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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region

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    Indirana salelkari 
    Modak, Dahanukar, Gosavi & Padhye, 2015 
     DOI: 
    10.11609/JoTT.o4262.7493-509 

    Abstract

    Indirana salelkari, a new species of leaping frog, is described from Netravali, Goa, India.  The species can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of morphological characters, viz., head longer than wide, narrow and deep buccal cavity, vomerine teeth large and acutely placed close to each other, oval choanae, distinct canthus rostralis, first finger longer than or equal to second, presence of double outer palmer tubercles, elongated inner metatarsal tubercle, moderate webbing, discs of fingers and toes with crescentic deep marginal grooves restricted only to the anterior side of the discs, dorsal skin with glandular folds but without warts, ventral skin granular with some mottling on throat and, palms and soles dark brown.  Indirana salelkari differs from its sister taxa, I. chiravasi, in the placement and structure of vomerine teeth and choanae.  The new species is genetically distinct from I. chiravasi, with a genetic distance of 3.8% for the 16S rRNA gene.  We also provide phylogentic placement of Indirana salelkari based on mitochondrial 12S and 16S ribosomal genes and nuclear rhodopsin gene along with molecular clock analysis, which further confirms its genetic distinctness from other related taxa.

    Keywords: Buccal cavity structure; molecular phylogeny; multivariate analysis; new species; tadpole oral apparatus structure; taxonomy


    Image 4. Indirana salelkari sp. nov. in life (female paratype, AGCZRL-amphibia-210, 30.9mm SUL).




      Nikhil Modak, Neelesh Dahanukar, Ninad Gosavi and Anand D. Padhye. 2015. Indirana salelkari, A New Species of Leaping Frog (Anura: Ranixalidae) from Western Ghats of Goa, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 7(9): 7493–7509. DOI: 10.11609/JoTT.o4262.7493-509


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    Thyroptera wynneae  
     Velazco, Gregorin, Voss & Simmons, 2014

     DOI:  10.1206/3795.1  

    ABSTRACT
    Species of Thyroptera are insectivorous foliage-roosting bats that inhabit lowland moist forests (including gallery formations in savanna landscapes) from Mexico to southeastern Brazil. Although four species are currently recognized, only one or two species were previously known to occur at most localities. Recent inventory work in northeastern Peru has documented the local cooccurrence of four species of Thyroptera, one of which is here described as new. The new species (Thyroptera wynneae), which also occurs in Brazil, can easily be recognized by a combination of diagnostic morphological traits. The latter include small size, tricolored ventral pelage, long and woolly hairs between the shoulders, a uropatagium with the proximal half densely covered by long hairs, wing tips sparsely covered by long hairs, a calcar with two lappets and five tiny skin projections between the foot disk and the proximal lappet, a rostrum considerably shorter than the braincase, third lower incisors that are subequal in height to the first and second lower incisors, and third lower incisors with two well-developed accessory cusps. We illustrate the crania of all five known species of Thyroptera and provide a key based on craniodental and external characters. Unexpectedly high local diversity of these elusive bats poses a challenge for future inventory research and raises interesting questions about ecological-niche partitioning in Neotropical bat communities and the evolutionary history of thyropterids.





      


    Paúl M. Velazco, Renato Gregorin, Robert S. Voss and Nancy B. Simmons. 2014. Extraordinary Local Diversity of Disk-Winged Bats (Thyropteridae: Thyroptera) in Northeastern Peru, with the Description of a New Species and Comments on Roosting Behavior. American Museum Novitates. 3795 :1-28. doi:  10.1206/3795.1
    http://www.paulvelazco.com/uploads/8/3/7/7/8377762/2014-velazco_etal.pdf


    Thyroptera wynneae was discovered in the Amazon rain forest by a scientist from the American Museum of Natural History.
    Photo:  Burton Lim  

    How ‘biology’s Indiana Jones’ discovered a tiny, bizarre suction-cup bat in the western Amazon

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    Aparasphenodon pomba  
    Assis, Santana, Silva, Quintela & Feio, 2013 
    Abstract

    A new species of casque-headed tree frog of the genus Aparasphenodon is described from the municipality of Cataguases (21º20’S, 42º45’W; 288 m a.s.l.) in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Aparasphenodon pomba sp. nov. is characterized by medium size (males, snout-vent length, SVL 51.6–60.5 mm; females, SVL 58.7–62.1 mm); snout almost round in dorsal view; dorsum and limbs with cream-colored reticulation on dark-brown background; spots on ventral surface cream-colored; lips white; cream-colored dorsolateral stripe originating on the snout, crossing the upper eyelid and extending posteriorly to the axilla level; and red iris.

    Keywords: Amphibia, Aparasphenodon pomba sp. nov., Southeastern Brazil, Atlantic Rain Forest, taxonomy

    FIGURE 3. Aparasphenodon pomba sp. nov., holotype (MZUFV 10438; SVL 60.5 mm) in life, from Sítio Boa Sorte, Municipality of Cataguases, Minas Gerais, Brazil. 

    Geographic distribution. Known only from the type locality, in the Municipality of Cataguases, State of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil (Fig. 5).

    Natural history. The holotype was collected during the day inside a bamboo culm (Bambusa vulgaris) that had a small slit. All paratypes were found active during the night, during or after rains, occupying the same bamboo grove, at heights from 0.8 to 5.0 m. Bambusa vulgaris is native to Asia (Lima Neto 2010); the bamboo grove where the type series was collected has been in the area for about 70 years and its origin is unknown. Aparasphenodon pomba closes its eyes and contracts its body when manipulated (Fig. 4B). The new species occurs in sympatry with other three hylid species, Hypsiboasfaber, Scinax eurydice, and Scinax sp. (gr. catharinae). We did not find A. pomba males in calling activity.

