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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region

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    Sphenomorphus sungaicolus 
    Sumarli, Grismer, Wood, Ahmad, Rizal, Ismail, Izam, Ahmad & Linkem, 2016

    (A) Holotype of Sphenomorphus sungaicolus sp. nov. (LSUHC 11722) from Hutan Lipur Sekayu, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. . Photograph by L. Grismer.
    (B) Juvenile S. sungaicolus sp. nov. (not collected) from the Korbu Forest Reserve, Perak. Photograph by Z. Dzulkafly. 


    Recently discovered populations of skinks of the genus Sphenomorphus from central Peninsular Malaysia represent a new species, Sphenomorphus sungaicolus sp. nov., and the first riparian skink known from Peninsular Malaysia. Morphological analyses of an earlier specimen reported as S. tersus from the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM), Selangor indicate that it too is the new riparian species S. sungaicolus sp. nov. Additionally, two specimens from the Tembat Forest Reserve, Hulu Terengganu, Kelantan and another from Ulu Gombak, Selangor have been diagnosed as new the species. The latter specimen remained unidentified in the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii since its collection in June 1962. Morphological and molecular analyses demonstrate that S. sungaicolus sp. nov. forms a clade with the Indochinese species S. maculatus, S. indicus, and S. tersus and is the sister species of the latter. Sphenomorphus sungaicolus sp. nov. can be differentiated from all other members of this clade by having a smaller SVL (66.5–89.6 mm); 39–44 midbody scale rows; 72–81 paravertebral scales; 74–86 ventral scales; a primitive plantar scale arrangement; and 20–22 scale rows around the tail at the position of the 10th subcaudal.

    Keywords: Reptilia, Integrative taxonomy, New species, Scincidae, Southeast Asia, Sundaland

    Etymology.Sungai” is the Malaysian word for river and “colus” is derived from the Latin meaning “dweller in”. The specific epithet sungaicolus refers the obligate riparian nature of this new species.

    Distribution. Sphenomorphus sungaicolus sp. nov. is known from Hutan Lipur Sekayu, Hutan Lipur Chemerong, and the Tembat Forest Reserve, Hulu Terengganu, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia—localities east of the Banjaran Titiwangsa. Localities on the western side of the Banjaran Titiwangsa are FRIM and Ulu Gombak, Selangor and the Korbu Forest Reserve, Perak to the north (Fig. 1). It is likely this species has a greater distribution throughout Peninsular Malaysia similar to what has been reported for other species of lizards whose distribution wraps around the southern end of the Banjaran Titiwangsa (Grismer 2011).

    Juvenile Sphenomorphus sungaicolus sp. nov.  from the Korbu Forest Reserve, Perak. 
    (not collected) Photograph by Z. Dzulkafly.  

    Natural history.Sphenomorphus sungaicolus sp. nov. is a lowland species not known to occur above 300 m in elevation and found only in riparian areas coursing through lowland dipterocarp forest. All specimens were found along the edges of watercourses. ZRC.2.4915 from FRIM was found on boulders next to a large stream (Leong et al. 2002) and the holotype was found at night running in water at the edge of a small stream amongst rocks at Hutan Lipur Sekayu. The Hutan Lipur Chemerong and Ulu Gombak specimens were collected from along riverbanks. The Hulu Terengganu specimens were collected from pitfall traps located approximately 2.5–3 meters from the edge of a river. Sphenomorphus sungaicolus sp. nov. is the first obligate riparian skink known from Peninsular Malaysia. A hatchling S. sungaicolus sp. nov. from the Korbu Forest Reserve, Perak (Fig. 7) was photographed along the sandy edge of a rocky stream at an elevation of approximately 300 m (Zaharil Dzulkafly in litt. 2015).

    Sumarli, Alexandra, L. L. Grismer, JR. P. L. Wood, Amirrudin B. Ahmad, Syed A. Rizal, Lukman H. B. Ismail, Nur A. M. Izam, Norhayati Ahmad and Charles W. Linkem. 2016. The First Riparian Skink (Genus: Sphenomorphus Strauch, 1887) from Peninsular Malaysia and Its Relationship to other Indochinese and Sundaic Species.
    Zootaxa. 4173(1); 29–44.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4173.1.3

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    Comparison between Brazilian dinosaurs, from highest: Austroposeidon magnificus (25 meters), Maxakalisaurus topai (13 meters) and Gondwanatitan fausto (8 meters).

    Austroposeidon magnificus
    Bandeira, Simbras, Machado, Campos, Oliveira & Kellner, 2016   


    Titanosaurian dinosaurs include some of the largest land-living animals that ever existed, and most were discovered in Cretaceous deposits of Argentina. Here we describe the first Brazilian gigantic titanosaur, Austroposeidon magnificus gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Cretaceous Presidente Prudente Formation (Bauru Group, Paraná Basin), São Paulo State, southeast Brazil. The size of this animal is estimated around 25 meters. It consists of a partial vertebral column composed by the last two cervical and the first dorsal vertebrae, all fairly complete and incomplete portions of at least one sacral and seven dorsal elements. The new species displays four autapomorphies: robust and tall centropostzygapophyseal laminae (cpol) in the last cervical vertebrae; last cervical vertebra bearing the posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina (pcdl) bifurcated; first dorsal vertebra with the anterior and posterior centrodiapophyseal laminae (acdl/pcdl) curved ventrolaterally, and the diapophysis reaching the dorsal margin of the centrum; posterior dorsal vertebra bearing forked spinoprezygapophyseal laminae (sprl). The phylogenetic analysis presented here reveals that Austroposeidon magnificus is the sister group of the Lognkosauria. CT scans reveal some new osteological internal features in the cervical vertebrae such as the intercalation of dense growth rings with camellae, reported for the first time in sauropods. The new taxon further shows that giant titanosaurs were also present in Brazil during the Late Cretaceous and provides new information about the evolution and internal osteological structures in the vertebrae of the Titanosauria clade.

    Systematic Paleontology

    Saurischia Seeley, 1887
    Sauropodomorpha Huene, 1932

    Sauropoda Marsh, 1878
    Titanosauria Bonaparte and Coria, 1993

    Austroposeidon magnificus gen. et sp. nov.

    Austroposeidon new genus

    Type species: Austroposeidon magnificus sp. nov., type by monotypy.

    Etymology: “Austro”, meaning “Southern” in allusion to South America; and “Poseidon”, in reference to the Greek God responsible for earthquakes.

    Austroposeidon magnificus new species

    Etimology: The adjective “magnificus” (from the Latin), means “great, elevated, noble” in allusion to the large size of the specimen.

    Holotype: MCT 1628-R, which is composed of two incomplete cervical vertebrae, one cervical rib, one dorsal vertebra, seven fragments of dorsal vertebrae and a fragment of a sacral vertebra.

    Diagnosis: The new titanosaur is characterized by the following autapomorphies: 1) columnar-like centropostzygapophyseal laminae (cpol) in the last cervical vertebrae (Cv 13); 2) last cervical vertebra bearing a bifurcated posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina (pcdl); 3) first dorsal vertebra with the anterior and posterior centrodiapophyseal laminae (acdl/pcdl) curved ventrolaterally and with the diapophysis reaching the dorsal margin of the centrum; 4) the anteriormost portion of the spinoprezygapophyseal laminae (sprl) forked in the posterior dorsal vertebra.

