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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region

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    Brycon hilarii (Valenciennes, 1850)


    A revision of the cis-andean species of Brycon, with the exception of the Brycon pesu species-complex, is presented. Twenty-one Brycon species (including B. pesu) are recognized from cis-andean river systems: Brycon stolzmanni Steindachner, from the upper Río Marañon basin, Peru; Brycon coxeyiFowler, from the Río Marañon basin, Ecuador and Peru; Brycon polylepisMoscó Morales, from the Lago de Maracaibo, Río Orinoco, upper rio Amazonas, and rio Tocantins basins, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, and Brazil; Brycon coquenani Steindachner, from the upper Río Caroni, Río Orinoco basin, Venezuela; Brycon insignis Steindachner, from the rio Paraíba do Sul and small adjacent coastal river basins of eastern Brazil; Brycon vermelha Lima & Castro, endemic from the rio Mucuri basin, eastern Brazil; Brycon howesi new species, endemic from the rio Jequitinhonha basin, Brazil; Brycon dulcis new species, endemic from the rio Doce basin, eastern Brazil; Brycon ferox Steindachner, from several small coastal river systems, including the rio Mucuri basin in eastern Brazil; Brycon vonoi new species, from the rio Pardo basin and apparently also from a adjacent river system, the rio Una, in eastern Brazil; Brycon opalinus(Cuvier), from the headwaters of the rio Paraíba do Sul and rio Doce basins, eastern Brazil; Brycon nattereriGünther, from the headwaters of the upper rio Paraná, rio São Francisco, and upper rio Tocantins basins, Brazil; Brycon orthotaenia Günther, endemic from the rio São Francisco basin, Brazil; Brycon orbignyanus(Valenciennes), from the rio Paraná and rio Uruguai basins, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, and Uruguay; Brycon hilarii (Valenciennes), from the rio Paraguai, middle rio Paraná, and upper rio Amazonas basins, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Peru, and Ecuador; Brycon whitei Myers & Weitzman, from the Río Orinoco basin in Colombia and Venezuela; Brycon amazonicus (Agassiz), from the Rio Amazonas and Río Orinoco basins, Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Bolivia, Venezuela, and Guyana; Brycon gouldingi Lima, endemic from the rio Tocantins basin, Brazil; Brycon melanopterus(Cope), from the western and central rio Amazonas basin, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia; and Brycon falcatusMüller & Troschel, widespread in the the rio Amazonas and Río Orinoco basins, and several guyanese river systems, in Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana. All species are redescribed and illustrated, and a key to the species is provided. Comments on the diagnosis of the genus Brycon, the biogeography of the cis-andean species, and their current conservation status, are presented.

    Keywords: Pisces, taxonomy, conservation, biogeography, mimicry, Amazon basin, Orinoco basin, eastern Brazil

    Flávio C. T. Lima. 2017. A Revision of the Cis-Andean Species of the Genus Brycon Müller & Troschel (Characiformes: Characidae).
    Zootaxa. 4222(1); 1-189. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4222.1.1

    21 Brycon species (including B. pesu) are recognized from Cis-Andean River Systems

    • Brycon stolzmanni Steindachner, from the upper Río Marañon basin, Peru
    • Brycon coxeyi Fowler, from the Río Marañon basin, Ecuador and Peru
    • Brycon polylepis Moscó Morales, from the Lago de Maracaibo, Río Orinoco, upper rio Amazonas, and rio Tocantins basins, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, and Brazil
    • Brycon coquenani Steindachner, from the upper Río Caroni, Río Orinoco basin, Venezuela
    • Brycon insignis Steindachner, from the rio Paraíba do Sul and small adjacent coastal river basins of eastern Brazil
    • Brycon vermelha Lima & Castro, endemic from the rio Mucuri basin, eastern Brazil
    • Brycon howesi new species, endemic from the rio Jequitinhonha basin, Brazil
    • Brycon dulcis new species, endemic from the rio Doce basin, eastern Brazil
    • Brycon ferox Steindachner, from several small coastal river systems, including the rio Mucuri basin in eastern Brazil
    • Brycon vonoi new species, from the rio Pardo basin and apparently also from a adjacent river system, the rio Una, in eastern Brazil
    • Brycon opalinus (Cuvier), from the headwaters of the rio Paraíba do Sul and rio Doce basins, eastern Brazil
    • Brycon nattereri Günther, from the headwaters of the upper rio Paraná, rio São Francisco, and upper rio Tocantins basins, Brazil
    • Brycon orthotaenia Günther, endemic from the rio São Francisco basin, Brazil
    • Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes), from the rio Paraná and rio Uruguai basins, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, and Uruguay
    • Brycon hilarii (Valenciennes), from the rio Paraguai, middle rio Paraná, and upper rio Amazonas basins, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Peru, and Ecuador
    • Brycon whitei Myers & Weitzman, from the Río Orinoco basin in Colombia and Venezuela
    • Brycon amazonicus (Agassiz), from the Rio Amazonas and Río Orinoco basins, Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Bolivia, Venezuela, and Guyana
    • Brycon gouldingi Lima, endemic from the rio Tocantins basin, Brazil
    • Brycon melanopterus (Cope), from the western and central rio Amazonas basin, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia
    • Brycon falcatus Müller & Troschel, widespread in the the rio Amazonas and Río Orinoco basins, and several guyanese river systems, in Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana

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    Kryptonesticus deelemanae 
    Pavlek & Ribera, 2017 


    This paper describes and illustrates a new genus and a new species belonging to the family Nesticidae based on morphology and supported by molecular data. The new genusKryptonesticus gen. nov., groups eight species spread from Bulgaria and Turkey to Croatia, including Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Crete. As a result, seven new combinations are proposed: K. eremita (Simon, 1879)comb. nov., K. arenstorffi(Kulczyński, 1914) comb. nov., K. fagei(Kratochvíl, 1933) comb. nov., K. beroni(Deltshev, 1977) comb. nov., K. beshkovi(Deltshev, 1979) comb. nov., K. henderickxi(Bosselaers, 1998) comb. nov. and K. dimensis (López-Pancorbo, Kunt & Ribera, 2013) comb. nov., all ex Nesticus. Kryptonesticus deelemanae gen. et sp. nov. is described on the basis of both sexes and its phylogenetic relationships with closely related species are discussed based on morphological and molecular data (the cox1, rrn and H3 genes). In addition, the species of this new genus (except for K. eremita) are clear candidates for protection: they have highly restricted ranges and some of them show a high degree of adaptation to the subterranean environment.

    Keywords: Nesticidae; taxonomy; caves; endemism; Dinarides

    Fig 1. Habitus of Kryptonesticus deelemanae sp. nov.A. Male, body length 3.6 mm. B. Female, body length 4.3 mm. (Photos by M. Pavlek.) 

    Class Arachnida Cuvier, 1812
    Order Araneae Clerck, 1757

    Family Nesticidae Simon, 1894
    Kryptonesticus gen. nov.

    Type species
    Kryptonesticus deelemanae gen. et sp. nov. 

    Etymology: The prefix “Krypto”, from Ancient Greek κρυπτός (kruptós “hidden”), alludes to the long time it took to diagnose this evolutionary line.

    Distribution:From Bulgaria and Turkey to Croatia, including Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Crete. All these species are known only from the type locality, or have small distribution ranges. K. eremita is an exception; this species is linked to human activities and can be found in hangars, cellars and cottages. It has been cited from France and Italy to Bulgaria and Turkey. It is a potentially invasive species, found in an abandoned air-raid tunnel in Auckland, New Zealand (Vink & Dupérré 2011).

    Krypyonesticus deelemanae gen. et sp. nov.

    Etymology: The specific name is a patronym in honor of Christa Laetitia Deeleman-Reinhold, an important Dutch arachnologist and a dear friend. Her work has vastly raised the knowledge of the cave spider fauna of Dinarides. The species name is in possessive genitive.

      Distribution: The new species is endemic to Croatia; it is distributed on Biokovo Mt in central Dalmatia, a coastal region in Croatia. So far it has been recorded in 20 caves scattered through the whole mountain, from the south-west sea side to the north-east continental side, from the 310 to 1640 asl (Fig. 6A). Data on all records of K. deelemanae gen. et sp. nov. are given in Appendix 2. The distribution area of K. deelemanae gen. et sp. nov. is more than 80 km away from that of K. fagei and more than 100 km from that of K. arenstorffi (Fig. 6B). 