    Habitat. Aparasphenodon pomba was found in a locality named Sítio Boa Sorte (21º20’20”S, 42º45’43”W; 288 m a.s.l.), which comprises an area of 135.52 hectares located on the border of the municipalities of Cataguases and Dona Euzébia, in the “Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais. This area is within an Atlantic Rain Forest fragment characterized as Submontane Seasonal Semideciduous Forest (Veloso et al. 1991). This region is currently highly fragmented, with mainly pastureland between forest remnants.


    Remarks. The environment of the only known locality of Aparasphenodon pomba covers only a small area, and its known range is less than 10 km2 (actually only 1.36 km2 ). There are no protected areas close to the A. pomba type locality (Sítio Boa Sorte), a forest fragment that is highly impacted by human activities because of its proximity to the urban area of the municipality of Cataguases. The Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil is the most intensively studied region in the country, and since the 1990s areas close to the type locality of this new species have been repeatedly surveyed for amphibians. Apparently, A. pomba is at critical risk of becoming extinct within a very short period of time, as its presumed range is not included in any conservation unit and is entirely within privately owned land.

    However, the finding of the new species only in a specific climatic conditions and associated with a bamboo grove environment also suggests subsampling in previous studies conducted in the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. Based on the criteria and categories of the IUCN Red List (Version 3.1, 2007), these data justify the assignment of A. pomba both the Critically Endangered category (CR) as in the Data Deficient category (DD).

    Etymology. The specific name of the new species, a noun in apposition, refers to its discovery in an Atlantic Rain Forest fragment near the Pomba River, Cataguases, Minas Gerais.


    Assis, Clodoaldo L. DE, Diego J. Santana, Fabiano A. D. Silva, Fernando M. Quintela and Renato N. Feio. 2013. A New and Possibly Critically Endangered Species of Casque-headed Tree Frog Aparasphenodon Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 (Anura, Hylidae) from southeastern Brazil. Zootaxa. 3716(4); 583-591.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3716.4.6


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    Hydnophytum puffii 
    Y.W.Low, Sugau & K.M.Wong  


    Abstract

    Background –Hydnophytum puffii Y.W.Low, Sugau & K.M.Wong, a linear-leaved epiphytic ant-plant is described as new from Borneo using morphological characters based on specimens preserved in the Sandakan and Singapore Herbaria. This new species is so far known only from Sabah, Malaysia.

    Methods – This study is based on herbarium materials and field observations in Sabah. Conventional herbarium techniques were applied for taxonomy, while the IUCN conservation status was assessed using GeoCAT.

    Results – Hydnophytum puffii is closely related to H. angustifolium Merr. but differs in having glabrous young twigs, 4–5 pairs of leaf secondary veins on the lower leaf surface, a corolla tube that is densely covered with translucent hairs inside the throat around the anthers, and prolate mature fruits. This new taxon is the only species in Borneo to have linear leaves as the other two taxa, namely H. coriaceum Becc. and H. formicarum Jack have broad elliptic leaves.

    Key words – Borneo, conservation status, Hydnophytum, Malaysia, new species, Psychotrieae, Rubiaceae, Sabah.




       Yee Wen Low, John B. Sugau and Khoon Meng Wong. 2016. Hydnophytum puffii (Rubiaceae: Psychotrieae), A New Ant-plant from Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Plant Ecology and Evolution. 149(1):123-130. DOI: 10.5091/plecevo.2016.1102 



      


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    Highlights
    • We use mitochondrial and nuclear genes to resolve relationships in Muscicapa and allies.
    • We use our phylogenetic results to reconstruct biogeographic history in the group.
    • We find several genera to be non-monophyletic.
    • The group originated in Africa, and subsequently colonized Eurasia.
    • The Congolian region of Africa is ancestral for one of the two major clades in the group.

    Abstract
    Muscicapa flycatchers and their allies (Bradornis, Dioptornis, Empidornis, Fraseria, Myioparus, Namibornis, and Sigelus) are widely distributed in Africa, Europe and Asia. This broad distribution and the wide variety of habitats occupied by the group, ranging from arid to tropical forests, presents an interesting opportunity to explore the evolution of biogeographic patterns and habitat associations. Sequence data (up to 3310 base pairs from two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes) were generated for 36 of 42 species which comprise the assemblage. Complementary data from an additional species was retrieved from GenBank, as was an additional gene which was available for 21 of our included taxa. Using model-based phylogenetic methods and molecular clock dating, we constructed a time-calibrated molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for the lineage. Ancestral area reconstructions were performed on the phylogeny using LaGrange and BioGeoBEARS. Our results indicate that BradornisFraseria, and Muscicapa are each non-monophyletic, with the latter being shown to comprise five separate clades each more closely related to other genera. Two new genera (Chapinornis Chapinia and Ripleyornis Ripleyia) are erected to account for these results. Muscicapa and allies originated c. 7.4 Ma, most likely in Africa given that their sister lineage is almost entirely from there, and rapidly achieved a Eurasian distribution by c. 7.1 Ma. A second divergence at c. 6.1 Ma resulted in two clades. The first is a largely Eurasian clade that subsequently recolonized Africa, perhaps as the result of the loss of migration. The second is an African clade, and ancestral reconstructions suggest a Congolian (e.g. tropical forest) origin for this clade, with several subsequent diversifications into more arid habitats. This is a unique result, as most tropical forest lineages are confined to that habitat. As with other studies of African bird lineages, Afrotropical forest dynamics appear to have played a significant role in driving diversification in Muscicapa and allies, and our results include just the second recorded case of southern to northern African colonization patterns.

    Keywords: Africa; Eurasia; Historical biogeography; Muscicapa; Muscicapidae; Systematics


    Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic implications

    Using molecular data from 20 taxa, Sangster et al. (2010) defined Muscicapini as comprising the genera Muscicapa, Melaenornis and, Fraseria; they did not include Myioparus in their analysis but it is clearly also a member of Muscicapini ( Fig. 1). Other genera ascribed to Muscicapini historically were excluded by their results, which also indicated issues with the monophyly of each of the remaining three genera (Muscicapa, Melaenornis, and Fraseria; Sangster et al., 2010).