    The new species described here, can be further distinguished from other titanosaurs by the following combination of characters: presence of medial crest placed on the ventral surface of the last cervical centrum; presence of a suprapleurocoel lamina limiting the pleurocoel from the centrodiapophyseal fossae in the last cervical vertebrae; presence of developed centrodiapophyseal fossa in the posterior cervical vertebra; posterior cervical vertebrae with tall neural spines; presence of triangular centropostzygapophyseal fossae around the neural channel in the posterior cervical vertebra; robust spinoprezygapophyseal laminae in the anterior dorsal vertebrae; developed spinodiapophyseal laminae in the anterior dorsal vertebrae; strongly developed postzygaphophysis in the first dorsal vertebra; neural spine of the first dorsal vertebrae in vertical position and anteriorly located; prespinal lamina in the anterior dorsal vertebrae well developed until the base of the neural spine; diapophyses in the anterior dorsal vertebrae expanded anteroposteriorly and well inclined ventrolaterally; presence of well-developed pneumatizated camellae tissue in the cervical and dorsal vertebrae [43, 44]; absence of hyposphene-hypantrum articulation in the dorsal vertebra (sensu [45]); short and robust cervical ribs [46].

    Horizon and locality: According to Campos and Castro [28], the material was found at the outskirts of the Presidente Prudente City, southwestern São Paulo State. According to the catalog of the Museu de Ciências da Terra (MCT—Museum of the Earth Sciences) the specimen was found at the Raposo Tavares road (BR-374), close to the Assis Chateaubriand Road (SP-425). The deposits of this region consist of sandstones and mudstones, and are referred to the Presidente Prudente Formation [29], which is considered Campanian-Maastrichtian in age [32]. One of us (FMS) tried to relocate the exact site from where this specimen was collected, but the area is nowadays urbanized.

    The description of this new species, Austroposeidon magnificus, increases our knowledge of Brazilian titanosaurs, particularly the giant ones, which have not been reported previously in this country. Despite the fragmentary condition of the new species, a phylogenetic analysis shows that Austroposeidon magnificus is the sister group of Lognkosauria, a clade that comprises other giant titanosaurs. CT scan analysis reveals some new information about internal anatomic features of large titanosaurs, including potential growth patterns. Some of those internal structures are here observed for the first time and reinforce the importance of the CT scan studies in those giant dinosaurs.

    Kamila L. N. Bandeira, Felipe Medeiros Simbras, Elaine Batista Machado, Diogenes de Almeida Campos, Gustavo R. Oliveira and Alexander W. A. Kellner. 2016.  A New Giant Titanosauria (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) from the Late Cretaceous Bauru Group, Brazil.
    PLoS ONE.   DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163373


    Brasil descubre su propio dinosaurio gigante vía @el_pais

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    Scomber indicus 
       Abdussamad, Sandhya & Arun, 2016
    Indian Chub Mackerel  |  DOI: 10.21077/ijf.2016.63.3.59184-01 

    Scomber indicus, a new species of mackerel is described based on the specimens collected from the eastern Arabian Sea. The species is differentiated from its nearest congener Scomber australasicus, in having 29-32 gill rakers on lower limb of first gill arch, posteriormost part of hypohyal blunt, with presence of a pit between the hypohyal and the ceratohyal and also in having a posteriorly directed haemal spine which is deeply curved in the basal region. Genetic differentiation and divergence between the newly described species and the 4 valid species of the genus Scomber viz., S. scombrus, S. japonicus, S. australasicus and S. colias were compared using cytochrome c oxidase 1 and cytochrome b gene sequences. The new species was found closest to S. colias followed by S. japonicus with Kimura 2 parameter (K2P) values of 1.4 and 1.8% respectively. In the phylogenetic tree, sequences of Scomber indicus sp. nov. formed a distinct well separated clade with significant bootstrap values as compared to the sequences of S. scombrus, S. japonicus, S. australasicus and S. colias indicating their distinctiveness and separate species status.

    Keywords: Arabian Sea, Indian chub mackerel, New species, Scomber indicus

    E. M. Abdussamad, Sandhya Sukumaran, Arun K. O. Ratheesh, K. Mohamed Koya, K. P. S. Koya, Prathibha Rohit, Sally Reader, K. V. Akhilesh and A. Gopalakrishnan. 2016. Scomber indicus, A New Species of Mackerel (Scombridae: Scombrini) from Eastern Arabian Sea. Indian J. Fish. 63(3); 1-10. DOI: 10.21077/ijf.2016.63.3.59184-01


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    Symphurus thermophilus  
      Munroe & Hashimoto, 2008


    Symphurus thermophilus n. sp., described from 16 specimens collected by submersibles, ROV, epibenthic sled and dredge, occurs on a variety of substrata at several active hydrothermal sites located at 239–733 m between 21°N and 35°S in the western Pacific Ocean. Symphurus thermophilus, the only pleuronectiform fish known to inhabit hydrothermal vent areas, is characterized by the combination of a 1–2–2–2–2 pattern of interdigitation of dorsal proximal pterygiophores and neural spines, 14 caudal-fin rays, 5 hypurals, 9 abdominal vertebrae, 47–51 total vertebrae, 88–94 dorsal-fin rays, 74–80 anal-fin rays, 100–112 scales in longitudinal series, ocular-side pigmentation pattern featuring 5–8, black, mostly incomplete crossbands, uniformly white blind side, and black peritoneum. Of specimens examined, seven including the holotype, were collected on Kaikata Seamount off southern Japan; one specimen was collected at the Kasuga-2 hydrothermal vent, Marianas Islands; and six were collected at sites on the Kermadec Ridge. In addition to specimens captured, many other S. thermophilus were observed from submersibles and ROVs at hydrothermal sites in the western Pacific including those in the Marianas Islands, at Nikko Seamount near Minami-Iohjima Island, and at Minami-Ensei Knoll, Mid-Okinawa Trough. Many of the specimens examined have skeletal anomalies including fused bones in the caudal skeleton, and missing or partially developed and/or misshapen fin rays.

    Key words: flatfish, Symphurus, hydrothermal vents

    Symphurus thermophilus    Munroe & Hashimoto, 2008 

    FIGURE 3. Photographs of the hydrothermal vent tonguefish, Symphurus thermophilus
    AIn situ photograph of S. thermophilus observed at Rumble 3 site, western Pacific, an area where this species occurs in high abundance. B. In situ photograph of S. thermophilus (most individuals <10 cm TL) observed at Daikoku Seamount, western Pacific, an area where this species occurs in high abundance. C. Photo of recently captured juvenile S. thermophilus taken at the Barnacle Boulders site at Kasuga-2, Mariana Islands. 

    Figures 3A–C provided courtesy of NOAA’s Ocean Exploration Program and available from  and (Accessed 3 June 2008)

    Thomas A. Munroe and Jun Hashimoto. 2008. A New Western Pacific Tonguefish (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae): The First Pleuronectiform discovered at active Hydrothermal Vents.  Zootaxa. 1839; 43–59.