    Natural history: The type locality, Samogorska špilja, is a small cave with two entrances (Fig. 7). On the date of the last collection, 23 Jan. 2016, the air temperature in the cave was 0.5°C with cold air streaming through the cave, mostly near the cave floor. Spiders were found freely walking on the ceiling of the chamber (probably avoiding the cold air flow at the bottom) and on the side walls of the cave. The temperature in other caves where K. deelemanae gen. et sp. nov. is found ranges from 0 to 15°C. Some of those caves are very small and are greatly influenced by outside conditions (like the type locality), while the others are quite big, have a true cave microclimate and harbor diverse types of cave habitats (for example Pretnerova jama, a 254-meter deep pit). No other nesticid species are found in caves on Biokovo Mt.

    Fig 1. Habitus of Kryptonesticus deelemanae sp. nov. A. Male, body length 3.6 mm. B. Female, body length 4.3 mm. (Photos by M. Pavlek.) Fig 6. Distribution maps. A. Map of Biokovo Mt with distribution of Kryptonesticus deelemanae gen. et sp. nov.
    B. Map with distributions of K. deelemanae gen. et sp. nov., K. fagei (Kratochvíl, 1933) and K. arenstorffi (Kulczyński, 1914). Marked is the town of Trebinje, near the type locality for K. arenstorffi, and also the towns of Mostar and Jablanica, between which is Čudna jama, a dubious record for K. arenstorffi. Also marked is Cetinjska pećina, the southernmost locality for K. arenstorffi. 

    • Kryptonesticus eremita (Simon, 1879) comb. nov.
    • Kryptonesticus arenstorffi (Kulczyński, 1914) comb. nov.
    • Kryptonesticus fagei (Kratochvíl, 1933) comb. nov.
    • Kryptonesticus beroni (Deltshev, 1977) comb. nov.
    • Kryptonesticus beshkovi (Deltshev, 1979) comb. nov. 
    • Kryptonesticus henderickxi (Bosselaers, 1998) comb. nov. 
    • Kryptonesticus dimensis (López-Pancorbo, Kunt & Ribera, 2013) comb. nov.
    • Kryptonesticus deelemanae gen. et sp. nov. 

    Martina Pavlek and Carles Ribera. 2017. Kryptonesticus deelemanae gen. et sp. nov. (Araneae, Nesticidae), with Notes on the Mediterranean Cave Species.
    European Journal of Taxonomy.  262; 1–27. DOI:  10.5852/ejt.2017.262


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    Pylopaguropsis mollymullerae  Lemaitre, 2017

     In situ photographs of Pylopaguropsis mollymullerae sp. n. and its habitat at Bonaire diving site “Something Special”. holotype male 2.4 mm, Bonaire (USNM 1291987)  three individuals of Pmollymullerae sp. n. (foreground, not collected) in den with “broad banded moray” Channomuraena vittata

    A new secretive, yet brightly colored hermit crab species of the family Paguridae, Pylopaguropsis mollymullerae sp. n., is fully described based on specimens from the reefs of Bonaire, Lesser Antilles, southern Caribbean Sea. Populations of this new species were discovered and photographed in the Bonaire National Marine Park under a large coral ledge, at a depth of 13.7 m, living in crevices known by scuba divers to serve as den to a pair of “flaming reef lobsters” Enoplometopus antillensis, or a “broad banded moray” Channomuraenavittata. This new species is only the second species of Pylopaguropsis Alcock, 1905 known from the western Atlantic, the 20th named worldwide, and belongs in the teevana group of species of the genus. It is remarkably similar, and herein considered geminate, to the tropical eastern Pacific congener, P. teevana (Boone, 1932), the two being characterized and uniquely different from all other species of the genus, by the striking and deeply excavated, scoop-like ventral surface of the chela of the right cheliped. Minor differences separate this new species from P. teevana in the relative length of the antennal acicles (exceeding the corneas versus not exceeding the corneas in P. teevana); dorsal armature of the right chela (smooth or with scattered minute tubercles versus with numerous small tubercles in P. teevana); surface shape of the lateral face of the dactyl of right pereopod 3 (evenly convex versus flattened in P. teevana); and coloration (red bright red stripes versus brown stripes in P. teevana). The highly visible color pattern of bright red stripes on white background typical of decapods known to have cleaning symbioses with fish, dense setation on the flagella of the antennae, and preference for a crevicular habitat, combined with brief in situ nocturnal observations, suggests the possibility that P. mollymullerae sp. n. engages in “cleaner” activities or functions as a “den commensal” with moray eels. The morphology and possible meaning of the observed behavior is discussed. A tabular summary of the distribution, habitat, and published information on all species of Pylopaguropsis is presented. Supplemental photographs and a video of live P. mollymullerae sp. n. are included.

    Keywords: Bonaire, Caribbean, “cleaner”, “den commensal”, hermit crab, new species, Paguridae, Pylopaguropsis

    Systematic account 
    Family Paguridae Latreille, 1802

    Pylopaguropsis mollymullerae sp. n.

    Figure 6. In situ photographs of Pylopaguropsis mollymullerae sp. n. and its habitat at Bonaire diving site “Something Special”. holotype male 2.4 mm, Bonaire (USNM 1291987) paratype male 1.8 mm, Bonaire (USNM 1291989) three individuals of Pmollymullerae sp. n. (foreground, not collected) in den with “broad banded moray” Channomuraena vittata coral ledge habitat, with arrow indicating entrance to crevice where five specimens of Pmollymullerae sp. n. were collected individual of P. mollymullerae sp. n. (expanded and enhanced in oval inset, not collected) on body surface of “broad banded moray” Cvittata, with frontal portion of brachyuran Achelous sebae visible on lower right.  

    Figure 6. In situ photographs of Pylopaguropsis mollymullerae sp. n. and its habitat at Bonaire diving site “Something Special”. holotype male 2.4 mm, Bonaire (USNM 1291987) paratype male 1.8 mm, Bonaire (USNM 1291989) three individuals of Pmollymullerae sp. n. (foreground, not collected) in den with “broad banded moray” Channomuraena vittata coral ledge habitat, with arrow indicating entrance to crevice where five specimens of Pmollymullerae sp. n. were collected individual of P. mollymullerae sp. n. (expanded and enhanced in oval inset, not collected) on body surface of “broad banded moray” Cvittata, with frontal portion of brachyuran Achelous sebae visible on lower right.  

    Distribution: So far known only from the island of Bonaire, Lesser Antilles, southern Caribbean Sea; depth: 11.6–13.7 m.

    Etymology: The name of this new species is given to acknowledge the efforts of the collector, photographer and environmentalist, Ms Ellen Muller, who when informed of the intended honor, preferred that the name of her granddaughter, Ms Molly Muller, be used, in hopes to inspire her to continue the tradition of protecting the amazing and fragile diversity of marine life in Bonaire.

    Common name: “Candy Striped Hermit Crab”, in reference to the bright white and red striped color pattern that is similar to that of traditional candy cane.

     Rafael Lemaitre. 2017. Discovery of A New Species of Hermit Crab of the Genus Pylopaguropsis Alcock, 1905 from the Caribbean: “Den Commensal” or “Cleaner”? (Crustacea, Anomura, Paguridae). ZooKeys. 646: 139-158. DOI:  10.3897/zookeys.646.11132


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    Mycetia dagohoyana 
    dela Bajan, Tandang & Alejandro 


    A new species of Argostemmateae, Mycetia dagohoyana, thriving in the moist humus soils in open areas of Agusan del Norte, Philippines, is described and illustrated. This new species resembles M. javanica but is distinct by its densely strigose leaf blades, 9−11 mm stipules that are attenuate at apex and glabrous adaxially, subsessile inflorescences in congested thyrse, 2−3 mm calyces that are cupuliform and puberulous, shorter (1–2 mm) and puberulous corolla lobes, and smaller (5−6 mm in diam.) and sparsely hirsute fruits.

    Keywords: Argostemmateae, Mycetia, Philippines, Rubiaceae, Eudicots

    FIGURE 1. Mycetia dagohoyana. A. Fruiting branch. B. Inflorescence. C. Flowers. D. Calyx and corolla. E. Fruits.
    Photos taken by D. Tandang. 