    Our study represents the most extensively sampled molecular phylogenetic analysis of Muscicapini species to date. Overall, we included 37 of 42 Muscicapini species (see Section 2). Of the five taxa we are missing in our analyses, two are insular forms from Southeast Asia (Muscicaparandi– Philippines and Muscicapasegregata– Lesser Sundas), and both have been considered as conspecific with Muscicapadauurica ( Taylor, 2006). The remaining three species have patchy or restricted ranges in Afrotropical rainforests (Muscicapalendu, Muscicapaepulata, Melaenornisannamarulae). Our attempts to extract DNA from museum specimens of Muscicapalendu and Muscicapaepulata were unsuccessful.

    Although comprising just four species in recent taxonomy (e.g., Taylor, 2006), the genus Melaenornis has previously been considered to include species now ascribed to Empidornis, Sigelus, Dioptrornis, Bradornis, and Fraseria ( Mayr and Cottrell, 1986). Our results indicate, (1) that a larger Melaenornis (to include the aforementioned four genera) would be non-monophyletic (see also Sangster et al., 2010), (2) that Melaenornis (edolioides is the type) could be restricted to as little as three and perhaps four species (depending on the eventual systematic placement of annamarulae), and (3) that Melaenornis could be expanded to include Dioptrornis, Empidornis, Sigelus and Namibornis ( Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). Due to the morphological distinctiveness of the latter four genera (three of which are monotypic) relative to Melaenornis, which are all black or dark gray in color, we agree with the more strict usage of Melaenornis (e.g., Taylor, 2006).


    Our results also indicate that Bradornis is non-monophyletic, with species falling into two distinct clades ( Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). The Bradornis type is mariquensis ( Mayr and Cottrell, 1986), and thus that genus should be applied to mariquensis, pumilus and microrhyncus. There is an available synonym, Haganopsornis, which was applied to infuscatus (Roberts, 1922 fide Mayr and Cottrell, 1986) and we suggest resurrecting that genus to include infuscatus and pallidus ( Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). The genus Fraseria is also non-monophyletic, with ocreata being more closely related to the genus Myioparus; our results conflict as to the phylogenetic position of cinerascens ( Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). Regardless, Fraseria would apply to ocreata ( Mayr and Cottrell, 1986). We find no synonym to apply to cinerascens, which then requires the designation of a new genus for that species which we propose as:


    Chapinia, new genus Voelker & Bowie
    Type species. – Chapinia cinerascens.

    Diagnosis – A genus of muscicapid flycatcher differing from all other genera of the family Muscicapidae by the following combination of characters: large size, diagnostic white supra-loral spot, dark upperparts, and mottled gray underparts with dark but poorly demarcated crescents on the breast.

    Etymology – This name honors Dr. James P. Chapin, for his extensive documentation of, and research on, the birds of the Belgian Congo.


    Finally, the genus Muscicapa appears to have been a taxonomic dumping ground for any small to medium sized Muscicapini flycatcher, as our results show it to be comprised of five distinct lineages (Fig. 1). The type for the genus is striata, thus Muscicapa would apply to the large clade of 11 species (Fig. 1). There are several synonyms available for other clades. The genus Apatema could be applied to olivascens, and Cichlomyia or Butalis (it is unclear to us which has priority) could apply to the closely related caerulescens, and thus to tessmani as well (Fig. 1). For comitata, the genus Pedilorhynchus is available, and Artomyias is available for infuscata and thus also for the closely related ussheri (Fig. 1). Although sister to infuscata + ussheri, boehmi is highly distinct from them morphologically (Sinclair and Ryan, 2010). We therefore suggest applying the name Bradyornis to boehmi, following the original description of this species (Reichenow, 1884, fide Mayr and Cottrell, 1986). We find no available synonym for ruficauda, which is the first species to diverge within Muscicapini (Fig. 1). This requires the designation of a new genus for that species which we propose as:


    Ripleyia, new genus Voelker & Bowie
    Type species. – Ripleyia ruficauda.

    Diagnosis – A genus of muscicapid flycatcher differing from all other genera of the family Muscicapidae by the following combination of characters: rufous uppertail-coverts and tail, faint supercilium, and entirely orange lower mandible.

    Etymology – This name honors Dr. S. Dillon Ripley, former Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, for his extensive work on the birds of India and southern Asia.


    Gary Voelker, Jerry W. Huntley, Joshua V. Peñalba and Rauri C.K. Bowie. 2016. Resolving Taxonomic Uncertainty and Historical Biogeographic Patterns in Muscicapa Flycatchers and their allies. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 94, Part B; 618–625. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2015.09.026


       

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    Abstract
      

    Earlier this year, two of us (GV & RB) introduced the genus-group names Chapinia and Ripleyia (in Voelker et al. 2016) for two species of African flycatchers allied to Muscicapa. We recently became aware that both of these genus-group names are preoccupied within Animalia (Chapinia by Chapinia Ewing, 1927 [Insecta: Phthiraptera] and Ripleyia by Ripleyia Cossman, 1920 [Mollusca]), rendering them junior homonyms. Following Article 60 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN 1999) we herein provide replacement names for the two generic names introduced in Voelker et al. (2016).

    Keywords: ChapiniaRipleyia, Passeriformes, Muscicapidae, Aves



    Chapinornisnew replacement name
    Type species: Fraseria cinerascens Hartlaub, 1857

    Etymology: A combination of the surname Chapin and the Greek ὄρνις (Ornis), a bird, and a common suffix for bird genera. This name honors James P. Chapin, for his extensive documentation of, and research on, the birds of the Belgian Congo. Gender masculine.

    Remarks: Replacement name for Chapinia Voelker & Bowie in Voelker, Huntley, Peñalba & Bowie, 2016.