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     Cotoneaster rosiflorus 
     K. C. Chang & F. Y. Lu 

    A new species of Rosaceae subfam. Spiraeoideae, tribe Pyreae (formerly subfamily Maloideae) from Taiwan is described. A taxonomic treatment, line drawings, color photographs and pollen SEM micrographs are provided to illustrate the species. A somatic chromosome number of 2n = 68 is reported for the first time for Cotoneaster rosiflorusCotoneaster rosiflorus occurs mainly at 2,500-3,500 m altitude in central Taiwan. It resembles Cmorrisonensis vegetatively, but is distinct by the erect to slightly spreading pink petals, pink or reddish filaments, 3-5 styles, and 3-5 pyrenes.

    Figure 2.Cotoneaster rosiflorus K. C. Chang & F. Y. Lu.
    A, Habit, flowering; B, Habit, fruiting; C, Flower, viewed from above; D, Flower, longitudinal section; E, Petal; F, Immature pome; G, Immature pome, longitudinal section; H, Immature pome, cross section; I, Ripe pome; J, Pyrenes. 

     K.-C. Chang, C.-C. Wang, S.-L. Deng, Yoshiko Kono, F.-L. Lu and Ching-I Peng. 2011.  Cotoneaster rosiflorus (Rosaceae), A New Species from Taiwan.
     Botanical Studies. 52(2); 211-218.

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    Dagonodum mojnum 
    Ramassamy, 2016 


    A new genus and species of Ziphiidae, Dagonodum mojnum gen. nov., sp. nov., from the upper Miocene Gram Formation (c. 9.9–7.2 Ma) represents the first occurrence of the family in Denmark. This long-snouted ziphiid is characterized by two pairs of mandibular tusks, the Eustachian outlet that approximately levels with the dorsalmost margin of the posterior portion of the involucrum, and the left trapezoid nasal with a posteromedial projection into the frontal. A phylogenetic analysis including 25 species and 69 characters was conducted. Dagonodummojnum is placed in a basal ziphiid clade as the sister taxon of Messapicetus. The specimen is probably a male, because it has enlarged tusks. Alternatively, females could also be involved in fights and develop erupted tusks as in the extant Berardius. Although less well supported, this interpretation proposes that aggressive interactions were not restricted to males in stem-ziphiids. With a thickened thyrohyal and the presence of a precoronoid crest, D. mojnum was able to use suction feeding, but was less specialized to it compared to extant ziphiids. The elongated neck of D. mojnum less optimized to perform deep dives, and the shallow depth at which the Gram Formation was deposited corroborates the hypothesis that at least part of the stem-ziphiids were not regular deep divers.

     KEYWORDS: evolution – phylogeny – postcranial – systematics.




    Type species. Dagonodum mojnum sp. nov.
    Etymology of genus name. Dagon refers to the Canaanite divinity of crop fertility pictured as a fish-god and a fictive divinity related to the deep sea created by the American author H. P. Lovecraft.


    Holotype. MSM1001x, a partial skeleton including a fragmentary cranium, the left periotic and tympanic, both mandibles, 75 isolated teeth, five cervical vertebrae including the atlas and the axis, two thoracic vertebrae, several fragmentary ribs, the basihyal and left thyrohyal.

    Diagnosis. Dagonodummojnum is a medium-sized ziphiid with an elongated rostrum (approximately 70% of the total condylobasal length). It differs from all odontocetes except ziphiids in having the vertex bearing a strong premaxillary crest; the enlargement of the apical mandibular tooth, and the reduction of the dorsal keel on the posterior process of the periotic.
    It shares with Anoplonossaforcipata and Berardius the presence of a pair of apical and subapical tusks; with the genera Messapicetus and Ziphirostrum the medial fusion of the premaxillae dorsal
    to the mesorostral groove on the rostrum anterior to the premaxillary sac fossae; and with Aporotus, Beneziphius, Messapicetus and Ziphirostrum the presence of a prenarial basin laterally margined by the maxilla.  ......

     Etymology of species name. From the word ‘mojn’ meaning ‘morning’ in South Jutlandic. Originally of German origin, this is still used as a greeting for ‘hello’ and ‘goodbye’ in Southern Jutland.

    The holotype of Dagonodum mojnum is a unique discovery in Europe due to the association of the cranium with the mandible, the numerous isolated teeth including the tusks, the earbones and some postcranial remains. It is dated to the mid- to late Tortonian (c. 9.9–7.2 Mya) and is one of the few welldated occurrences of the family Ziphiidae. Dagonodum mojnum is nested within the Messapicetus clade and, as such, expands our knowledge of the earliest diversification of the Ziphiidae.

    Based on the presence of erupted tusks and surrounding structures on the mandible, MSM1001x is interpreted as a male, indicating that fights between males may occur in this species. An alternative hypothesis is also proposed in which aggressive intraspecific interactions would be more generalized, not only restricted to males as in the genus Berardius. Although less well supported, this hypothesis cannot be totally discarded in the case of D. mojnum.

    The morphology of D. mojnum suggests that it was a predator that was less specialized to suction feeding than extant ziphiids. Its numerous interlocked teeth and its long rostrum with a less restricted lateral gape compared to extant ziphiids are more indicative of a ram-feeder. However, D. mojnum was probably also able to use suction feeding, as seen by its thickened thyrohyal and the laterally enclosed posterior part of the oral cavity due to the presence of a precoronoid crest. Lingual tooth wear of the most apical tusk may be the result of battle tooth raking along the opponent’s body during intraspecific fights and/or contact of the tooth with the seafloor.

    Based on the present specimen alone, it is not possible to precisely assess if D. mojnum was able to perform deep dives, although like other long-snouted stem-ziphiids, D. mojnum was probably feeding in epipelagic foraging grounds

    The Ziphiidae remain a poorly understood group. The use of independent proxies to assess their diving abilities or their diet might be a key to understand more precisely their evolution and the establishment of their specialization to deep diving.

    Benjamin Ramassamy. 2016. Description of A New Long-snouted Beaked Whale from the Late Miocene of Denmark: Evolution of Suction Feeding and Sexual Dimorphism in the Ziphiidae (Cetacea: Odontoceti). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 178(2); 381–409. DOI: 10.1111/zoj.12414

    Mød Mojn-hvalen fra Gram
    For ti millioner år siden svømmede den tandrige næbhval rundt i havet over Gram. Nu har en fransk Ph.d. studerende artsbestemt og navngivet den: Dagonodum mojnum - eller kort og godt: Mojn.
    Ten million years ago swam the tooth rich beaked whale in the sea of Gram.  Now a French Ph.D. students being generic and named it: Dagonodummojnum - or in short: Moin.