    Etymology:— Mycetia dagohoyana is named in honor of the 96th Rector Magnificus of the Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas (UST), Very Rev. Fr. Herminio V. Dagohoy, O.P.

     Ulpiano P. dela Bajan, Jr., Jorge Anton D. Ordas, Danilo N. Tandang and Grecebio Jonathan D. Alejandro. 2017. Mycetia dagohoyana: A New Species of Argostemmateae (Rubiaceae) from Agusan del Norte, Philippines. Phytotaxa. 292(1); 91–96. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.292.1.10

    Alejandro, et al. discover new plant in Agusan del Norte, name it in honor of Fr. Rector

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    Siamogale melilutra  
    Wang, Grohé, Su, White, Ji, Kelley, You & Yang, 2017


    Otters (subfamily Lutrinae) are semi-aquatic predators in the family Mustelidae. Modern otters have a worldwide distribution but their fossil record is poor, often consisting of fragmentary jaws and teeth. Multiple lineages have developed bunodont dentitions with enlargements of molars, usually for cracking molluscs or other hard foods. Some lineages have evolved badger-like teeth and, as a result, were often confused with melines (Old World badger clade). Siamogale thailandica Ginsburg, Invagat, & Tassy, 1983 from the middle Miocene basin of Mae Moh in northern Thailand is one such species, whose fragmentary dental remains have thus far impeded our understanding. A new species of fossil otter, Siamogale melilutra sp. nov., represented by a nearly complete cranium, mandible and partial skeletons of at least three individuals, was recovered from the latest Miocene (∼6.2 Ma) lignite beds of the Shuitangba Site in north-eastern Yunnan Province, south-western China. Computed tomography (CT) restoration of the crushed skull reveals a combination of otter-like and badger-like cranial and dental characteristics. The new species belongs to the Lutrinae because of its possession of a large infraorbital canal and ventral expansion of the mastoid process, among other traits. A distally expanded M1, however, gives a badger-like appearance. In overall morphology the Shuitangba otter is closest to Siamogale thailandica. A previously described jaw (‘Lutraaonychoides) from the early Pliocene of the Yushe Basin in north China is also here referred to S. melilutra. No previous attempt has been made to provide a global phylogenetic framework for otters. We present the first combined morphological and molecular (nuclear and mitochondrial DNAs) character matrices of five extant (Pteronura, Lontra, Enhydra, Aonyx, Lutra) and eight extinct genera (Tyrrhenolutra, Paralutra, Paludolutra, Enhydritherium, Siamogale, Vishnuonyx, Sivaonyx, Enhydriodon) to better understand the evolution of bunodont otters. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses consistently recover an eastern Asian clade that includes forms from Shuitangba, Yushe and Mae Moh, all of which are referred to Siamogale.

    Keywords: Miocene, fossil otter, lutrine, phylogeny, China, Southeast Asia

    Systematic palaeontology

    Order Carnivora Bowdich, 1821
    Infraorder Arctoidea Flower, 1869
    Parvorder Mustelida Tedford, 1976 

    Family Mustelidae Fischer de Waldheim, 1817
    Subfamily Lutrinae Bonaparte, 1838

    Siamogale Ginsburg, Ingavat & Tassy, 1983

    Type species: Siamogale thailandica Ginsburg, Ingavat & Tassy, 1983.

    Included species: Siamogale thailandica Ginsburg, Ingavat & Tassy, 1983 and Siamogale melilutra sp. nov.

    Emended diagnosis: 
    Siamogale has typical lutrine cranial and dental morphologies: a large infraorbital canal, presence of antorbital fossa, uninflated bulla, robust and protruding mastoid process, mastoid process separated by a broad shelf from the paroccipital process, postglenoid foramen positioned anteriorly to the auditory meatus, inion positioned anteriorly relative to the lambdoid crest, stylomastoid foramen separated by a bony ridge from the tympanohyal-bulla connection, masseter muscle attachment area ventrally expanded to beyond the ventral rim of the masseteric fossa, parallel zygomatic arches, shortened angular process, premolars with surrounding cingulum, shortening of P4 metastylar blade, presence of a notch between talonid and trigonid of m1, and widening of m1 talonid. Siamogale differs from Paralutra jaegeri by the presence of a distal ridge of m1 metaconid connected to the entoconid crest, M1 cuspule distal to metacone, and absence of P4 metastylar notch. Siamogale differs from Paludolutra, Tyrrhenolutra and Enhydritherium in having a crestiform protocone, lack of hypocone and presence of parastyle on P4, a distolingually expanded M1 talon, and metaconule placed distally to the metacone.

    Siamogale melilutra sp. nov.

     Lutra aonychoides Zdansky; Teilhard de Chardin & Leroy: 21, fig. 12.
     Siamogale sp. nov. Jablonski, Su, Flynn, Ji, Deng, Kelley, Zhang, Yin, You, & Yang: table 1, fig. 3D.

    Diagnosis:Siamogale melilutra is distinct from S. thailandica in its large size, more posteriorly reclined mandibular ascending ramus, a continuous P4 protocone crest extending distally to the metastyle (in contrast to a more cuspidate P4 protocone in S. thailandica), a relatively less distally expanded M1 lingual cingulum, a more shortened m1, and an m1 metaconid ridge being differentiated into a discrete metastylid.

    Etymology: mēlēs and melis (feminine), Latin, badger; lutra (feminine), Latin, otter; a reference to the mixture of typically lutrine and meline cranial and dental morphology in this species.

    Figure 12. Artist's reconstruction of two individuals ofSiamogale melilutra sp. nov., one of them feeding on a freshwater clam. The tapir in the background is Tapirus yunnanensis (Ji et al. 2015). Aquatic plants include water chestnut (Typha) and fox nut (Euryale) (Huang et al. 2015), and the low shrub in foreground is Sichuan peppercorn (Zanthoxylum).
    Art by Mauricio Antón.    DOI: 10.1080/14772019.2016.1267666  

    Xiaoming Wang, Camille Grohé, Denise F. Su, Stuart C. White, Xueping Ji, Jay Kelley, Youshan You and Xin Yang. 2017. A New Otter of Giant Size, Siamogale melilutra sp. nov. (Lutrinae: Mustelidae: Carnivora), from the latest Miocene Shuitangba Site in north-eastern Yunnan, south-western China, and A Total-Evidence Phylogeny of Lutrines.
    Journal of Systematic Palaeontology.  DOI: 10.1080/14772019.2016.1267666


    Scientists discover 6-million-year-old giant otter fossil in China's Yun... via @EurekAlert
    New ancient otter species among largest ever found via @physorg_com

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    Oreoglanis hponkanensis 
    Chen, Qin & Chen, 2017

    During a survey of the Mali Hka River drainage in Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary in December 2015, a new species was collected and is described herein as Oreoglanis hponkanensis. It is a member of the O. siamensis species group and can be distinguished from its congeners in having a unique combination of the following characters: lower lip with median notch and posterior margin entire, caudal fin emarginate, nasal barbel reaching about half the distance to eye, tip of maxillary barbel rounded, posterior margin of maxillary barbel entire, absence of pale elliptical patches on sides of body below adipose fin, absence of patch on base of first dorsal fin ray, caudal fin brown with two round, bright orange patches in middle, branched dorsal fin rays 5, branched anal fin rays 2, vertebrae 40, pectoral fin surpassing pelvic fin origin, pelvic fin length 21–26% SL, caudal peduncle length 25–33% SL, caudal peduncle depth 3–5% SL, adipose fin base length 34–39% SL, and dorsal to adipose distance 12–16% SL.

    Keywords: Hponkanrazi, Irrawaddy, Myanmar, Siluriformes


     Xiao-Yong Chen, Tao Qin and Zhi-Ying Chen. 2017. Oreoglanis hponkanensis, A New Sisorid Catfish from north Myanmar (Actinopterygii, Sisoridae).
     ZooKeys. 646; 95-108. DOI:  10.3897/zookeys.646.11049

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    Neopalpa donaldtrumpi  Nazari, 2017

    Figure 2. Close up of the head of male Neopalpa donaldtrumpi sp. n. holotype (UCBMEP0201628, CA: Imperial County).: 
    c:  lateral aspect, d: frontal aspect. Scale bar 1 mm.