    Ripleyornisnew replacement name
    Type species: Muscicapa ruficauda Swainson, 1838

    Etymology: A combination of the surname Ripley and the Greek ὄρνις (Ornis), a bird, and a common suffix for bird genera. This name honors S. Dillon Ripley, former Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, for his extensive work on the birds of India and southern Asia. Gender masculine.

    Remarks: Replacement name for Ripleyia Voelker & Bowie in Voelker, Huntley, Peñalba & Bowie, 2016.


     Gary Voelker, Rauri C K Bowie and Kevin W. Conway. 2016. Replacement names for Chapinia and Ripleyia (Aves: Passeriformes: Muscicapidae).
    Zootaxa. 4107(4); 599. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4107.4.9


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    Iranocichla persa 
    Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh & Seehausen, 2016

    DOI:  10.3897/zookeys.636.10571 

    Abstract
    Iranocichla persa sp. n. is described from the Shur, Hasanlangi and Minab River drainages flowing into the Persian Gulf at the Strait of Hormuz in southern Iran. It is distinguished from I. hormuzensis, from the Mehran River drainage, by nuptial males having a bright orange breast and lower part of the head (vs. black), a poorly developed or invisible (vs. distinctive) “Tilapia-mark” in the dorsal fin and very clear white spots making almost wavy bars or stripes on the caudal fin (vs. without or with very few white spots). Mitochondrial DNA sequence characters suggest that both Iranocichla species are closely related but form two distinct clades, diagnosable by several fixed mutations in ND2, D-loop and partially by COI sequences. Populations from Kol River drainage, which is situated in-between the Mehran and the Shur River drainages, are more similar to I. hormuzensis in terms of their male nuptial coloration but to I. persa sp. n. in their mitochondrial sequence characters. Their status requires further investigation.

    Keywords: Barcode region, inland fish, Middle East, Persian Gulf


    Figure 3. Iranocichla persa, ZM-CBSU-IP66, male, holotype, 89.54 mm SL; Hormuzgan prov.: Shur River.   

    Iranocichla persa sp. n.

    Diagnosis: Iranocichla persa is distinguished from I. hormuzensis by its nuptial coloration in males. In I. persa, the lower part of the head and breast are orange (vs. black), the background colour of the flank is grey with an orange hue (vs. black), each scale is furnished with an iridescent patch and these patches take up more space (vs. less) than the space between them, a poorly developed or invisible (vs. distinctive) “Tilapia-mark” in the dorsal fin, and very clear white spots making almost wavy bars or stripes on the caudal fin (vs. without or with very few white spots). Both species are also distinguished by multiple fixed molecular characters in mitochondrial ND2, D-loop (see Schwarzer et al. 2016).

    Figure 1. Geographic distribution map of Iranocichla populations in four river drainages of Iran.
    Symbols indicate our sampling sites and the different taxa. Asterisk = I. hormuzensis, rectangle = I. persa sp. n., circle = Iranocichla sp. “Kol”. 


    Distribution: Iranocichla persa is known from the Shur (Fig. 9), Hasanlangi and Minab River drainages flowing to the Persian Gulf at the Strait of Hormuz (Fig. 1).

    Etymology: The species is named for Persia, the ancient name of Iran.

      

     Hamid Reza Esmaeili, Golnaz Sayyadzadeh and Ole Seehausen. 2016. Iranocichla persa, A New Cichlid Species from southern Iran (Teleostei, Cichlidae).
    ZooKeys. 636: 141-161. DOI:  10.3897/zookeys.636.10571

      


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    Amolops caelumnoctis 

    Abstract  
    A new species of Amolops is described from a mountainous area of southern Yunnan Province, China. The species is unique in having a dark purple dorsum with small light yellow spots. The spots are smaller than the smallest finger disk. Other characters that distinguish this species from other species of Amolops include smooth skin (lacking tubercles) over the entire body and lack of dorsolateral folds, transverse bars on the legs, and a visible pineal body.  



    Diagnosis.— The new species differs from all other species of this genus by a combination of the following characters: numerous small round light yellow spots, irregularly distributed, on a dark purple background on dorsum, head, limbs,fingers, and toes; smooth skin (lacking tubercles)over entire body; lack of dorsolateral folds; lack of transverse bars on limbs; and lack of visible pineal body on top of head.

     Etymology.— The specific name is derived from Latin for the sky of the night. The name refers to the numerous tiny rounded irregularly arranged light yellow spots on a dark purple dorsal background resembling stars in the night sky.


     Ding-Qi Rao and Jeffery A. Wilkinson. 2007. A New Species of Amolops (Anura: Ranidae) from Southwest China. Copeia. 2007(4); 913-919.
     DOI:  10.1643/0045-8511(2007)7[913:ANSOAA]2.0.CO;2

      


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    Dendrobium maguanense 
    Q. Xu, G.Q. Zhang & Z.J. Liu 


    Abstract

    Dendrobium maguanense, a new species from Yunnan, China, is described and illustrated in this study. Morphological study indicates that Dmaguanense is similar to D. crepidatum, but differs in having much smaller flowers, oblong sepals, obovate-elliptic petals and an obovate lip with three weak longitudinal ridges and a pubescent basal callus. Molecular analysis based on nuclear and plastid markers shows that D. maguanense is closely related to Dcrepidatum and this pair to DcrystallinumD. section Dendrobium.

    Keywords: Chinese orchid flora, Dendrobium sect. Dendrobium, Yunnan orchids, Monocots




    Qing Xu, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Xin-Yi Wu, Li-Jun Chen, and Zhong-Jian Liu. 2016. Dendrobium maguanense (Orchidaceae; Epidendroideae), A New Species from China: Evidence from Morphology and DNA. Phytotaxa. 286(1); 47–53. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.286.1.6


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    Tetragonopterus argenteus  Cuvier, 1816
    MUSM 39445, live specimen, 78.0 mm SL, Río Purus, Peru.