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    Siganus insomnis 
    Woodland & Anderson, 2014


    Siganus insomnis sp. nov. is described from the Maldives, Sri Lanka and southern India. It most closely resembles S. lineatus (Valenciennes) from the Western Pacific but differs in coloration, principally in that most if not all of the bronze bands on its mid and upper sides continue horizontally and unbroken through to the nape and opercular slit. By contrast, in S. lineatus, typically the anterior area below the spinous dorsal fin down to the mid-sides is irregularly marked with golden bronze spots, commas, or a maze of contorted lines. S. guttatus (Bloch) is the third member of this group of sibling species; its sides are covered with orange to bronze-gold spots. It is distributed throughout S.E. Asia, i.e., it occupies a geographic position between the areas inhabited by S. lineatus and S. insomnis. Thus the gene pools of S. lineatus and S. insomnis are quarantined from one another by distance and the intervening presence of S. guttatus in S.E. Asia. The geographical separation of the populations of S. lineatus and S. insomnis from one another is reinforced by the absence of suitable, coralline habitats for these species in the western half of the Bay of Bengal.

    Keywords: Siganidae, rabbitfish, Siganus insomnis sp. nov., Siganus lineatus, Siganus guttatus, systematics, biology

    FIGURE 5. Siganus insomnis, subadults, ca. 15–20 cm SL, Horubadhoo I. (= Royal I.), Baa Atoll, Maldives.

      Photo: Dieter Grage.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3811.1.8

    Siganus insomnis Woodland & Anderson, 2014
    Bronze-lined Rabbitfish. 

    Local names: ori, (thammas at Addu Atoll), Maldives; oora (Tamil), leella (Sinhalese), Sri Lanka. These local names may also be used to refer to other species of Siganus.

    Diagnosis. A deep-bodied species of Siganus which differs from all other siganids in that the whole of the sides of the body with the possible exception of the belly and a narrow strip adjacent to the base of the spinous dorsal fin (where a row of bronze spots may occur) are decorated with horizontal, parallel bronze bands extending the full length of the sides from nape and opercular slit back to and below the large yellow spot below the base of the soft dorsal fin. The majority of these lines on the sides are complete (i.e., uninterrupted) along their length.

    FIGURE 6. Siganus insomnis, large adults, ca. 35 cm SL, Komandoo I., Lhavyani Atoll, Maldives. 
      Photo: Dieter Grage.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3811.1.8 

    Etymology. We chose the specific epithet insomnis (Latin, sleep-less) to allude to the nocturnal activity of this fish. It is an adjective agreeing in gender with Siganus (masculine).

    Woodland, David J. and R. C. Anderson. 2014. Description of A New Species of Rabbitfish (Perciformes: Siganidae) from southern India, Sri Lanka and the Maldives.
    Zootaxa. 3811(1); 129–136.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3811.1.8

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    Sangpradubina thailandica 
    Boonsoong & Sartori, 2016 

    ชีปะขาวแสงประดับ | DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4169.3.11


    A newly discovered representative of Leptophlebiidae is described and illustrated from Thailand as Sangpradubina thailandica, gen. nov. and sp. nov., based on larvae and reared adults. This new species presents an interesting transitional position, being close to Choroterpes s.l. in the winged stages, but closer to Thraulus s.l. in the nymphal stage.   Nymphs are differentiated from those of all genera of the Thraulus lineage by the combination of gill I consisting of only a single and slender lamella, gills II–VII being fimbriate only in the distal half, each mandible having a tuft of setae only in the middle of the lateral margin, each maxilla having a well-developed anterolateral projection, fore- and middle femora each having a row of long setae on the outer margin, as well as tarsal claws having 4 denticles at the base and 9 in the apical position. Adults of the new genus barely differ from any genera of the Choroterpes lineage. The egg chorionic structure of Sangpradubina also appears to be unusual in that KCT’s are concentrated on one pole.

    Keywords: Ephemeroptera, Thailand, Thraulus, Choroterpes, new genus, new species

    Etymology. The genus name is an arbitrary combination of letter to honour Prof. Narumon Sangpradub (Khon Kaen University) for her outstanding contributions to the ecology and taxonomy of aquatic insects in Thailand. The gender is feminine.

    Distribution. Thailand (Ratchaburi province, Chanthaburi province). 


    Boonsoong, Boonsatien and Michel Sartori. 2016. Sangpradubina, An Astonishing New Mayfly Genus from Thailand (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae: Atalophlebiinae). Zootaxa. 4169(3); 587–599.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4169.3.11

    สุดทึ่ง! นักวิจัย มก. พบแมลงชีปะขาวสกุลใหม่ของโลก ชี้ตัวบ่งบอกคุณภาพน้ำ:
     นักวิจัย มก. พบแมลงชีปะขาวสกุลใหม่ของโลก:

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    Cuapetes nilandensis (Borradaile, 1915)


    Pontoniine shrimps Cuapetes nilandensis (Borradaile, 1915) (the type species of the genus) and Cuapetes seychellensis (Borradaile, 1915) are re-described showing clear morphological difference from representatives of the genus Kemponia Bruce, 2004. Several specific morphological features show the validity of both pontoniine genera.

    Keywords: Crustacea, Caridea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae, Pontoniinae, Cuapetes seychellensisCuapetes nilandensis, Kemponia, redescription

      Ivan Marin and Sergey Sinelnikov. 2016. Partial Redescription of Pontoniine Shrimps Cuapetes nilandensis (Borradaile, 1915) and Cuapetes seychellensis (Borradaile, 1915) (Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae) with Remarks on Taxonomic Status of Cuapetes Clark, 1919 and Kemponia Bruce, 2004.
     4173(6) DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4173.6.3

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    Acanthocercus branchi  
          Wagner, Greenbaum & Bauer, 2012 

    In the course of working on a taxonomic revision of the Acanthocercus atricollis complex, we discovered a population from the Luangwa and Zambezi valleys in Zambia and adjacent Malawi that is morphologically and genetically distinct from all described taxa of this complex. This population is described as a new species on the basis of morphological characters, including indistinct transverse rows of enlarged scales on the body, a large black patch on the shoulders, and a different pholidosis. It is morphologically similar to A. a. gregorii and A. a. loveridgei, but seems to be more closely related to the former.

    Key words. Squamata, Agamidae, Acanthocercus atricollis, new species, Africa, Zambia, Malawi, Zambezi Valley, Luangwa Valley.

    Figure 2. (a) Holotype of Acanthocercus branchi sp. n. (ZFMK 88682) in life from near Chipata (see text for details), Zambia. (b) Typical habitat of Acanthocercus branchi sp. n. near Chipata, Zambia. 

    Distribution: The new species is known from localities within the Luangwa (Chipata, Chikowa, Sayiri Court) and Zambezi (Lusaka) valleys in Zambia.

    Habitat and ecology: This new species is a tree dweller as it is typical for the A. atricollis complex (Reaney & Whiting 2003), although not for all subspecies (Wagner unpubl. data). In Chipata, it was collected in dense Miombo woodland with large trees and a structured canopy. In Lusaka, it was captured on a solitary tree. At both localities, other individuals were also observed, but it was not possible to identify them as males or females. Specimens from Pioneer Camp were observed while climbing on tree trunks.

    Etymology: This new species is named in honour of our friend and colleague William Roy Branch, in recognition of his important contributions to our knowledge of African amphibians and reptiles over several decades, and in commemoration of his nominal retirement as curator of herpetology at the Port Elizabeth Museum (Bayworld).