    Figure 1. Adults ofNeopalpa donaldtrumpi sp. n.:
    g Holotype ♂ UCBMEP0201628 (CA: Imperial County) h Paratype ♀ UCBMEP0201482 (CA: Imperial County) i Paratype ♂ UCBMEP0201629 (CA: Imperial County) j Paratype ♂ EMEC408498 (Mexico: Baja California Sur).   Scale bar 2 mm.

    The monotypic genus Neopalpa was described in 1998 by Czech entomologist Dalibor Povolný based on two male specimens from Santa Catalina Island, California, which he named N. neonata. The female of this species was discovered recently based on a DNA barcode match and is described. In addition, a new species with marked differences in morphology and DNA barcodes from southern California and Baja California Mexico is described as Neopalpa donaldtrumpi sp. n. Adults and genitalia of both species are illustrated, new diagnosis for the genus Neopalpa is provided, and its position within Gelechiidae is briefly discussed.

    Keywords: Microlepidoptera, new species, nomenclature, taxonomy, Donald J. Trump

    Figure 2. Close up of the head of male Neopalpa species.
      a, bN. neonata (LACMENT326885, Mexico: Baja California) c, dN. donaldtrumpi sp. n., holotype (UCBMEP0201628, CA: Imperial County). Left: lateral aspect, right: frontal aspect. Scale bar 1 mm. 

    Figure 1. Adults of Neopalpa species. af N. neonata gj N. donaldtrumpi sp. n.
    N. neonata: a holotype ♂ EMEC82306 (CA: Santa Catalina Island) b paratype ♂ EMEC342305 (Mexico: Baja California Sur) c ♀ CNCLEP00077350 (CA: Santa Cruz Island) d ♀ EMEC407544 (CA: Santa Cruz Island) e ♂ LACMENT326744 (CA: San Bernardino County) f ♀ EMEC408849 (CA: Modoc County);
    N. donaldtrumpi sp. n.: g Holotype ♂ UCBMEP0201628 (CA: Imperial County) h Paratype ♀ UCBMEP0201482 (CA: Imperial County) i Paratype ♂ UCBMEP0201629 (CA: Imperial County) j Paratype ♂ EMEC408498 (Mexico: Baja California Sur).  Scale bar 2 mm. 

    Etymology: The new species is named in honor of Donald J. Trump, to be installed as the 45th President of the United States on January 20, 2017. The reason for this choice of name is to bring wider public attention to the need to continue protecting fragile habitats in the US that still contain many undescribed species. The specific epithet is selected because of the resemblance of the scales on the frons (head) of the moth to Mr. Trump’s hairstyle. The name is a noun in the genitive case.

    Distribution: So far only known from Riverside and Imperial counties in southern California and Baja California in Mexico.

    Biology: Specimens collected at mercury-vapour light, black-light or Malaise trap in February, April, June and August, in dry or sandy habitats. Life history and host plant unknown.

     Vazrick Nazari. 2017. Review of Neopalpa Povolný, 1998 with Description of A New Species from California and Baja California, Mexico (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae).
    ZooKeys. 646: 79-94. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.646.11411

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    Calapnita bario   Huber, 2017


    The Southeast Asian pholcid genus Calapnita Simon, 1892 is revised, with descriptions of 17 new species, five of them in the phyllicola group (Borneo: C. lehi, C. kubah, C. bidayuh, C. bankirai; Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java: C. anai), 12 in the vermiformis group (Borneo: C. bario, C. bariengi, C. magaseng, C. dayak, C. lawangan, C. loksado; Sulawesi: C. bugis; Philippines:C. bohol, C. dinagat, C. mae, C. nunezae, C. maragusan). New records are listed for six of the eight previously described species. A morphological cladistic analysis supports the monophyly of Calapnita and of its two previously proposed species groups and presents several new phylogenetically informative characters. New data are presented about ultrastructure and natural history (web, egg-sac, egg parasitism).

    Keywords: Araneae, Calapnita, Southeast Asia, leaf dwelling, Pholcidae, taxonomy, phylogeny

    Huber, Bernhard A. 2017. Revision and Cladistic Analysis of the Southeast Asian Leaf-Dwelling Spider Genus Calapnita Simon (Araneae, Pholcidae).
    Zootaxa. 4219(1); 1–63.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4219.1.1

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    Cnemaspis lineogularisCthachanaensis & Cphangngaensis
    Wood​, Grismer, Aowphol, Aguilar, Cota, Grismer, Murdoch & Sites, 2017   

     DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2884 


    Three new species of Rock Geckos Cnemaspis lineogularis sp. nov., C. phangngaensis sp. nov., and C. thachanaensis sp. nov. of the chanthaburiensis and siamensis groups are described from the Thai portion of the Thai-Malay Peninsula. These new species are distinguished from all other species in their two respective groups based on a unique combination of morphological characteristics, which is further supported by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene (ND2). Cnemaspis lineogularis sp. nov. is differentiated from all other species in the chanthaburiensis group by having a smaller maximum SVL 38 mm, 13 paravertebral tubercles, enlarged femoral scales, no caudal bands, and a 19.5–23.0% pairwise sequence divergence (ND2). Cnemaspis phangngaensis sp. nov. is differentiated from all other species in the siamensis group by having the unique combination of 10 infralabial scales, four continuous pore-bearing precloacal scales, paravertebral tubercles linearly arranged, lacking tubercles on the lower flanks, having ventrolateral caudal tubercles anteriorly present, caudal tubercles restricted to a single paraveterbral row on each side, a single median row of keeled subcaudals, and a 8.8–25.2% pairwise sequence divergence (ND2). Cnemaspis thachanaensis sp. nov. is distinguished from all other species in the siamensis group by having 10 or 11 supralabial scales 9–11 infralabial scales, paravertebral tubercles linearly arranged, ventrolateral caudal tubercles anteriorly, caudal tubercles restricted to a single paravertebral row on each side, a single median row of keeled subcaudal scales, lacking a single enlarged subcaudal scale row, lacking postcloaclal tubercles in males, the presence of an enlarged submetatarsal scale at the base if the 1st toe, and a 13.4–28.8% pairwise sequence divergence (ND2). The new phylogenetic analyses place C. punctatonuchalis and C. vandeventeri in the siamensis group with C. punctatonuchalis as the sister species to C. huaseesom and C. vandeventeri as the sister species to C. siamensis, corroborating previous hypotheses based on morphology. The discovery of three new karst-dwelling endemics brings the total number of nominal Thai Cnemaspis species to 15 and underscores the need for continued field research in poorly known areas of the Thai-Malay Peninsula, especially those that are threatened and often overlooked as biodiversity hot spots.

    • จิ้งจกนิ้วยาวคอลาย  Cnemaspis lineogularis 

    • จิ้งจกนิ้วยาวท่าชนะ Cnemaspis thachanaensis 

    • จิ้งจกนิ้วยาวพังงา  Cnemaspis phangngaensis

    Wood​, Grismer, Aowphol, Aguilar, Cota, Grismer, Murdoch & Sites, 2017


    Perry Lee Wood Jr​, L. Lee Grismer, Anchalee Aowphol, César A. Aguilar, Micheal Cota, Marta S. Grismer, Matthew L. Murdoch and Jack W. Sites Jr. 2017.  Three New Karst-dwelling Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 (Squamata; Gekkoniade) from Peninsular Thailand and the Phylogenetic Placement of C. punctatonuchalis and C. vandeventeri.
    PeerJ. 5:e2884, DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2884

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    Aerotegmina megaloptera Hemp, 2014


    A checklist of Ensifera and Acridomorpha of Kazimzumbwi Forest Reserve, Kisarawe near Dar es Salaam is given and eight new Tettigoniidae species described. These are the Agraeciini species Afroagraecia kisarawe n. sp., the Meconematinae species Phlugidia kisarawe n. sp., and the female of Aerotegmina megaloptera (Hexacentrinae). The Phaneropterinae species Dioncomena scutellata n. sp. is known at present only from two localities, the Pugu Hills near Dar es Salaam and Kwamgumi forest reseve on the foothills of the East Usambara Mountains. Two new Eurycorypha species, E. annexata n. sp. and E. ligata n. sp. are described from the area known at present only from the male sex. A second species is described in the genus Lunidia Hemp,L. acuticercata n. sp. Two new Phaneropterinae genera are erected on Pseudopreussia flavifolia n. gen. n. sp. and Materuana ericki n. gen. n. sp., species of wet lowland forest along coastal Tanzania and forest reserves in the East Usambara and on the foothills of the Uluguru Mountains.
    Kazimzumbwi Forest Reserve is severly threatened by encroachment and deforestation although it is recognized as belonging to the oldest surviving forests of the world.