    Photo by T.P. Carvalho. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4200.1.1 

    Abstract

    The systematics of the characid genus Tetragonopterus is reviewed based on morphological and molecular data of specimens from its entire geographical range encompassing all major South American river drainages from Orinoco basin southward to the La Plata basin. Eight previously described species (T. anostomus, T. araguaiensis, T. argenteus, T. carvalhoi, T. chalceus, T. denticulatus, T. georgiae n. comb., and T. rarus) are recognized as valid, four of which are redescribed (T. argenteus, T. chalceus, T. georgiae, and T. rarus), and four new species from the Brazilian Shield in the Amazon and São Francisco river basins are herein described. We also provide evidence for the reallocation of Moenkhausia georgiae into Tetragonopterus and recognize T. akamai as junior synonym of T. anostomus. DNA barcodes of Tetragonopterus revealed genetic support for each recognized species and provided valuable population-level information within T. argenteus, T. chalceus, T. georgiae, and T. rarus.

    Keywords: Pisces, Amazon basin, Characiformes, DNA barcode, Moenkhausia, Neotropical region



    Silva, Gabriel S. C., Bruno F. Melo, Claudio Oliveira and Ricardo C. Benine. 2016. Revision of the South American Genus Tetragonopterus Cuvier, 1816 (Teleostei: Characidae) with Description of Four New Species. Zootaxa. 4200(1); 1–46.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4200.1.1


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    Nototriton mime 
    Townsend, Medina-Flores, Reyes-Calderón & Austin, 2013

       DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3666.3.6   

    Abstract

    The highlands of northeastern Honduras remain under-characterized in terms of biological diversity, as exemplified by the regularity of new amphibian and reptile taxa discoveries. Following the recent description of a new species of Nototriton from the Sierra de Agalta in northeastern Honduras, we report the discovery of a second new species of Nototriton from the nearby Parque Nacional Montaña de Botaderos. This new taxon, Nototriton mime sp. nov., is distinguished from other Nototriton by its distinctive pale brown dorsal coloration in adult males, relatively large nares, a relatively broad head, mitochondrial sequence divergence, and phylogenetic relationships, and is geographically isolated from other populations of Nototriton.

    Keywords: Nototriton mime sp. nov., mtDNA, 16S, cytochrome b, Nototriton picucha, sexual dichromatism



    Etymology. The specific epithet “mime” is a noun in apposition to the generic name, given to honor our late friend Arquimides Gabriel Rosales Martinez, or “Mime” (pronounced me-may), a young Honduran biologist passionate about amphibians. Mime and his sister, Novy Hortensia Rosales Martinez, were killed by a drunken driver on 17 December 2010 in Tegucigalpa.

    Natural history: The habitat at the type locality is tropical montane cloud forest, in the Lower Montane Wet Forest formation. The male holotype (USNM 579870; Fig. 3A) was active at night among the leaves of an orchid growing on a small stump on the ground along a wet ridge at 1,705 m elevation. The male paratype (USNM579871; Fig. 3C) was collected from underneath a small log embedded in the ground at 1,720 m elevation. The female paratype (MVZ 269306; Fig. 3B) was found in a bromeliad on the ground at 1,705 m elevation, near the holotype. The juvenile paratype (USNM 579872; Fig. 3D) was collected during the late afternoon from within a small bromeliad approximately 2 m above the ground on a large fallen branch at 1,710 m elevation.


    Remarks. With the description of Nototriton mime, there are 17 named species of Nototriton distributed from Guatemala to Costa Rica, six of which are endemic to Honduras (Townsend et al. 2011; Boza-Oviedo et al. 2012).Each of these six endemic species have distributions restricted to cloud forest habitat in the upper reaches of isolated mountain ranges, with only one species (N. limnospectator) known to occur at premontane elevations aslow as 800 m. In addition to these six species, there are two as yet undescribed species currently referred to the taxon N. barbouri , one from Parque Nacional Pico Bonito (N. sp A in Townsend et al. 2011) and one from Refugiode Vida Silvestre Texíguat (N. sp. B, op. cit.).

    The coloration seen in Nototriton mime appears to be the first documented case of sexual dichromatism in thegenus Nototriton, and one of few documented cases in tropical salamanders. Another endemic Honduras salamander, Bolitoglossa diaphora, from the Sierra de Omoa in northwestern Honduras, also exhibits marked dichromatism, with males being bluish-gray and females being a mottled red-orange coloration (McCranie &Wilson 1995).


    Townsend, Josiah H., Melissa Medina-Flores, Onán Reyes-Calderón & James D. Austin. 2013. A New Nototriton (Caudata: Plethodontidae) from Parque Nacional Montaña de Botaderos in northeastern Honduras. Zootaxa. 3666(3): 358–368.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3666.3.6


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    The ultimate leaf masquerade in an orb web spider, an undescribed species of Poltys (Araneidae) from Yunnan.
     A female had hung dead leaves from a twig that also included live leaves to masquerade itself from visual predators. Upon slight disturbance, she withdrew higher onto the twig where it remained motionless


    Abstract

    Leaf masquerade—an animal resembling leaves that are inedible for predators or innocuous for prey—is well known in insects but less so in arachnids. We report a case of a striking morphological and behavioral adaptation that can be labeled as leaf masquerade in an undescribed spider species (Poltys C.L. Koch, 1843, Araneidae) from southwest China. The female abdomen has anatomical analogues of a leaf pedicel and venation, and its color is both green and brown, thus resembling both live and dry leaves. The spider camouflages itself with pulled dead leaves among live ones. This novel natural history in a spider adds an arachnid model to the growing literature on animal masquerade.