     Philipp Wagner, Eli Greenbaum and Aaron Bauer. 2012. A New Species of the Acanthocercus atricollis complex (Squamata: Agamidae) from Zambia.
    SALAMANDRA48(1); 21–30. 

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    Serenotheres janus 
    Ng & Meyer, 2016  

    The pea crab genus Serenotheres Ahyong & Ng, 2005 (Pinnotheridae) is currently only represented by one species, S. besutensis (Serène, 1967). A new species is now assigned to this genus, described from a date mussel Leiosolenus obesus Carpenter, 1857 (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mytilidae: Lithophaginae) collected in the Solomon Islands. Serenotheres janus sp. n. differs from S. besutensis in possessing a conspicuously broader carapace, with the lateral margins of the dorsal lamellum distinctly produced and the posterolateral part deeply concave, the dorsal lamellum being highest at the median cleft, the rostrum is relatively more prominent, the surfaces of the anterolateral margin and hepatic region are less prominently pitted and eroded, the ischiomerus of the third maxilliped is relatively more rectangular, and the P2 merus is proportionately longer.

    Keywords: Pinnotheridae, taxonomy, symbiotic crab, new species, symbiotic crab, Serenotheres janus, Solomon Islands

    Figure 1. Colour in life. Serenotheres janus sp. n., holotype ♀ (8.9 × 7.9 mm) (USNM).
     A in situ in host date mussel, Leiosolenus obesus B dorsal view C ventral view.

      Photographs courtesy of Zachariah Kobrinsky and David Liittschwager.
    DOI:  10.3897/zookeys.623.10272 


    Family Pinnotheridae De Haan, 1833
    Genus Serenotheres Ahyong & Ng, 2005

    Serenotheres janus sp. n.

     Type material: Holotype ♀ (8.9 × 7.9 mm) (USNM 1421642), in Leiosolenus obesus (Philippi, 1847) (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mytilidae: Lithophaginae), from Njari Island, New Georgia, Solomon Islands, station SOLOM_026; 8.01374°S, 156.75649°E, coll. C. Meyer, 9 October, 2014.

    Diagnosis: Carapace distinctly pentagonal; lateral margins of dorsal carapace lamellum distinctly produced with posterolateral part deeply concave, highest at median cleft with 2 halves sloping gently outwards in direct frontal view; rostrum distinct with surface above antennular fossa prominently concave; surfaces of anterolateral margin and hepatic region less prominently pitted, eroded; MXP3 ischiomerus relatively more rectangular; P2 merus relatively long.

    Etymology: The species is named after Janus, the ancient two-facedRoman god, alluding to the unusual two parts of the carapace when viewed dorsally. The name is used as a noun in apposition.

     Peter K. L. Ng and Christoph Meyer. 2016. A New Species of Pea Crab of the Genus Serenotheres Ahyong & Ng, 2005 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Pinnotheridae) from the Date Mussel Leiosolenus Carpenter, 1857 (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mytilidae, Lithophaginae) from the Solomon Islands.
    ZooKeys. 623: 31-41. DOI:  10.3897/zookeys.623.10272

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    Figure 1. (a) Map of Pantepui and its location within South America (inset). (b) Aerial view of the northern part of Mount Roraima (the Prow), Guyana, showing typical tepuian sheer cliffs and lower forested slopes. Photo:  D. Bruce Means
    Figure 2. Graphical representation of the historical biogeography of Stefania in eastern Pantepui.

    To investigate the influence of tepuian geomorphology on species diversification in the Pantepui biogeographical region based on the phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of tepui-endemic clades of stefania frogs (Stefania, Hemiphractidae).

    The ‘tepuis’ and uplands/lowlands of the Pantepui biogeographical region of northern South America, one of the least accessible and least studied areas in the world.

    Two mitochondrial and two nuclear DNA sequences from 60 individuals of Stefania from 24 localities in Pantepui were employed to infer phylogenetic affinities and estimate divergence times within the genus using both concatenation and species tree analyses. Ancestral areas were inferred using multiple models in a common likelihood framework.

    Phylogenetic analyses revealed high diversity in the genus Stefania with 10 candidate species in the Eastern Pantepui District. Four strongly supported clades are recovered in the area, one being exclusively composed of microendemics on isolated tepui summits. Biogeographical analyses suggest episodes of fragmentation of widespread tepuian ancestors from the onset of diversification of the genus, estimated in the Oligocene (c. 26 Ma), therefore suggesting a neglected vicariant model of Pantepui evolution, the Plateau Theory.

    Main conclusions
    Although our results suggest that vicariance played an important role in the diversification of Stefania, speciation in Pantepui followed an intricate pattern implying multiple nonexclusive processes. Vicariance and dispersal likely influenced diversification patterns of the Pantepui fauna, possibly according to the following sequence: (1) Cenozoic vicariance; (2) reorganization of species diversity due to periods of climatic instability; (3) recent invasions (Pleistocene) of widespread upland taxa.

    Keywords: ancestral areas, anuran, dispersal, divergence times, frog, molecular phylogenetics, phylogeography, tepui, Venezuela, vicariance

    Philippe J. R. Kok, Valerio G. Russo, Sebastian Ratz, D. Bruce Means, Ross D. MacCulloch, Amy Lathrop, Fabien Aubret and Franky Bossuyt. 2016. Evolution in the South American ‘Lost World’: Insights from Multilocus Phylogeography of Stefanias (Anura, Hemiphractidae, Stefania).  Journal of Biogeography. DOI: 10.1111/jbi.12860 

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    Mycorrhaphoides  Hembrom, K. Das & Hallenb.
    Mycorrhaphoides stalpersii Hembrom, Nilsson, A. Parihar, K. Das, A. Baghela & S.K. Singh 

      DOI: 10.1111/njb.01256 


    Mycorrhaphoides gen. nov. and Mycorrhaphoides stalpersii sp. nov. are described and defined based on morphological details and phylogenetic inference of a hydnoid macrofungus collected in Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah (India). It is characterized by stipitate basidiomata with duplex context in stipe, presence of multi-clamped septa, and smooth and hyaline cystidia.

    Figure 3. Mycorrhaphoides stalpersii (KMA 15-45).
    (A) habitat, (B) – (C) habit showing stipitate and imbricate basidiomata, (D) zonate pilear surface towards margin,  (E) context and spine, (F) smoky grey margin on bruising, (G) duplex context of stipe.
    Scale bar: E 5 mm.    DOI: 10.1111/njb.01256 

    Mycorrhaphoides Hembrom, K. Das & Hallenb. gen. nov.
     MycoBank: 816805. 

    Type: Mycorrhaphoides stalpersii Hembrom, Nilsson, A. Parihar, K. Das, A. Baghela & S.K. Singh.

    Etymology:  The genus name is motivated by the fact that the new genus shares some similarities with Mycorrhaphium, another hydnoid genus.

    Mycorrhaphoides stalpersii Hembrom, Nilsson, A. Parihar, K. Das, A. Baghela & S.K. Singh sp. nov. (Fig. 3 – 7)
     MycoBank: MB 816806.