    Keywords: Orthoptera, new species, new genera, lowland wet forest, East Africa, checklist

    Claudia Hemp. 2017. Annotated Checklist of Orthoptera from Kazimzumbwi Forest Reserve, Tanzania with the Description of New Species and Discussion of the Biogeographic Patterns of Threatened Species.  Zootaxa.   4226(2); 151–193. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4226.2.1

    A list of the Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera) of the East Usambara Mountains is presented and 16 new species are described from East Africa. A total number of 29 Tettigoniidae species is recorded for the East Usambara Mountains. New species are described from the Shimba Hills in Kenya, coastal Tanzania from the Kazimzumbwi forest reserve, Mt Kilimanjaro, the East and West Usambara and Uluguru Mountains in Tanzania, namely in Conocephalinae Afroagraecia pwania n. sp., Afroagraecia shimbaensis n. sp., Afroanthracites discolor n. sp., Afroanthracites jagoi n. sp. and Afroanthracites viridis n. sp., in Meconematinae Afrophisis flagellata n. sp., Afrophisis kisarawe n. sp., Afrophisis mazumbaiensis n. sp. and Afrophisis pseudoflagellata n. sp., in Hexacentrinae Aerotegmina megaloptera n. sp., in Mecopodinae Apteroscirtus cristatus n. sp., and A. planidorsatus n. sp., in Phaneropterinae Gelotopoia amabilis n. sp., and in Pseudophyllinae Cymatomerella pardopunctata n. sp. and Cymatomera viridimaculata n. sp. Seven species are endemic to the East Usambara Mountains which are 25% of the recorded forest-bound bush crickets. The Tettigoniidae fauna is compared between the East Usambara Mountains and Mt Kilimanjaro and mechanisms of speciation discussed in Orthoptera for the area. New Tettigoniidae records are given for Mt Kilimanjaro (Oxyecous apertus Ragge, Tropidonotacris grandis Ragge and Eurycorypha conclusa Hemp).

    Keywords: New species, new records, species list, diversity, endemism, speciation, East Africa, Tettigoniidae

    Claudia Hemp. 2014. Annotated list of Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera) from the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania and new Tettigoniidae species from East Africa. Zootaxa. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.3737.4.1

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     Sulawesifulvius thailandicus 
      Wolski, Yasunaga & Gorczyca, 2017


    A new species of the genus SulawesifulviusS. thailandicus Wolski, Yasunaga & Gorczyca, sp. n., is described from Thailand. The present finding also represents the first distribution record in Indochina for the genus. Color adult habitus images for Sthailandicus and S. schuhi (type species of the genus), male genital drawings of S. thailandicus, and scanning electron micrographs of selected structures of S. schuhi and S. thailandicus are provided.

    Keywords: Miridae, Cylapinae, Sulawesifulvius, description, diagnosis, Oriental Region

    Figures 22–25. Sulawesifulvius thailandicus, a male adult live individual (SERS). 

    Sulawesifulvius thailandicus Wolski, Yasunaga & Gorczyca, sp. n.

    Diagnosis: Recognized by the following set of characters: dorsum yellow with large dark brown and red areas (Figs 2–3); parameres as described below and depicted in Figs 14–17; endosoma with three well-developed sclerites.

     Andrzej Wolski, Tomohide Yasunaga, Jacek Gorczyca and Aleksander Herczek. 2017. Sulawesifulvius thailandicus – A New Species of the Genus Sulawesifulvius Gorczyca, Chérot & Štys from Thailand (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Miridae, Cylapinae).   ZooKeys. 647; 109-119. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.647.10960

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    Metisella trisignatus  


    Partial life histories from Kenya or Tanzania are presented for Metisella midas midas (Butler), M. medea medea Evans, M. orientalis orientalis Aurivillius, M. quadrisignatus nanda Evans, M. congdoni De Jong & Kielland and M. willemi Wallengren. The ovum of Metisella formosus linda Evans is also illustrated from Zambia. All feed on species of grasses (Poaceae). The convergence of the biology of the grass-feeding skippers, particularly Heteropterinae and Hesperiinae, Baorini is discussed.

    Keywords: Lepidoptera, Metisella, Poaceae, leaf shelter, ovum, larva, caterpillar, pupa, parasitoid

    Matthew J. W. Cock and T. Colin E. Congdon. 2017. Observations on the Biology of Afrotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera) with particular reference to Kenya. Part 11. Heteropterinae. Zootaxa.  4226(4); 487–508. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4226.4.3

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    Molecular dating studies typically need fossils to calibrate the analyses. Unfortunately, the fossil record is extremely poor or presently non-existent for many species groups, rendering such dating analysis difficult. One such group is the Asian horned frogs (Megophryinae). Sampling all generic nomina, we combined a novel ∼5kb dataset composed of four nuclear and three mitochondrial gene fragments to produce a robust phylogeny, with an extensive external morphological study to produce a working taxonomy for the group. Expanding the molecular dataset to include out-groups of fossil represented ancestral anuran families, we compared the priorless RelTime dating method with the widely used prior based Bayesian timetree method, MCMCtree, utilising a novel combination of fossil priors for anuran phylogenetic dating. The phylogeny was then subjected to ancestral phylogeographic analyses, and dating estimates were compared with likely biogeographic vicariant events. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that previously proposed systematic hypotheses were incorrect due to paraphyly of genera. Molecular phylogenetic, morphological and timetree results support the recognition of Megophryinae as a single genus, Megophrys, with a subgenus level classification. Timetree results using RelTime better corresponded with the known fossil record for the outgroup anuran tree. For the priorless in-group, it also outperformed MCMCtree when node date estimates were compared with likely influential historical biogeographic events, providing novel insights into the evolutionary history of this pan-Asian anuran group. Given a relatively small molecular dataset, and limited prior knowledge, this study demonstrates that the computationally rapid RelTime dating tool may outperform more popular and complex prior reliant timetree methodologies.

    Keywords: amphibian, phylogenetics, taxonomy, biogeography, timetree, Megophryidae, India, Asia.

    Stephen Mahony, Nicole M. Foley, S.D.Biju and Emma C. Teeling. 2017. Evolutionary History of the Asian Horned Frogs (Megophryinae): Integrative Approaches to Timetree Dating in the Absence of a Fossil Record.  Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.  DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msw267 

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    [A-B] Perdita (Heteroperditapilonotata Timberlake
    [C-E]  Perdita (Heteroperdita) prodigiosPortman & Griswold, 2016

    Utah State University entomologist Zach Portman reports nine, newly identified species of desert bees of the genus Perdita, including two species of ant-like males (pictured), which are completely different in appearance from their mates. 
    photo: Zach Portman 


    Perdita subgenus Heteroperdita Timberlake, a distinctive subgenus of 22 species from the southwestern United States and adjacent Mexico, all specialists on Tiquilia (Boraginaceae), is revised. Nine new species are described: Perdita (Heteroperdita) desdemona Portman, sp. n., P. (H.) exusta Portman & Griswold, sp. n., P. (H.) hippolyta Portman & Griswold, sp. n. (male previously incorrectly described as P. pilonotata Timberlake), P. (H.) hooki Portman & Neff, sp. n., P. (H.) nuttalliae Portman, sp. n., P. (H.) prodigiosa Portman & Griswold, sp. n., P. (H.) sycorax Portman, sp. n., P. (H.) titania Portman & Griswold, sp. n., and P. (H.) yanegai Portman, sp. n. The following sexes are associated and described for the first time: the male of P. (H.) frontalis Timberlake, 1968, the female of P. (H.) optiva Timberlake, 1954, and the true male of P. (H.) pilonotata Timberlake, 1980. Perdita (H.) fasciatella Timberlake, 1980 is proposed as a junior synonym of P. (H.) sexfasciata Timberlake, 1954. A neotype is designated for P. (H.) pilonotata Timberlake, 1980. Two species in particular, P. prodigiosa and P. pilonotata, are sexually dimorphic with distinctive ant-like males. Information is presented on floral relationships, phenology, and geographic distribution. Identification keys for males and females are provided.