    Keywords: Passive defenses, anachoresis, crypsis, Poltys, Araneidae


      



    Figure 1.— The ultimate leaf masquerade in an orb web spider, an undescribed species of Poltys (Araneidae) from Yunnan.
    AC, A female had hung dead leaves from a twig that also included live leaves to masquerade itself from visual predators (A). Upon slight disturbance, she withdrew higher onto the twig (B, C) where it remained motionless; D, lateral view of female pose in nature, note her abdomen resembling a dead leaf ventrally and a live, green leaf dorsally, both parts extending into a long and straight, apical abdominal hairy pedicel; E, female placed on a flat surface, showing her flexible abdominal pedicel, now curved; F, same, dorsal close up, note ‘‘leaf venation’’ and long hairy pedicel. 

    Matjaž Kuntner, Matjaž Gregorič, Ren-Chung Cheng and Daiqin Li. 2016. Leaf Masquerade in An Orb Web Spider. Journal of Arachnology. 44(3);397–400.

    This Never Before Seen Spider Looks Like a Leaf
    http://on.natgeo.com/2fVTnex via @NatGeo


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    Ozimek volans 
    Dzik & Sulej, 2016  

     DOI: 10.4202/app.00276.2016 

    Several partially articulated specimens and numerous isolated bones of Ozimek volans gen. et sp. nov., from the late Carnian lacustrine deposits exposed at Krasiejów in southern Poland, enable a reconstruction of most of the  skeleton. The unique character of the animal is its enlarged plate-like coracoids presumably fused with sterna. Other aspects of the skeleton seem to be comparable to those of the only known specimen of Sharovipteryx mirabilis from the latest Middle Triassic of Kyrgyzstan, which supports interpretation of both forms as protorosaurians. One may expect that the pectoral girdle of S. mirabilis, probably covered by the rock matrix in its only specimen, was similar to that of O. volans gen. et sp. nov. The Krasiejów material shows sharp teeth, low crescent scapula, three sacrals in a generalized pelvis (two of the sacrals being in contact with the ilium) and curved robust metatarsal of the fifth digit in the pes, which are unknown in Sharovipteryx. Other traits are plesiomorphic and, except for the pelvic girdle and extreme elongation of appendages, do not allow to identify any close connection of the sharovipterygids within the Triassic protorosaurians.

    Key words: Archosauromorpha, Sharovipteryx, protorosaurs, gliding, evolution, Carnian, Poland.




    Systematic palaeontology

    Archosauromorpha von Huene, 1946
    Family Sharovipterygidae Tatarinov, 1989

    Genus Ozimek nov.
    Type species: Ozimek volans gen. et sp. nov.; see below

    Etymology: After the borough town Ozimek nearby the type locality.

    Diagnosis.—As for type and only species.


    Ozimek volans gen. et sp. nov.

    Etymology: From Latin volansflying.

    Holotype: Incomplete skeleton ZPAL AbIII/2512 (Fig. 7).

    Type locality: Krasiejów near Ozimek, Upper Silesia, Poland.

    Type horizon: Lacustrine bed, probably late Carnian, early Late Triassic.

    Diagnosis.— Enlarged coracoids that meet along the mid-line forming a slightly convex ventral shield; low, crescentshaped scapula.








    Jerzy Dzik and Tomasz Sulej. 2016. An Early Late Triassic Long-necked Reptile with A Bony Pectoral Shield and Gracile Appendages. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica.  61(4); 805-823. DOI: 10.4202/app.00276.2016

      


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     Oreonectes daqikongensis  
    Deng, Wen, Xiao & Zhou, 2016 


    Abstract
    This study aimed to describe a new specimen of cavefish collected from a karst cave in the Daqikong area of Libo County, Guizhou. Twenty-six cavefish specimens were collected and identified as a new species of Balitoridae: Nemacheilinae, and named Oreonectes daqikongensis sp. n. A genetic analysis was performed and showed that its genetic distances from Oreonectes shuilongensis and Oreonectes platycephalus are higher than intraspecific distances. Discovery of this species will be helpful to understand the distribution of Oreonectes.

    Keywords: Cavefish, Libo, new species, Oreonectes daqikongensis sp. n.


    Figure 1. a Holotype of  Oreonectes daqikongensis sp. n. NO.CNGZNU20110128002.
     A living Oreonectes daqikongensis sp. n.

    Diagnosis: The species has a large head, and the width of the head is larger than its depth. The frontal torso is nearly cylindrical, the backend gradually compresses, and the head is slightly flattened. There is a short distance between the anterior and posterior nostrils, and the anterior nostril forms a short and tubular structure, which is truncated backward. The pectoral fin extends backward to or beyond the starting point of the pelvic fin. The body is naked. The eyes are completely degraded; and eye socket was filled in fat tissue and without any outside remnant indicating their presence. The superior and inferior caudal peduncles have well-developed soft finfolds. No carneous fin flaps are present in the pelvic fin axilla. The air bladder is wrapped in a bony capsule, and the posterior chamber of the air bladder is developed into a membranous chamber, which is separated from the abdominal cavity and connected to the anterior chamber by a short duct. The whole body is white and transparent, when they are alive, they look a little red because the blood inside, and is unlikely to become black when it is fed in sunlight for a long term.

    Habitat:  This species was found only in the Daqikong scenic area. The opening of the cave was halfway up the mountain, and the distance from the opening to the pool was about 15–20 m. The cave got no sunshine because of the twisty pathway. A large number of Hipposideros armiger lived in the cave and a thick layer of bat dung was found on the ground. Groundwater extended into the cave, and the water rushed outside the cave in the case of heavy rain. So far, no other fish, shrimps, or aquatic animals were found in the cave. The subterranean river belonged to the Dagou river system, and was the main river of the Libo County, which runs through the whole county, enters Guangxi from the Laocun Xiang, and was the major tributary of the Duliu River system (Figure 2).