    Type: India; West Bengal, Howrah, AJCBIBG, near bicentenary gate, 22 ° 33 ′ 49.6 ″ N, 88 ° 17 ′18.5 ″ E, 13 m a.s.l., on base of living tree trunk of Tamarindus indica L., 24 Oct 2015, K. Das, M.E. Hembrom & Parihar, KMA-15-45 (holotype: CAL, isotype: AMH).

    Etymology:  The species name is chosen to commemorate Dr. Joost A. Stalpers for his contribution to hydnoid mycology. 

    M. E. Hembrom, Kanad Das, R. Henrik Nilsson, Arvind Parihar, Abhishek Baghela, Nikita Mehta, S. K. Singh and Nils Hallenberg. 2016. Morphology and Phylogeny reveal A Novel Hydnoid Taxon from India: Mycorrhaphoides stalpersii gen. and sp. nov. Nordic Journal of Botany.   DOI: 10.1111/njb.01256

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    Melithaea davidi  
     Samimi-Namin, Ofwegen & McFadden, 2016

    Melithaea davidi   Samimi-Namin, Ofwegen & McFadden, 2016

    Figure 7.
    Underwater photographs at 79 m depth; Figure 3. Colonies of Melithaea davidi sp. n.;
    A holotype, RMNH Coel. 42122 B paratype, RMNH Coel. 42124.

    A new species, Melithaea davidi sp. n., is described from the eastern coast of Oman, Oman Sea, in the northwestern Indian Ocean, where it differs from its congeners in lacking capstans and having predominantly spindles in the coenenchyme. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of mtMutS and 28S rDNA genes suggests that it is genetically distinct from similar species in the Red Sea. Furthermore, a species previously reported as Acabaria sp. from the Arabian Sea is now identified as Melithaea mabahissi (Hickson, 1940).

    Keywords: Persian Gulf, octocorals, Indian Ocean, Middle East, northwest Indian Ocean

    Class Anthozoa Ehrenberg, 1831
    Subclass Octocorallia Haeckel, 1866
    Order Alcyonacea Lamouroux, 1812

    Family Melithaeidae Gray, 1870
    Subfamily Melithaeinae Alderslade, 2006

    Genus Melithaea Milne Edwards, 1857

    Diagnosis: Colonies with segmented axis, and swollen nodes and straight internodes containing cigar-shaped sclerites. Densely branched in one or more planes, forming large fans or forming bushes. Sclerites of coenenchymal surface are spindles, thorn-clubs, double discs, leaf clubs, and foliate spheroids. Polyps monomorphic, small and retractile. Calyces can be low or tall. Polyps contain spindle-like and club-like forms arranged as collaret and points, with dragon wing sclerites (flattened, more or less twisted, boomerang-shaped platelets commonly with the convex edge serrated near the wider end; present in the proximal part of tentacles/see Grasshoff 1999, 2000) in the tentacles. The colonies can be yellow, orange, red, dark purple, pink, and white. Axes are usually coloured, often red. Azooxanthellate.

    Melithaea davidi sp. n.

    Material examined: Holotype: RMNH Coel. 42122, Oman, Oman Sea, 23.654267°N 58.629567°E, 79 m deep on a ship wreck, Robert’s barge, coll. David Mothershaw and Robin Norman, 19 July 2013. Paratypes: RMNH Coel. 42123, RMNH Coel. 42124, same data as holotype.

    Description: The holotype is branching dichotomously in several parallel planes, forming a network with many anastomoses. It is 12 cm high and 9 cm wide (Figure 3). The nodes are larger and more swollen in the basal parts of the colony. Many branches are covered with tiny white ophiuroids.

    Etymology: The species is named after David Mothershaw who collected the specimens.


    The species resembles Melithaea biserialis (Kükenthal, 1908) and M. sinaica Grasshoff, 2000, both described from the nearby Red Sea. M. biserialis and M. sinaica both have more tuberculate sclerites and, additionally, capstans that are not present at all in M. davidi. The species also resembles Acabaria spec. indet. 2 Ofwegen (1987) from West India. However, that species also has capstans that are absent in M. davidi.

    Acabaria indet. 2 Ofwegen (1987) might represent a new species, however, the material is not sufficient for describing a new species.

    Acabaria mabahissi Hickson, 1940, off Cape Guardafui, Gulf of Aden, and the Arabian Sea is the same as Acabaria spec. indet. 1 (Ofwegen 1987) from Somalia and Kenya.

    Discussion: Reijnen et al. (2014) observed that melithaeid species appear to be grouped phylogenetically by geographical region, suggesting high regional endemicity in this family. Our re-analysis of their mtMutS and 28S sequence data reflects this pattern, with species from the western Indo-Pacific (Indonesia, Malaysia, Japan, Palau, etc.), east and south African coasts (Tanzania, South Africa), northern and western Indian Oceans (Seychelles, Maldives), and the Red Sea separated into distinct well-supported clades (Figure 2). Therefore, the likelihood of species having wide geographical ranges is low, and consequently we did not compare the new species with similar-looking species occurring in other geographical regions. The molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that M. davidi is closely related to but distinct from several other species found in the Red Sea region for which we had sequence data for comparison. Although we did not have sequence data for Melithaea biserialis or Acabaria spec. indet. 2 reported by Ofwegen (1987), morphological differences support the distinction of those species from M. davidi.

     Kaveh Samimi-Namin, Leen P. van Ofwegen and Catherine S. McFadden. 2016. A New Species of Melithaea (Anthozoa, Octocorallia, Melithaeidae) from the Oman Sea, off Oman.
     ZooKeys. 623; 15-29. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.623.10045

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    Sasanidus  Freyhof, Geiger, Golzarianpour & Patimar, 2016
     A New Generic Name for Noemacheilus kermanshahensis (Bănărescu & Nalbant, 1966

    FIGURE 2.
    Sasanidus kermanshahensis, about 45 mm SL, not preserved; Iran: Haram-Abad stream.
    FIGURE 3.Sasanidus kermanshahensis, Iran: a, FCKG 806, 70 mm SL; stream Ab-alashtar. Black spots are parasites; b, FCKG 800, 42 mm SL; spring Pashow; c, FCKG 804, 70 mm SL; Gamasiab River at Baba-Rostam.

    Sasanidus, new genus, is described for Noemacheilus kermanshahensis Bănărescu & Nalbant, endemic to the Karkheh and Karun drainages in Iran. Sasanidus kermanshahensis was initially identified as a species in Oxynoemacheilus, from which it is distinguished by the absence of an external sexual dimorphism (i.e. longer pectoral fin, and nuptial tubercles on fins, head and back in males). Sasanidus is distinguished from all other genera of Nemacheilidae in the Middle East by a combination of the following character states: pelvic-fin origin behind of a vertical of the dorsal-fin origin, anus about one eye diameter in front of the anal-fin origin, dorsal adipose keel absent, a high crest on the bony capsule of the swim bladder present and colour pattern marbled or mottled or with an irregularly shaped midlateral stripe. Ilamnemacheilus longipinnis was examined and no difference could be found between Ilamnemacheilus and Oxynoemacheilus. Therefore, Ilamnemacheilus is treated as a synonym of Oxynoemacheilus. COI barcode sequences from all nemacheilid loach genera occurring in the Middle East and western India are analysed jointly for the first time. The view that Schistura is a paraphyletic assemblage is supported by the clustering of DNA sequences from 45 specimens placed in at least 20 species in the genus Schistura analysed here.