    Keywords: Hymenoptera, Apoidea, new species, Tiquilia, synonymy, identification

    Perdita pilonotata Timberlake 
    Perdita prodigiosa Portman & Griswold, sp. n. 

    Etymology. The specific epithet refers to the Latin prodigiosus, meaning “unnatural,” “wonderful,” or “prodigious” due to the bizarre features of the male

    Perdita rhodogastra is gathering pollen from Tiquilia latior. Desert bee of the Perdita genus collecting pollen from a matted crinklemat plant near southern California's Salton Sea. Utah State University entomologist Zach Portman reports new, newly identified species of the bee genus in the Dec. 23, 2016, issue of  Zootaxa.
    photo: Zach Portman/Utah State University 
    Perdita rhodogastra Timberlake

    Portman, Zachary M., John L. Neff and Terry Griswold. 2016. Taxonomic Revision of Perdita subgenus Heteroperdita Timberlake (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae), with Descriptions of Two Ant-like Males.
    Zootaxa. 4214(1); 1–97.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4214.1.1

    'Ant-like' bees among new desert species identified by USU entomologist via @physorg_com

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    Ceropegia digitiformis Kidyoo

     A new species, Ceropegia digitiformis Kidyoo, was discovered from northeastern Thailand. It is here described and illustrated. Photographs and a diagnostic comparison with the morphologically similar related species, Ceropegia thwaitesii Hook., are also provided. These two species display clear difference in shapes and pubescence of the corona lobes.

     KEY WORDS: Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Ceropegia, northeastern Thailand

    Fig. 2. Photographs showing habitat, vegetative and reproductive parts of Ceropegia digitiformis Kidyoo: A. habitat (Phu Langka National Park), B. flowering branch, C. long section of flower, G. side view of gynostegium, H. top view of gynostegium.  

    Ceropegia digitiformis Kidyoo, sp. nov.  

    Ceropegia digitiformis can be distinguished from C. thwaitesii by its outer corona of the same length as inner corona, glabrous outer coronal lobe whose apex is deeply bifid with linear-lanceolate segments, and linear-lanceolate inner corona lobes.

    Fig. 2. Photographs showing habitat, vegetative and reproductive parts of Ceropegia digitiformis Kidyoo: A. habitat (Phu Langka National Park), B. flowering branch, C. long section of flower, D. calyx, E. pollinarium, F. underground stem with small tubers, G. side view of gynostegium, H. top view of gynostegium. 

    Etymology: The specific epithet ‘digitiformis’ refers to the finger-like structure of the outer corona, brought about by division of each outer corona lobe at the apex extending through most of its whole length into two segments. Each segment is linear-lanceolate, subterete, slightly compressed with a blunt apex (Fig.1C & 2G)

    Manit Kidyoo and Chanita Paliyavuth. 2017. Ceropegia digitiformis sp. nov. (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) from northeastern Thailand. 
    Taiwania. 62(1): 24‒28.    DOI:  10.6165/tai.2017.62.24

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    Fig. 1: Live individuals of 12 sympatric species of Brachyhypopomus and one species of Microsternarchus from the vicinity of Tefé, Amazonas, Brazil (Amazonas dr.). 

    aBrachyhypopomus batesibBrachyhypopomus beebeicBrachyhypopomus belindaedBrachyhypopomus bennettieBrachyhypopomus brevirostris.

     f. Brachyhypopomus flavipomusg. Brachyhypopomus hamiltonih. Brachyhypopomus hendersoniiBrachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus.

     jBrachyhypopomus reganikBrachyhypopomus sullivanilBrachyhypopomus walterimMicrosternarchus bilineatus

    Crampton, De Santana, Waddell, & Lovejoy, 2016


    The bluntnose knifefish genus BrachyhypopomusMago-Leccia, 1994, is diagnosed from other Rhamphichthyoidea (Rhamphichthyidae + Hypopomidae) by the presence of a disk-like ossification in the anterior portion of the palatoquadrate, and by the following external characters: short snout, 18.7-32.6% of head length (vs. 33.3-68.6% in Hypopomus, Gymnorhamphichthys, Iracema, and Rhamphichthys), absence of a paired accessory electric organ in the mental or humeral region (vs. presence in Hypopygus and Steatogenys), presence of 3-4 pectoral proximal radials (vs. 5 in Akawaio), presence of the antorbital + infraorbital, and the preopercular cephalic lateral line canal bones (vs. absence in Racenisia). Brachyhypopomus cannot be diagnosed unambiguously from Microsternarchus or from Procerusternarchus on the basis of external characters alone. Brachyhypopomus comprises 28 species. Here we describe 15 new species, and provide redescriptions of all 13 previously described species, based on meristic, morphometric, and other morphological characters. We include notes on ecology and natural history for each species, and provide regional dichotomous keys and distribution maps, based on the examination of 12,279 specimens from 2,787 museum lots. A lectotype is designated for Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus (Hopkins, Comfort, Bastian & Bass, 1990). Brachyhypopomus species are abundant in shallow lentic and slow-flowing freshwater habitats from southern Costa Rica and northern Venezuela to Uruguay and northern Argentina. Species diversity is highest in Greater Amazonia, where 20 species occur: Brachyhypopomus alberti, new speciesBrachyhypopomus arrayae, new species, and Brachyhypopomus cunia, new species, in the upper rio Madeira drainage; Brachyhypopomus batesi, new species, in the central Amazon and rio Negro; B. beebei, B. brevirostrisBrachyhypopomus regani, new speciesBrachyhypopomus sullivani, new species, and B. walteri, widespread through the Amazon and Orinoco basins and the Guianas; Brachyhypopomus belindae, new species, in the central Amazon basin; Brachyhypopomus benjamini, new species, and Brachyhypopomus verdii, new species, in the upper Amazon basin; B. bennetti, in the upper, central, and lower Amazon, lower Tocantins, and upper Madeira basins; B. bullocki in the Orinoco, Negro and Essequibo drainages; B. diazi in the Orinoco Llanos; Brachyhypopomus flavipomus, new species, and Brachyhypopomus hamiltoni, new species, in the central and upper Amazon basin; Brachyhypopomus hendersoni, new species, in the central Amazon, lower Negro and Essequibo basins; B. pinnicaudatus in the central and lower Amazon, lower, upper Madeira, lower Tocantins and Mearim basins, and coastal French Guiana; and Brachyhypopomus provenzanoi, new species, in the upper Orinoco and upper Negro basins. Five species are known from the Paraná-Paraguay-Uruguay basin and adjacent southern Atlantic drainages: B.bombilla in the lower Paraná, upper, central, and lower Paraguay, Uruguay and Patos-Mirim drainages; B. brevirostris in the upper Paraguay basin; B. draco in the lower Paraná, lower Paraguay, Uruguay, Patos-Mirim, and Tramandaí basins; B. gauderio in the lower Paraná, upper, central, and lower Paraguay, Uruguay, Patos-Mirim and Tramandaí basins; and B. walteri in the lower Paraná and upper Paraguay basins. Two species occur in small Atlantic drainages of southern Brazil: B. janeiroensis in the São João, Paraíba and small intervening drainages; and B. jureiae in the Ribeira de Iguape and Una do Prelado. One species occurs in the middle and upper São Francisco basin: Brachyhypopomus menezesi, new species. Three species occur in trans-Andean drainages: B. diazi in Caribbean drainages of northern Venezuela; B. occidentalis in Atlantic and Pacific drainages of southern Costa Rica and Panama to Darién, and the Maracaibo, Magdalena, Sinú and Atrato drainages; and Brachyhypopomus palenque, new species, in Pacific drainages of Ecuador.