     Huaiqing Deng, Huamei Wen, Ning Xiao and Jiang Zhou. 2016. A New Blind Species of the Cave Genus Oreonectes from Guizhou, China (Nemacheilinae).
      ZooKeys. 637: 47-59. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.637.10202


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    Amphinemura bimaculata 
     Li, Wang & Yang, 2016

    Abstract

    Two new species of the nemourid genus AmphinemuraA. apicilobata sp. nov. and A. bimaculata sp. nov. are described from the Gaoligong Mountains of Yunnan Province, China. The new species are compared with related congeners.

    Keywords: Plecoptera, Nemouridae, Amphinemura, new species, China



      Weihai Li, Ying Wang and Ding Yang. 2016. Two New Species of Amphinemura (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from the Gaoligong Mountains of Yunnan, China.
     Zootaxa. 4200(3); 381–388. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4200.3.3


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    Cnemaspis tropidogaster (Boulenger, 1885)

      egg-nesting habitat with an adult female from Gampaha District, Sri Lanka  (not collected; Photo: W.M.S. Botejue)

    Amarasinghe, Campbell, Madawala, Botejueet al. 2016.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4200.3.5  

    Abstract

    Gonatodes kandianus var. tropidogaster was described by Boulenger (1885) with only “Ceylon” (=Sri Lanka) as its locality. This taxon was later assigned to the genus Cnemaspis and then recorded from many different parts of the country. Misleading taxonomic publications and muddled nomenclatural issues has since rendered its taxonomic position unclear. Recent studies have revealed, however, that Cnemaspis tropidogaster is a species complex, and the species and its types have been redescribed. Unfortunately, no live populations of this species have been recorded until now. Here we report the rediscovery of live populations of this species 120 years after its last collection date records. C. tropidogaster was rediscovered from a low elevation (50–80 m asl.) of the wet zone of Sri Lanka. The rediscovered population was attributed to C. tropidogaster on the basis of a suite of matching morphometric and meristic characters that distinguish C. tropidogaster from other Sri Lankan Cnemaspis.

    Keywords: Reptilia, Cnemaspis tropidogasterCnemaspis kandiana, distribution, conservation, taxonomy




    Amarasinghe, A. A. T., Patrick D. Campbell, Majintha B. Madawala, W. M. S. Botejue, Dinesh E. Gabadage, Anslem de Silva and D. M. S. S. Karunarathna. 2016. The Re-discovery of Live Populations of Cnemaspis tropidogaster (Boulenger, 1885) (Sauria, Gekkonidae) from Sri Lanka after 120 years.   Zootaxa. 4200(3); 395–405. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4200.3.5

      


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    Gracilaria lantaensis 
     Muangmai, Zuccarello, Noiraksa & Lewmanomont 


    Collection of a flat red alga of the genus Gracilaria from the Andaman coast of Thailand was described as a new species, Gracilaria lantaensis sp. nov. based on detailed morphological characteristics and rbcL sequence analysis. This species typically grew intertidally on exposed mud-sand shores. It was characterized by its slender thalli with narrow-bladed branches, its smooth margin with a few brachlets and its reddish-pink color. Spermatangial conceptacles were of the textorii-type. Cystocarps were spherical and possessed numerous nutritive filaments at lateral and basal positions in the cystocarp cavity. Gracilaria lantaensis was morphologically similar to G. yamamotoi but differed in branching pattern and cystocarp structure. RbcL sequence data also indicated the genetic distinction between G. lantaensis and other species of Gracilaria. Gracilaria lantaensis was grouped with a major assemblage of Gracilaria species, and sister to some Indian Ocean species with denticulate margins, e.g. G. beckeri, G. capensis and G. denticulata.

    Key Words:Gracilaria lantaensis sp. nov, Gracilariales, Indian Ocean, rbcL, Rhodophyta, Thailand


    DIAGNOSIS: thalli solitary, flattened and erect, 2–11 cm long and 1–6 mm wide, arising from discoid hold fast with a stipe, 2–10 mm long.Blades had smooth margins with few branchlets, irregularly di- ortrichotomous branched and 250–450lm thick. Spermatangial conceptacles were scattered throughout the blade, forming shallow pits,textorii-type. Mature cystocarps were spherical, slightly rostrate and constricted at their base. Nutritive filaments mostly lateral andbasal, connecting to a thick pericarp. Carposporangia in unbranched chains. Tetrasporangia cruciately divided and scattered over the blade.


    HOLOTYPE: KUMF-LT 02-016-1, collected 15 April 2012, deposited at Kasetsart University Museum of Fisheries (KUMF) (see Fig. 1).
    ISOTYPES: KUMF-LT 02-016-2, KUMF-LT 02-016-3, KUMF-LT02-016-4, KUMF-LT 02-016-5, collected 15 April 2012, deposited at Kasetsart University Museum of Fisheries (KUMF).


    TYPE LOCALITY: 7838054.1100N, 9981014.5100E; attached to pebbles or shells on the muddy sand area in the intertidal, 1–2 m deep, at Ao Kaw Kwang, Lanta Island, Krabi Province, Thailand (Fig. S1).

    ETYMOLOGY: lantaensis refers to the locality of Lanta Island where this species is found.

    Narongrit Muangmai, Giuseppe C. Zuccarello, Thidarat Noiraksa and Khanjanapaj Lewmanomont. 2014. A New Flat GracilariaGracilaria lantaensis sp. nov. (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) from the Andaman Coast of Thailand.
    Phycologia. 53(2); 137-145. DOI:  10.2216/13-215.1


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    Araichthys loro 
     Zawadzki, Bifi & Mariotto, 2016

    Abstract
    Araichthys loro, a new genus and species of the suckermouth armored catfish family Loricariidae, is described from the rio Papagaio and tributaries, rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso State, central Brazil. Araichthys is distinguished from all other genera of the Ancistrini by features of body and head plates, odontodes of breeding males, and osteology, and by the absence of an Adipose fin. A phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters obtained Araichthys as part of a monophyletic group that also includes Pseudolithoxus, Ancistrus and Lasiancistrus based on the presence of a large gap with a strut between the anterior process of the pterotic-supracleithrum and its main body, three rows of plates at thinnest part of caudal peduncle, fleshy tentacles on snout with a sheath partially detached from odontodes, and small tentacles on pectoral fins partially detached from odontodes.