    Keywords: freshwater fish, Middle East, new genus, DNA barcoding

    FIGURE 2. Sasanidus kermanshahensis, about 45 mm SL, not preserved; Iran: Haram-Abad stream. 

    FIGURE 3. Sasanidus kermanshahensis, Iran: a, FCKG 806, 70 mm SL; stream Ab-alashtar. Black spots are parasites; b, FCKG 800, 42 mm SL; spring Pashow; c, FCKG 804, 70 mm SL; Gamasiab River at Baba-Rostam. 

    Etymology. The genus is named for the Sassanid Empire, which was recognized as one of the leading regional powers for a period of more than 400 years. During Late Antiquity, the Sasanian Empire is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods. Gender masculine.

    Distribution. Sasanidus kermanshahensis is known from headwaters of the Karkheh and Dez Rivers. The Dez is a tributary to the Karun and both the Karkheh and Karun flowi from the Iranian Zagros Mountains westwards into the lowermost Tigris (Abdoli 2000). 

    FIGURE 7.Schistura spp.: India: Karnataka:
    a, FSJF 3515, 50 mm SL; stream between Mukkodlu to Surlabhi; b, FSJF 3516, 36 mm SL; stream in Bhagamandala fields; c, FSJF 3517, 30 mm SL; rafting place at Barapol River; d, FSJF 3518, 52 mm SL; River above Kumadhara waterfalls. 

    Jörg Freyhof, Matthias F. Geiger, Kiavash Golzarianpour and Rahman Patimar. 2016. Sasanidus, A New Generic Name for Noemacheilus kermanshahensis Bănărescu & Nalbant, with discussion of Ilamnemacheilus and Schistura (Teleostei; Nemacheilidae). Zootaxa. 4107(1): 65–80.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4107.1.3

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    Gastrodia kuroshimensis Suetsugu


    A new species, Gastrodia kuroshimensis (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae: Gastrodieae), from Kuroshima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, is described and illustrated. The outlined floral morphology indicates a close affinity to G. fontinalis, but it is easily distinguished by several characteristics, such as the cleistogamous floral condition, smaller perianth tube size and the anther cap joined with the column.

    Keywords: Gastrodia, Japan, mycoheterotrophy, Ryukyu Islands, taxonomy, Monocots


      Kenji Suetsugu. 2016. Gastrodia kuroshimensis (Orchidaceae), A New Mycoheterotrophic and Complete Cleistogamous Plant from Japan. Phytotaxa. 278(3); 265–272.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.278.3.6

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    Grammatonotus brianne 
      Anderson, Greene & Rocha, 2016   


    In May 2014, a group of ichthyologists from the California Academy of Sciences and the Bishop Museum collecting fishes off the coast of Batangas, Luzon, Philippine Islands, obtained, in a depth of ca. 150 meters, four specimens of a species of Grammatonotus previously unknown to science. This new species, Grammatonotus brianne, is distinguishable from its described congeners by the following combination of characters: short anal-fin spines, rhomboid shaped caudal fin, lateral line usually disjunct, and live coloration. Herein we provide characters that distinguish callanthiids from other percoids and that distinguish Grammatonotus from Callanthias, the other genus in the family Callanthiidae, along with the description of the new species and short accounts of two other GrammatonotusG. crosnieri and G. roseus, from the Coral Triangle.

    Keywords: Pisces, Grammatonotus brianneGrammatonotus crosnieriGrammatonotus roseus, Batangas, Luzon, Philippines, Kai Islands, Indonesia

    FIGURE 1. Grammatonotus brianne n. sp. Batangas, southern Luzon, Philippine Islands; holotype, PNM 15196 (formerly CAS 237785), 84.4 mm SL.
    Photograph by Luiz A. Rocha. 

    Etymology. The name brianne is for the second author’s wife (Brianne M. Atwood) and is a noun in apposition to the generic name Grammatonotus

    Distribution. This species is only known from specimens collected off Batangas Province, Luzon Island, Philippines.

    William D. Anderson, JR., Brian D. Greene and Luiz A. Rocha. 2016. Grammatonotus brianne, A New Callanthiid Fish from Philippine waters, with Short Accounts of Two other Grammatonotus from the Coral Triangle. Zootaxa. 4173(3): 289–295.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4173.3.7 

    Scientists dive deep to discover new fish species at 150 meters:

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    A live individual of a Kazimierzus sp. 
    photo: Samuel James  

    A review of the genus Kazimierzus Plisko, 2006, based on available type material enriched by study of selected specimens from the earthworm collection gathered at the NMSA and literature, revealed that the species presently accredited to this genus are characterized by unique features and clearly differ from the species of the other genera endorsed to Microchaetidae. Basing on this discovery the genus Kazimierzus is separated from Microchaetidae and Kazimierzidae fam. n. is erected to accommodate the whole 21 species of this genus. Species accredited to the new family Kazimierzidae are listed, their peculiar characters and specific distribution discussed.

    Keywords: Kazimierzus, Oligochaeta, South Africa, megadrile, earthworms, indigenous species, Afrotropical region

    Kazimierzidae Nxele & Plisko, fam. n.

    Type genus: Kazimierzus Plisko, 2006: 46.

    Diagnosis: Dorsal blood vessel simple throughout the body, rarely enlarging in segments 8 or 9. Excretory system holoic with nephridial bladders proclinate J–shaped. Testes arranged in holandric (male funnels in segments 10 and 11) or metandric (male funnels in segment 11) condition, enclosed or free. Seminal vesicles one or two pairs, confined to one or two segments (in 11 or 12, or in 11 and 12); the latter pair may be extended backwards, behind segment 12 (sometimes to segment 30). Spermathecae testicular or post testicular. Oesophageal gizzard in 7, muscular. Some of the preclitellar septa 4/5–9/10 variably thickened. Calciferous glands not stalked, in one or two segments (9, 10 or 11): encircling oesophagus with vestigial medial and dorsal grooves, or dorsoventral, paired, with obvious medial and dorsal grooves. Secondary annulation of preclitellar segments present; segment 1 and 2 fused appearing as one segment, 4–9, 10 ringleted with 2 or 3 ringlets, annulated or not. Setae minute, eight per segment in four pairs.

    Description: Pigmented or not; alive violetish-grey or grey; preserved whitish grey. Body length not exceeding 350 mm, and 2–15 mm wide at tubercula pubertatis. Average number of segments 100–550. Setae minute; on preclitellar segments visible on various segments or easily visible on papillae, on post clitellar segments in regular rows. Female pores paired, in 14. Clitellum saddle-shaped. Tubercula pubertatis variable in shape and location. Papillae present, located variably. Spermathecal pores located in or behind testis segments. Vasa deferentia paired in holandric, one pair in metandric species. Genital glands various in size and position. Spermathecal ampullae with variably shaped ducts.