    Keywords: Biogeography; Bluntnose knifefish; Electroreception; Identification key; Rhamphichthyoidea

    Fig. 1: Live individuals of 12 sympatric species of Brachyhypopomus and one species of Microsternarchus from the vicinity of Tefé, Amazonas, Brazil (Amazonas dr.).
    a. Brachyhypopomus batesi MCP 45312 (WC01.191293b), immature, 102 mm TL. b. Brachyhypopomus beebei head - uncat., immature, 75 mm TL; body - MCP 45450 (WC04.090600), female, 178 mm TL. c. Brachyhypopomus belindae MCP 45430, paratype, immature, 104 mm TL (photographed out of water, close up of head not available). d. Brachyhypopomus bennetti MCP 45451, male, 196 mm TL. e. Brachyhypopomus brevirostris uncat., immature, 224 mm TL. f. Brachyhypopomus flavipomus MCP 45453 (WC09.090600), female, 98 mm TL. g. Brachyhypopomus hamiltoni MCP 45482 (WC05.080301), holotype, female, 97 mm TL. h. Brachyhypopomus hendersoni MCP 45489, female, 164 mm TL. i. Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus MCP 45455, female, 135 mm TL. j. Brachyhypopomus regani, MCP 45285 (WC02.100301), male, 119 mm TL. k. Brachyhypopomus sullivani MCP 45464 (WC04.210201), immature, 79 mm TL. l. Brachyhypopomus walteri MCP 45458 (WC 03.090600), male, 161 mm TL. m. Microsternarchus bilineatus uncat., 85 mm TL. 

    Brachyhypopomus alberti
    , Brachyhypopomus arrayae, Brachyhypopomus batesi,   
    Brachyhypopomus belindae, Brachyhypopomus benjamini, Brachyhypopomus cunia,   
    Brachyhypopomus flavipomus, Brachyhypopomus hamiltoni, Brachyhypopomus hendersoni,   
    Brachyhypopomus menezesi, Brachyhypopomus palenque, Brachyhypopomus provenzanoi 
    Brachyhypopomus regani, Brachyhypopomus sullivani, Brachyhypopomus verdii 
     Crampton, De Santana, Waddell, & Lovejoy, 2016

    William G. R. Crampton, Carlos D. de Santana, Joseph C. Waddell and Nathan R. Lovejoy. 2016.  A Taxonomic Revision of the Neotropical Electric Fish Genus Brachyhypopomus (Ostariophysi: Gymnotiformes: Hypopomidae), with Descriptions of 15 New Species.
    Neotropical Ichthyology.  14(4); DOI: 10.1590/1982-0224-20150146 

    RESUMO: Peixes elétricos do gênero Brachyhypopomus Mago-Leccia, 1994, são diagnosticados dos outros Rhamphichthyoidea (Rhamphichthyidae + Hypopomidae) pela presença de uma ossificação discóide na porção anterior do palatoquadrado, e pelos seguintes caracteres externos: focinho curto, 18,7-32,6% do comprimento da cabeça (vs. 33,3-68,6% em Hypopomus, Gymnorhamphichthys, Iracema e Rhamphichthys), ausência de um órgão elétrico acessório pareado na região mental ou humeral (vs. presença em Hypopygus e Steatogenys), presença de 3-4 proximais peitorais radiais (vs. 5 em Akawaio), presença do antiorbital + infraorbital, e dos canais ossificados da linha lateral da região cefálica do pré-opérculo (vs. ausência em Racenisia). Brachyhypopomus não pode ser diagnosticado de maneira não-ambígua de Microsternarchus ou Procerusternarchus, com base em caracteres de morfologia externa. Brachyhypopomus compreende 28 espécies válidas. Aqui nós descrevemos 15 espécies novas, e fornecemos a redescrição de 13 espécies previamente descritas, baseado em caracteres merísticos, morfométricos e outros caracteres morfológicos. Nós incluímos notas sobre à ecologia e história natural para cada uma das espécies, e fornecemos chaves dicotômicas regionais e mapas de distribuição baseado no exame de 12.279 espécimes de 2.787 lotes de museus. Um lectótipo é designado para Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus (Hopkins, Comfort, Bastian & Bass, 1990). Espécies de Brachyhypopomus são abundantes em habitats de águas rasas lênticas e com correntes fracas, ocorrendo do sul da Costa Rica e norte da Venezuela ao Uruguai e norte da Argentina. A diversidade de espécies é maior na Grande Amazônia, onde 20 espécies ocorrem: B. alberti, espécie nova, B. arrayae, espécie nova e B. cunia, espécie nova, na drenagem do alto rio Madeira; B. batesi, espécie nova, na Amazônia central e rio Negro; B. beebei, B. brevirostris, B. regani, espécie nova, B. sullivani, espécie nova e B. walteri, amplamente distribuídas nas bacias Amazônicas e do Orinoco, e nas Guianas; B. belindae, espécie nova, bacia Amazônica central; B. benjamini, espécie nova e B. verdii, espécie nova, na bacia do alto Amazonas; B. bennetti, no alto, médio e porções baixas da bacia Amazônica, baixo Tocantins e alto rio Madeira; B. bullocki nas drenagens do Orinoco, Negro e Essequibo; B. diazi nos Llanos do Orinoco; B. flavipomus, espécie nova e B. hamiltoni, espécie nova, no médio e alto Amazonas; B. hendersoni, espécie nova, na Amazônia central, baixo Negro e Essequibo; B. pinnicaudatus no médio e baixo Amazonas, baixo e alto Madeira, baixo Tocantins, bacia do Mearim e rios costeiros da Guiana Francesa; e B. provenzanoi, espécie nova, nas bacias do alto Orinoco e alto Negro. Cinco espécies são conhecidas das bacias Paraná-Paraguai-Uruguai e bacias adjacentes das drenagens do sul do Brasil: B. bombilla no alto, médio e baixo Paraguai, baixo Paraná, Uruguai e drenagens Patos-Mirim; B. brevirostris da bacia do alto Paraguai; B. draco das bacias do baixo Paraguai, baixo Paraná, Uruguai, Patos-Mirim e Tramandaí; B. gauderio das bacias do alto, médio e baixo Paraguai, baixo Paraná, Uruguai, Patos-Mirim e Tramandaí; e B. walteri das bacias do alto Paraguai e baixo Paraná. Duas espécies ocorrem nas drenagens costeiras do sudeste do Brasil: B. janeiroensis no São João, Paraíba e em drenagens menores nas adjacências; e B. jureiae no Ribeira de Iguape e Una do Prelado. Uma espécie ocorre no médio e alto rio São Francisco: B. menezesi, espécie nova. Três espécies ocorrem nas drenagens trans-Andinas: B. diazi nas drenagens do Caribe no norte da Venezuela; B. occidentalis nas drenagens do Atlantico e Pacífico do sul da Costa Rica e Panamá até Darién, e nas drenagens do Maracaibo, Magdalena, Sinú e Atrato; e B. palenque, espécie nova, nas drenagens do Pacífico no Equador.

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    Maschalostachys markgrafii  (Barroso) Loeuille & Roque


    Maschalostachys, a new genus of Asteraceae (Vernonieae, Lychnophorinae) from Brazil, is described and illustrated to accommodate two species, Maschalostachys markgrafii, which was previously placed in Lychnophora (L. markgrafii), and a new species here described as Maschalostachys mellosilvae. The combination of several diagnostic characters pertaining to Maschalostachys, including monopodial treelets, semi-amplexicaul leaf sheath, indument composed of T-shaped and unbranched trichomes, capitula fused in a syncephalium and organized in axillary loose spikes or frequently in panicle of spikes (rarely cyme), is not found in any other genus of the tribe Vernonieae. Affinities of the new genus with other genera of Lychnophorinae are discussed. Each species is described and illustrated, and its conservation status is assessed.

    Keywords: campos rupestres, Compositae, endemism, Espinhaço Range, Lychnophorinae, Eudicots, Brazil

    Maschalostachys Loeuille & Roque, gen. nov.

    Type:— Lychnophora markgrafii Barroso (1956: 260) 
    = Maschalostachys markgrafii (Barroso) Loeuille & Roque.

    Genus similis Paralychnophorae vaginis foliosis semiamplexicaulibus, capitulis in syncephalis aggregatis et pappo biseriali sed indumento pilis T-formibus et pilis simplicibus compositis (nec pilis 3–5-brachiatis) et inflorescentia spicis syncephalorum vel paniculis spicarum syncephalorum (nec syncephalis solitariis) differt.

    Etymology:—The name means axillary spike in transliterated greek (μασχάλη - maschalo - axillary; στάχυς - stachys - spike).

