ovoid and dorsally positioned narial openings. Our discovery adds to the evidence that the Coracii had a widespread northern hemisphere distribution in the Eocene. Septencoracias is the oldest substantial record of the Picocoraciae and provides a reliable calibration point for molecular phylogenetic studies.

    Systematic Palaeontology

    Coracii sensu Clarke et al. 
    Primobucconidae Feduccia and Martin, 1976

    Septencoracias morsensis gen. et sp. nov.

    Etymology: From the Latin word ‘septentrio’ meaning north, and the genus name ‘Coracias’. The specific epithet refers to the Island of Mors, from where the fossil bird came.

    Holotype: MGUH.VP 9509, 3-D preserved skeleton lacking sternum and most shoulder girdle elements.

    Type locality and horizon: Moclay pit (Klovbakker), Island of Mors, north-western Jutland, Denmark (Fig. S1). Fur Formation, Ypresian, Early Eocene, ca. 54 MA; marine diatomite layer right above ash layer +30 in the mid part of the formation (Fig. S2).

    Diagnosis: Septencoracias morsensis is a small roller that differs from all other Coracii (i.e., Primobucco, Paracoracias, Eocoracias, Geranopterus and crown group Coracii) in the small, ovoid and dorsally positioned narial openings (unknown in Geranopterus) and in the significantly larger skull. Septencoracias also differs from all Coracii except Paracoracias in the equal distal extent of major and minor metacarpals.

    Septencoracias is assigned to the Primobucconidae based on the following derived characteristics: unossified nasal septum; strongly developed deltopectoral crest of humerus; alular claw present. Moreover, the morphology of the tarsometatarsus of Septencoracias matches well with that of the Primobucconidae. However, Septencoracias differs from Primobucco in many characters: culmen evenly curved; mandibular symphysis longer and more ventrally projected; triangular pygostyle with tall and craniocaudally narrow lamina; acromion of scapula smaller; deltopectoral crest of humerus more prominent; bicipital crest straighter and shorter in distal extent; terminal process of ischium shorter; first phalanx of hallux markedly longer.

    Septencoracias differs from Eocoracias in the following characteristics: longer beak; hand skeleton longer relative to the other wing elements; femur shorter and tarsometatarsus longer relative to the tibiotarsus. Septencoracias differs from Paracoracias in the following features: extensor process of carpometacarpus larger; minor metacarpal thicker; first phalanx of hallux longer. Septencoracias differs from Geranopterus in the following characters: acromion of scapula not bifurcated; process on ventral side of proximal end of minor metacarpal smaller; plantarly projected metatarsal trochlea II.

    Estelle Bourdon, Anette V. Kristoffersen and Niels Bonde. 2016. A Roller-like Bird (Coracii) from the Early Eocene of Denmark. Scientific Reports. 6, Article number: 34050. DOI: 10.1038/srep34050  @NHM_Denmark

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    Paepalanthus multistellaris 
     Andrino, Trovó & Sano, 2016


    We describe and illustrate Paepalanthus multistellaris, a remarkable new species of Eriocaulaceae from the northern Espinhaço Range in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The species is known from a single population growing between the campos rupestres and veredas in the municipality of Botumirim. This new species is placed into P. subsect. Actinocephaloides, and is characterized by its long, ascending stem, scapes arranged in a fasciculate, umbel-shaped inflorescence, and green involucral bracts surpassing the flowers. Illustrations, photos, and a detailed description, as well as comments on habitat, morphology, and affinities with similar species are provided. The species is considered Critically Endangered, according to the IUCN Red List categories and criteria.

    Keywords: Endemism, Poales, campos rupestres, Critically Endangered species, Taxonomy, Eudicots

    Caroline Oliveira Andrino, Marcelo Trovó and Paulo Takeo Sano. 2016. A Field Full of Green Stars: Paepalanthus multistellaris (Eriocaulaceae), A New Species from Minas Gerais, Brazil.   Phytotaxa. 278(1); 55–61. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.278.1.6

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    Pseudochromis yamasakii 
    Gill & Senou, 2016 

    KPM-NR 90532A, underwater photo of individual in 18 m, Kushimoto, Kii Peninsula, Honshu, Japan.
    photo by K. Yamasaki.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4173.3.8  


    Gill (2004) recognised fifty-seven species in the Indo-Pacific genus Pseudochromis Rüppell (1835) but noted that the genus is undiagnosed cladistically and effectively serves as a catch-all for species that can’t be placed in other pseudochromine genera (sensu Gill 2013). Since publication of Gill’s revision, 13 additional species of Pseudochromis have been described, mostly based on recent collections from the highly diverse Coral Triangle area of the West Pacific (Gill & Allen 2004, 2011; Allen et al. 2008; Gill et al. 2009, 2012a,b; Gill & Williams 2011; Gill & Zajonz 2011; Allen & Erdmann 2012). We herein describe an additional new species, which is known on the basis of a single specimen from Kii Peninsula, Honshu, Japan, and from several photographs from the Kii Peninsula and Izu Islands, Japan.