    Cláudio H. Zawadzki, A. G. Bifi & S. Mariotto. 2016. Araichthys loro, A New Genus and Species of Suckermouth Armored Catfish from the upper rio Tapajós basin, Brazil (Siluriformes: Loricariidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters. 27(4); 361–372.
    http://www.pfeil-verlag.de/04biol/pdf/ief27_4_10.pdf



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    Tridimeris chiapensis Escobar-Castellanos & Ortiz-Rodr.




    Abstract
    Based on phylogenetic and morphological evidence, Tridimeris chiapensis Escobar-Castellanos & Ortiz-Rodr., sp. n. (Annonaceae), a new species from the karst forest of southern Mexico, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from Tridimeris hahniana, the only described species in the genus, in that the latter has flowers with sepals densely tomentose outside, one (rarely two) carpel(s) per flower and fruits densely covered with golden-brown hairs, while Tridimeris chiapensis has flowers with glabrous sepals outside, two to five carpels per flower and glabrous fruits. Furthermore, a shallow triangular white patch at the base of the inner petals is found in T. chiapensis, a morphological character shared with the sister genus Sapranthus but absent in T. hahniana. Geographically, both species occur allopatrically. With just one known locality and seven individuals of Tridimeris chiapensis recorded in one sampling hectare, and based on application of the criteria established by the IUCN, we conclude tentatively that the species is critically endangered.

    Keywords: Dimery, Neotropical, Miliuseae, tropical rainforest





    Diagnosis: Tridimeris chiapensis is phylogenetically related to Tridimeris hahniana with which it shares axillary and dimerous flowers and large and fleshy fruits. However, Tridimeris chiapensis differs in having flowers with glabrous sepals, a triangular white patch near the base of inner petals and 2-5 carpels per flower and glabrous fruits (Fig. 3), while T. hahniana has flowers with sepals densely tomentose outside, 1 or 2 carpels per flower and fruits densely covered with golden-brown hairs.

    Etymology: The specific epithet is in honor of the Mexican state of Chiapas where the species was found.


    Figure 3. Tridimeris chiapensis  Escobar-Castellanos & Ortiz-Rodr.
     A Dimerous flower B Large and fleshy fruits C Flower showing the pollen release and a triangular white patch at the base of the inner petals E Leafy branches.
    Photographs by Marcos Escobar-Castellanos.   DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.74.10371




    Andres Ernesto Ortiz-Rodriguez, Marcos Alberto Escobar-Castellanos and Miguel Angel Pérez-Farrera. 2016. Phylogenetic Analyses and Morphological Characteristics support the Description of A Second Species of Tridimeris (Annonaceae).
     PhytoKeys. 74: 79-85. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.74.10371

      


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    Strobilanthes agasthyamalana  Sasidh., Dantas & Robi


    Summary
    Strobilanthes agasthyamalana is described and illustrated here from the Pongalapara region of Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve, southern Western Ghats. It is similar to S. foliosa and S. lanata in floral, seed and vegetative characters. However, it differs from S. foliosa by its adaxially hirsute and abaxially woolly leaves, bracts and bracteoles, pubescent corolla and villous style, and it differs from S. lanata by its glabrous stem, adaxially hirsute leaves, pubescent corolla, villous style and glabrous seeds.

    Key Words: Kerala; kurinji; Strobilanthinae


    Fig 2 Strobilanthes agasthyamalana.
    A habit; B inflorescence enlarged; C mature inflorescence; D leaf portion enlarged; E tip of corolla lobe enlarged; F corolla split open; G gynoecium with style and stigma; H stamens. photos: A. J. ROBI. 


    N. Sasidharan, P. Sujanapal, K. J. Dantas and A. J. Robi. 2016. An Enigmatic New Species, Strobilanthes agasthyamalana (Acanthaceae), from Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve of Southern Western Ghats, India.
     Kew Bulletin. 71:51. DOI: 10.1007/s12225-016-9667-0


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    Andraca yauichui 
    Wu & Chang, 2016 
     DOI:  
    10.11646/zootaxa.4200.4.4  

    Abstract

    A new endemic, montane species of the genus AndracaAndraca yauichui sp. nov., in Taiwan is described. It can be separated well from a lower montane, notable tea tree pest A. theae (Matsumura, 1909), based on morphological characters of adult, e.g. larger wingspan size, head vertex white rather than brown, valval apex truncate rather than bifurcate, and final instar larva, e.g. the presence of a pair of white spot on lateral part of each abdominal segment and a distinct short anal horn rather than the absence of two characters. The subgeneric placement of this new species in Andraca is also discussed.

    Keywords: Lepidoptera, Bombycidae sensu lato, Oberthuerinae, Oriental region, Theaceae, Symplocaceae

     Andraca yauichui sp. nov., male, Guanwu, Miaoli.

    Distribution and bionomics. Endemic to Taiwan. Distributed in mid mountain ranges between 1721 to 2610 m, the adults occasionally occur from January to November. According to the breeding record by Mei-Yu Chen in mid-elevation of Central Mountain Range, Meifeng (ca. 2100 m), four final instar larvae were found on Eurya strigillosa (Theaceae) on 17th December, 2003, the emerging date of the first adult is 21th March, 2004.

    Etymology. The new species is dedicated to the late Dr. Yau-I Chu, who passed in March, 2015. He published amounts of scientific papers, general books for insect knowledge in his life, so continue to profoundly affect the development of entomology in Taiwan.


    Shipher Wu and Wei-Chun Chang. 2016. Andraca yauichui sp. n., A New Species Endemic to mid Elevation Forests of Taiwan (Bombycidae sensu lato, Lepidoptera).  Zootaxa. 4200(4); 515–522. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4200.4.4


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