    • Maschalostachys markgrafii (G.M. Barroso) Loeuille & Roque, comb. nov. 
    Basionym: Lychnophora markgrafii Barroso (1956: 260), as “markgravii

    Etymology:— Barroso (1956) meant to honor the German botanist Friedrich Markgraf (1897–1987) who collected the type material, however she misspelled the surname when forming the epithet as “markgravii”. Therefore the epithet is here cited as “markgrafii” with correction according to Art. 60.1 (McNeill et al. 2012).

    • Maschalostachys mellosilvae Loeuille & Roque, sp. nov.  

    Species Maschalostachyi markgrafio simile, sed inflorescentiis spicarum syncephalorum solitariis (raro cymis) (nec paniculis spicarum syncephalorum), capitulis inter 1/4 ad 1/2 pro longitudinem connatis (non adpressis basem versus) et floribus 11–23 (non 4–5) differt

    Etymology:— The species epithet honors the first collector of the species, Renato de Mello-Silva, a Brazilian botanist at the Department of Botany, USP, São Paulo, Brazil. 

    Benoit Loeuille and Nádia Roque. 2017. Maschalostachys, A New Genus of Vernonieae (Asteraceae) from Brazil. Phytotaxa. 295(1); 35–48. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.295.1.3

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    Terrapotamon longitarsus   
    Lheknim & Ng, 2016


    A new species of terrestrial potamid crab, Terrapotamon longitarsus, is described from limestone hills in Satun Province in southern Thailand. It is easily distinguished from other Terrapotamon species by its conspicuously long ambulatory legs (all congeners have proportionately short legs), relatively smooth dorsal surface of carapace, transversely narrow male thoracic sternites 1–4, and a characteristically structured male first gonopod.

    Keywords: Crustacea, comparative morphology, freshwater crab, Indochina, new species, Southeast Asia, systematics

    photos: Ronnaphon Engchuan

    Vachira Lheknim and Peter K.L. Ng. 2016. A New Species of Long-legged Terrestrial Terrapotamon Ng, 1986 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Potamidae) from Limestone Formations in Satun, southern Thailand.
    Zootaxa. 4200(1); 143–152. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4200.1.6

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    Cruralispennia multidonta 
    Wang, O’Connor, Pan & Zhou, 2017  

    DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14141 

    Enantiornithes are the most successful clade of Mesozoic birds. Here, we describe a new enantiornithine bird, Cruralispennia multidonta gen. et sp. nov., from the Protopteryx-horizon of the Early Cretaceous Huajiying Formation of China. Despite being among the oldest known enantiornithines, Cruralispennia displays derived morphologies that are unexpected at such an early stage in the evolution of this clade. A plough-shaped pygostyle, like that of the Ornithuromorpha, evolved convergently in the Cruralispennia lineage, highlighting the homoplastic nature of early avian evolution. The extremely slender coracoid morphology was previously unknown among Early Cretaceous enantiornithines but is common in Late Cretaceous taxa, indicating that by 131 million years ago this clade had already experienced considerable morphological differentiation. Cruralispennia preserves unusual crural feathers that are proximally wire-like with filamentous distal tips, a new morphotype previously unknown among fossil or modern feathers, further increasing the known diversity of primitive feather morphologies.

    Systematic palaeontology

    Aves Linnaeus 1758

    Ornithothoraces Chiappe 1995
    Enantiornithes Walker 1981

    Cruralispennia multidonta gen. et sp. nov.

     Etymology. The generic name is derived from Latin ‘Cruralis’ and ‘penna’, referring to the unique feathers on the tibiotarsus; the specific name is derived from Latin ‘mult’ and ‘donta’, referring to the numerous dentary teeth.

     Holotype. IVPP 21711 (housed at the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology), a nearly fully articulated partial skeleton with associated feathers preserved on a single slab.

    Locality and horizon. The new specimen is collected from the Protopteryx-horizon of the Huajiying Formation at the Sichakou Basin, Fengning County, Hebei Province, northeastern China. Four other birds are reported from the same horizon, EoconfuciusornisProtopteryxEopengornis and Archaeornithura. Stratigraphic correlation and isotopic dating place this horizon at 130.7 Myr ago, late Early Cretaceous.

     Diagnosis. A small enantiornithine with the following unique features: 14 dentary teeth; abbreviated, plough-shaped pygostyle with a pygostyle/tarsometatarsus length ratio of about 0.28; coracoid mediolaterally narrow with the sternal margin measuring only one-quarter of the proximo-distal length; sternum bearing a V-shaped caudal margin and two pairs of subequal caudal trabeculae; manus shorter than the humerus; postacetabular process of the ilium short and strongly ventrally directed; dorsal process of the ischium more distally placed; and pubis without a distal expansion.

    Figure 1: Cruralispennia multidontaholotype (IVPP V21711).
     (a) Photograph; (b) line drawing. ca, caudal vertebra; cv, cervical vertebra; il, ilium; is, ischium; lad, left alular digit; lco, left coracoid; lde, left dentary; lfe, left femur; lhu, left humerus; lmd, left major digit; lpd; left pedal digits; lra, left radius; lta, left tarsometatarsus; lti, left tibiotarsus; lul, left ulna; pu, pubis; py, pygostyle; qu, quadrate; rco, right coracoid; rfe, right femur; rhu, right humerus; rmd, right major digit; rpd, right pedal digits; rra, right radius; rsc, right scapula; rta, right tarsometatarsus; rti, right tibiotarsus; rul, right ulna; sk, skull; st, sternum; sy, synsacrum; tv, thoracic vertebra. The white circles (numbered 1–5) and box indicate the locations of the feather and histological samples, respectively. Scale bar, 10 mm. 

    Figure 7: Major transitions of fibula and tail morphology across Mesozoic birds.
     The tree, simplified from the strict consensus tree produced by our phylogenetic analysis, is time-scaled using the ‘minimal branch length’ method with a minimum branch length of 1 Myr (see Supplementary Fig. 5 for complete result and node support values). The thick lines indicate the temporal range of fossil taxa. An elongated fibula (in red) is developed in non-ornithothoracine Aves, and the most basal enantiornithines Protopteryx and Pengornithidae; a reduced fibula is convergently evolved in the Ornithuromorpha and derived enantiornithines. Cruralispennia preserves a plough-shaped pygostyle (in pink), which has long been considered unique to Ornithuromorpha (the pink branches). The apparent absence of tail fanning in Cruralispennia indicates that the plough-shaped pygostyle and tail fanning is evolutionarily decoupled in this lineage (the silhouettes were from ref. 47; the reconstruction of tail feathers is on basis of refs 3, 30). 

    Min Wang, Jingmai K O’Connor, Yanhong Pan and Zhonghe Zhou. 2017. A Bizarre Early Cretaceous Enantiornithine Bird with Unique Crural Feathers and An Ornithuromorph Plough-shaped Pygostyle. Nature Communications. 8, Article number: 14141.  
     DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14141

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    Wallophis brachyura  (Günther, 1866)

     Mirza& Patel, 2017.  DOI: 10.1080/24701394.2016.1278536
    The monotypic colubrid snake genus Wallophis is revalidated and rediagnosed. Partial sequence for nuclear gene Oocyte maturation factor Mos (c-mos), mitochondrial Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) and cytochrome b (cyt b) were used to assess phylogenetic relationship. Wallophis brachyura type species for the genus was found to be a member of the Western Palearctic clade of Colubrinae and is recovered as a sister taxa to Wallaceophis gujaratensis. Wallophis differs from Wallaceophis in an uncorrected pairwise p-distance of 17% for mitochondrial ND4 gene. Wallaceophis gujaratensis was described in three different spellings in the literature hence we here propose Wallaceophis gujaratensis as the correct spelling for the species based on provisions in the article 24.2.3. of the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature.

    Keywords: Taxonomy, phylogeny, cyt b, ND4, c-mos, reptilia, colubridae, colubrinae, Coronella, Wallaceophis, ICZN

    Zeeshan A. Mirza and Harshil Patel. 2017. Back from the Dead! Resurrection and Revalidation of the Indian Endemic Snake genus Wallophis Werner, 1929 (Squamata: Colubridae) insights from Molecular Data.  
     Mitochondrial DNA Part A. DOI: 10.1080/24701394.2016.1278536

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