    Keywords: Pisces, Teleostei, Pseudochromidae, Pseudochrominae

    Pseudochromis yamasakii, sp. nov.
    English common name: Dottybelly dottyback
    New standard Japanese name: Haraten-nisesuzume

    Etymology. This species is named for Kimihiro Yamasaki, a professional diver and excellent underwater photographer. Mr Yamasaki collected the holotype and provided photographs of the new species.

    Habitat and distribution. Pseudochromis yamasakii is known only from Kushimoto (type locality) and Minabe on the Kii Peninsula of Honshu, and from Hachijo-jima in the Izu Islands (KPM-NR 70230, KPM-NR 8893, KPM-NR 8897). It has been recorded from reefs in 18–45 m.

    FIGURE 4. Pseudochromis yamasakii, KPM-NR 166546, underwater photo of individual in 18 m, Kushimoto, Kii Peninsula, Honshu, Japan.
    photo by K. Yamasaki 

    Gill, Anthony C. and Hiroshi Senou. 2016. Pseudochromis yamasakii, New Species of Dottyback Fish from Japan (Teleostei: Pseudochromidae: Pseudochrominae).
     Zootaxa. 4173(3): 296–300.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4173.3.8

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    Pectenocypris nigra  

    Wibowo, Ahnelt & Kertamihardja, 2016  

    A new species of Danioninae, Pectenocypris nigra nov. sp. is described from peat swamps in the Riau Province, central Sumatra (Indonesia). The species differs from its congeners in the combination of the following characters: a distinct mid-lateral stripe, black spot on the base of the caudal fin, scales pale fawn with blackish margin; 28-30 scales in lateral midline, 7-10 pored lateral line scales, 160 gill-rakers on the first gill arch, and a short and deep caudal peduncle. 

    Keywords: Pectenocypris, Taxonomy, Morphology, Endemic, Indonesia.

    A. Wibowo, H. Ahnelt and E.S. Kertamihardja. 2016. Pectenocypris nigra, A New Danionine Species (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Danioninae) from Sumatra (Indonesia).
     Acta Biologica Turcica. 29(4); 137-142. 

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    Cynoglossus nanhaiensis 
    Wang, Munroe & Kong, 2016

    A new tongue sole, Cynoglossus nanhaiensis, described from 21 specimens (101.0–133.7 mm SL) collected in coastal waters of the South China Sea, is distinguished from congeners by the following combination of characters: 3 ocular-side lateral lines; no blind-side lateral lines; 2 ocular-side nostrils; 8 caudal-fin rays; 49–51 total vertebrae; 64–73 scales in the midlateral line; 11–12 scales in diagonal series between midlateral and dorsal lateral lines; 99–108 dorsal-fin rays; 77–82 anal-fin rays; pores of lateral-line scales tubular, with conspicuously black tips posteriorly; and with light- to medium-brown ocular-side background coloration overlain by numerous, small, irregular, dark blotches forming a series of narrow, interrupted, longitudinal stripes, with many specimens also featuring two large, brown spots on their caudal region. Among congeners, C. nanhaiensis is most similar to C. maccullochi Norman, 1926, described from specimens taken off Queensland, Australia, but differs in its ocular-side pigmentation (conspicuous longitudinal series of irregular blotches and caudal spots absent in Cmaccullochi) and body depth. Features of C. nanhaiensis are also reminiscent of those reported for C. dollfusi (Chabanaud, 1931), a poorly-known nominal species from the Red Sea, and C. itinus (Snyder, 1909), a better-known species occurring in marine waters off Japan and Southeast Asia. Cynoglossus nanhaiensis differs from both species in having two (vs. one) ocular-side nostrils. Cynoglossus itinus also lacks the series of conspicuous, darkly-pigmented, interrupted, longitudinal stripes on the ocular side that are characteristic of C. nanhaiensisCynoglossus nanhaiensis is further distinguished from C. dollfusi in having only a single pelvic fin (vs. two in C. dollfusi). Cynoglossus nanhaiensis occurs in coastal waters of the South China Sea off southern China and Viet Nam.

    Keywords: Flatfish, Tonguefish, Cynoglossid tongue sole

    Fig. 1. Cynoglossus nanhaiensis, new species, holotype (fresh condition), SCSMBC007425, male, 127.6 mm SL.
    A. Ocular side. B. Blind side. (Photograph: Z.-M. Wang). 

    Distribution.— Based on fishery landings, this species occurs in coastal waters off Sanya and Lingshui, Hainan Province; Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province, China; two specimens were collected off Viet Nam, one in the Gulf of Tonkin (20°46′29.99″N, 107°04′40.8″E) and the other off Phan Thiet (10°55′20″N, 108°06′34″E).

    Etymology.— The name, nanhaiensis, is derived from the Chinese word, Nanhai, meaning South China Sea, in reference to localities where most specimens were collected.

    Zhong-Ming Wang, Thomas A. Munroe and Xiao-Yu Kong. 2016. A New Species of Tongue Sole (Pisces: Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae: Cynoglossus) from coastal waters of the South China Sea. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 129(1); 129-143. DOI: 10.2988/0006-324X-129.Q2.129 

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