    Distribution: All species presently accredited to Kazimierzus are known from a limited area in the western and south-western Atlantic coast of South Africa. The distribution of these species is poorly known as the most known species have only been collected from their type localities, some species represented only by a holotype. The species are known from variable biotopes: wet, muddy soil, or very dry soil; collected between hard rocks in mountain areas characterized by winter-fall and associated with topography of western escarpment and neighbouring Namaqualand, boardering the Atlantic seaboard. Species occurrence may be expected to continue from the Northern Cape Province to the neighbouring Namibia. The distribution pattern observed in Kazimierzus may be influenced by the soil, vegetation (Succulent Karoo Biome) or habitat transformation although this has never been tested.

    There is currently one genus, Kazimierzus, in this family comprising the following species: Kazimierzus alipentus (Plisko, 1998); K. circulatus (Plisko, 1998); K. crousi (Pickford, 1975); K. davidi (Plisko, 1998); K. franciscus (Pickford, 1975); K. guntheri (Pickford, 1975); K. hamerae (Plisko, 1998); K. imitatus (Plisko, 1998); K. ljungstroemi (Pickford, 1975); K. metandrus (Plisko, 1998); K. obscurus (Plisko, 1998); K. occidualis (Plisko, 1998); K. occiduus (Plisko, 1998); K. pauli (Plisko, 1998); K. pearsonianus (Pickford, 1975); K. pentus (Plisko, 1998); K. peringueyi (Michaelsen, 1913); K. rosai (Michaelsen, 1908); K. senarius (Plisko, 1998); K. sirgeli (Plisko, 1996); K. sophieae (Plisko, 2002).

     Thembeka C. Nxele, J. Danuta Plisko, Tarombeta Mwabvu and T. Oliver Zishiri. 2016. A New Family Kazimierzidae for the Genus Kazimierzus, earlier recorded to the composite Microchaetidae (Annelida, Oligochaeta). African Invertebrates. 57(2); 111-117. DOI:  10.3897/AfrInvertebr.57.10042

    Plisko, J.D. 2006. A systematic reassessment of the genus Microchaetus Rapp, 1849: its amended definition, reinstatement of Geogenia Kinberg, 1867, and erection of a new genus Kazimierzus (Oligochaeta: Microchaetidae). African Invertebrates. 47: 31–56.

    Unfamiliar bloodline: New family for an earthworm genus with exclusive circulatory system

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    Amolops albispinus 
     White-spined Cascade Frog  ||  Sung, Wang & Wang, 2016 

    FIGURE 3. Dorsolateral view of adult male holotype SYS a003454 of Amolops albispinus sp. nov. in life; B: ventral view of the holotype in life; C: hand of the holotype in life; D: foot of the holotype in life.


    A new speciesAmolops albispinus sp. nov. is described based on a series of specimens collected from Mt. Wutong, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. The new species can be distinguished from other known congeners by molecular divergence in the mitochondrial COI and 16S rRNA gene and morphological characters including presence of white conical spines on the lips, loreal and temporal regions, excluding the tympanum; small body, SVL 36.7–42.4 mm in adult males and 43.1–51.9 mm in adult females; very rough dorsal skin of body with numerous raised large warts; olive-brown dorsum with dark brown blotches; strongly developed vomerine teeth; absence of vocal sacs; absence of tarsal glands; absence of dorsolateral folds; presence of circummarginals groove on the disk of first finger; and absence of outer metatarsal tubercles. At present, the genus Amolops contains 51 species, of which 23 occur in China.

    Keywords: Amphibia, Amolops albispinus sp. nov., Anura, China, mitochondrial DNA, morphology, Ranidae

    FIGURE 3. Dorsolateral view of adult male holotype SYS a003454 of Amolops albispinus sp. nov. in life; G: close-up of the head of the holotype in life.

    Etymology. The specific name, albispinus, refers to the “white spines” on the upper and lower lips, and loreal and temporal regions, which are the diagnostic features of this new species. As an English common name we suggest “White-spined Cascade Frog”.

    Distribution and ecology. Currently, Amolops albispinus sp. nov. is known from the type locality of Mt. Wutong, and from Mt. Paiya, which is 30 km from Mt. Wutong, in Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province, China. This species is common in Mt. Wutong throughout the year, whereas, it was observed to be rare in Mt. Paiya (only one specimen (SYS a002436) found). It inhabits low to mid-elevation (60–500 m) rocky, fast-flowing streams surrounding by moist subtropical secondary evergreen broadleaved forests.  

    Sung, Yik-Hei, Ping Hu, Jian Wang, Hai-Jun Liu and Ying-Yong Wang. 2016. A New Species of Amolops (Anura: Ranidae) from southern China.
     Zootaxa. 4170(3); 525–538.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4170.3.6

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    Bothriolepis rex 
     Downs, Daeschler, Garcia & Shubin, 2016 

    New material from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian) Nordstrand Point Formation of Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, represents the largest known species of antiarch and the first described from the Nordstrand Point Formation. Bothriolepis rex, sp. nov., is additionally remarkable for the thickness and compactness of its dermal skeletal plates. The new species is diagnosed by a preorbital recess with a horizontal rostral margin; the presence of a wide unornamented border surrounding the infraorbital sensory line; central sensory lines that meet the margin of the nuchal close to the lateral corners; a supraotic thickening that does not extend caudal to a transverse crista of the nuchal; and a tall lateral lamina of the anterior dorsolateral. The thick and compact armor of Bothriolepis rex, sp. nov., recalls that of the co-occurring Perscheia pulla and gives occasion to a physical and ecological review of dermal skeletal mass and density in large-bodied, bottom-dwelling organisms in nonmarine ecosystems during the Late Devonian.

    Fossil bones from the skull of Bothriolepis rex and a line drawing of the head viewed from above. The large, thick bones create an armor with a single opening for the eyes. The mouth is on the lower surface of the skull, indicating a bottom-feeding lifestyle.
    Photo by Valentina Garcia, drawing by Jason Downs. 


    ANTIARCHI Cope, 1885

    BOTHRIOLEPIS Eichwald, 1840

     BOTHRIOLEPIS REX, sp. nov.
    Bothriolepis sp. Elliott et al., 2004.

    Holotype— NUFV 1192, nuchal plate (Fig. 3).

    Etymology— From the Latin ‘rex,’ king, in reference to the large body size.

    Type Locality and Horizon— NV2K11 site (N77 06.1630 W87 09.0640), Nordstrand Point Formation near Okse Bay on southern Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada. Palynological data indicate a middle Frasnian age (Maclarenii zone of Embry and Klovan, 1976).

    A rendition of what the Bothriolepis rex would have looked like in its natural habitat along with a comparison of its size to that of a T. rex and an average human being.
    Art by Jason Poole/Academy of Natural Sciences. 

    Jason P. Downs, Edward B. Daeschler, Valentina E. Garcia and Neil H. Shubin. 2016. A New Large-bodied Species of Bothriolepis (Antiarchi) from the Upper Devonian of Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology.  DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2016.1221833

    A New ‘King’ — New, Gigantic, Ancient Armored Fish Discovered 


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